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Special Issue "Black Carbon in Atmosphere: Instrumentation, Chemical–Physical Behavior, Human Health Implications"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Pasquale Avino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbonaceous particles (or total carbon, TC), the largest contributor to atmospheric PM, are composed of two main fractions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic Carbon (OC). EC (or black carbon or soot) has a graphitic-like structure and is essentially a primary pollutant emitted in particulate form, and its chemical stability excludes chemical transformations during its lifetime in atmosphere. OC represents a large variety of organic compounds, e.g., aliphatic, aromatic compounds, alcohols, and acids, and has both primary and secondary origin: primary OC particulate is formed during combustion and emitted mainly as submicron particles.

The use of such methodology is important for different reasons: It is fundamental for the evaluation of atmospheric pollution from combustion processes; it can be used as a specific index of car traffic pollution; it is very significant for the protection of human health due to the high permanence of the carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere and the numerous chemical–physical transformation processes that they can undergo in the atmosphere; the separation between EC and OC is of fundamental importance for the study of the pneumoconiogenic effects and, more generally, for the toxic effects and for the study of the mechanisms of formation of photochemical pollutants.

This Special Issue aims to examine the state of the art in this important topic, focusing on theory and on the development of new instrumentation useful for this determination, chemical–physical problems in the atmosphere, health and toxicological implications related to exposure to these pollutants, as well as historical data series in urban, rural, and remote areas are.

Prof. Dr. Pasquale Avino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • black carbon
  • organic carbon
  • aerosol
  • carbonaceous aerosol
  • instrumentation
  • thermal properties
  • optical properties
  • chemical speciation
  • cultural heritage
  • photochemical pollution
  • human health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Concentration and Physical Characteristics of Black Carbon in Winter Snow of Beijing in 2015
Atmosphere 2021, 12(7), 816; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12070816 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
In Beijing, the probability of snowfall is decreasing as a result of global warming. At the same time, Beijing has suffered severe air pollution. In this paper, the concentration and particle size characteristics of BC (Black Carbon) in snow during the winter of [...] Read more.
In Beijing, the probability of snowfall is decreasing as a result of global warming. At the same time, Beijing has suffered severe air pollution. In this paper, the concentration and particle size characteristics of BC (Black Carbon) in snow during the winter of 2015 in Beijing were analyzed by the SP2 method. The average concentration of BC in snow meltwater in Beijing is 82 ng/mL, with a minimum value of 62.9 ng/mL and a maximum of 210.6 ng/mL. The BC particle size in snow and ice in the Beijing area is mostly concentrated in the range of 70–400 nm. After log-normal, the BC particle size above 600 nm is still small, which should be closely related to the nature of the local BC emission source. The concentration of BC in snow is highly susceptible to meteorological conditions and local pollution levels. When Beijing is under the control of the east wind or the southeast wind, aerosols in the urban areas can easily accumulate in the northwestern mountains and then settle or participate in the snowfall process, resulting in an increase in BC aerosol accumulation in the snow, thus further changing the optical properties of snow in the Beijing area. Full article
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Article
Characteristics and Source Apportionment of Black Carbon (BC) in a Suburban Area of Klang Valley, Malaysia
Atmosphere 2021, 12(6), 784; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12060784 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
Black carbon (BC) is of concern due to its contribution to poor air quality and its adverse effects human health. We carried out the first real-time monitoring of BC in Malaysia using an AE33 Aethalometer. Measurements were conducted between 1 January and 31 [...] Read more.
Black carbon (BC) is of concern due to its contribution to poor air quality and its adverse effects human health. We carried out the first real-time monitoring of BC in Malaysia using an AE33 Aethalometer. Measurements were conducted between 1 January and 31 May 2020 in a university area in a suburban location of the Klang Valley. The measurement period coincided with the implementation of a movement control order (MCO) in response to COVID-19. The mean concentration of BC before the MCO was 2.34 µg/m3 which decreased by 38% to 1.45 µg/m3 during the MCO. The BC is dominated by fossil-fuel sources (mean proportion BCff = 79%). During the MCO, the BCff concentration decreased by more than the BCbb concentration derived from biomass burning. BC and BCff show very strong diurnal cycles, which also show some weekday–weekend differences, with maxima during the night and just before noon, and minima in the afternoon. These patterns indicate strong influences on concentrations from both traffic emissions and boundary layer depth. BC was strongly correlated with NO2 (R = 0.71), another marker of traffic emission, but less strongly with PM2.5 (R = 0.52). The BC absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) ranged between 1.1 and 1.6. We observed pronounced diurnal cycles of lower AAE in daytime, corresponding to BCff contributions from traffic. Average AAE also showed a pronounced increase during the MCO. Our data provides a new reference for BC in suburban Malaysia for the public and policy-makers, and a baseline for future measurements. Full article
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Article
Impact of Black Carbon on Surface Ozone in the Yangtze River Delta from 2015 to 2018
Atmosphere 2021, 12(5), 626; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/atmos12050626 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
Despite the yearly decline in PM2.5 in China, surface ozone has been rapidly increasing recently, which makes it imperative to coordinate and control both PM2.5 and ozone in the atmosphere. This study utilized the data of pollutant concentrations and meteorological elements [...] Read more.
Despite the yearly decline in PM2.5 in China, surface ozone has been rapidly increasing recently, which makes it imperative to coordinate and control both PM2.5 and ozone in the atmosphere. This study utilized the data of pollutant concentrations and meteorological elements during 2015 to 2018 in Nanjing, China to analyze the daily correlation between black carbon and ozone (CBO), and the distribution of the pollutant concentrations under different levels of CBO. Besides, the diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations and meteorological elements under high positive and negative CBO were discussed and compared. The results show that the percentage of positive CBO had been increasing at the average rate of 7.1%/year, and it was 38.7% in summer on average, nearly twice of that in other seasons (19.2%). The average black carbon (BC), PM2.5 and NO2 under positive CBO was lower than those under negative CBO. It is noticeable that the surface ozone began to ascend when CBO was up to 0.2, with PM2.5 and NO2 decreasing and BC remaining steady. Under negative CBO, pollutant concentrations and meteorological elements showed obvious diurnal variations: BC showed a double-peak pattern and surface ozone, PM2.5, SO2 and CO showed single-peak patterns and NO2 showed a trough from 10:00 to 19:00. Wind speed and visibility showed a single-peak pattern with little seasonal difference. Relative humidity rose first, then it lowered and then it rose. Under positive CBO, the patterns of diurnal variations became less obvious, and some of them even showed no patterns, but just fluctuated at a certain level. Full article
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