Special Issue "Uniqueness, Diversity and Quality of Cider"

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Anna Picinelli-Lobo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Technology Area, SERIDA, 33300-Villaviciosa (Asturias), Spain
Interests: chemical characterisation of ciders (polyphenols and volatile components); agri-food industrial by-products; sensory analysis; quality control
Dr. Christian Ariel Lopes
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos, Biotecnología y Energías Alternativas (PROBIEN, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Universidad Nacional del Comahue), Buenos Aires 1400, Neuquén 8300, Argentina
Interests: oenological microbiology; yeast biodiversity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Not only is cider a part of the cultural heritage of many European countries, it is also the beverage whose consumption is experiencing one of the most significant growth rises worldwide.

According to the legal definition, cider is the alcoholic beverage made by the fermentation of apple juices. This definition includes a number of products differing in alcoholic contents: low-alcohol and free-alcohol drinks, traditional ciders protected by geographical quality schemes, highly-valued specialties such as ice or fire ciders, and innovative flavoured ciders containing juice of other fruits and extracts.

As the cider industry is significantly smaller in size than those of wine or beer, the information about cider quality and characteristics is limited. Furthermore, research aimed at evaluating the effects of different agronomic and technological factors on the intrinsic attributes of this beverage is still scarce. More studies to evaluate the use of specific cider apples, the rich microbial biodiversity involved in spontaneous fermentations, the steps of the making process, the influence of new processing and stabilising technologies, and the particularities of the chemical and sensory profiles of ciders are needed to increase knowledge about this beverage and, eventually, the willingness of consumers to taste and enjoy ciders.

Original research articles, reviews and commentaries dealing with the characterisation of ciders and the factors influencing their quality are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue. Potential topics may include:

  • Cider-making processes, innovative processing technologies;
  • The role of apple varieties in cider chemical composition and quality;
  • Microorganisms involved in the fermentation process and cider spoilage;
  • Cider packaging and storage;
  • Compounds relevant to cider quality (polyphenols, volatiles, macromolecules, etc.);
  • Sensory description, quality certification, consumer trends;
  • The optimisation of analytical methods;
  • Development of new products;
  • Impact of climate change on cider production and/or quality.

Dr. Anna Picinelli-Lobo
Dr. Christian Ariel Lopes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cider
  • flavour compounds
  • sensory characteristics
  • yeasts
  • bacteria
  • product development
  • packaging
  • analytical methods
  • cider-apple
  • climate change

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
New Ciders Made by an Exhaustion Method: An Option to Val-Orise Subproducts from the Making of Ice Ciders
Beverages 2021, 7(4), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7040075 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Cryo-extraction (pressing of frozen apples), is one of the two freeze-enrichment systems allowed for the making of ice juices. Its ciders are often described as more complex and aromatic, however, the production yield is quite low. The Exhaustion method associated with the previous [...] Read more.
Cryo-extraction (pressing of frozen apples), is one of the two freeze-enrichment systems allowed for the making of ice juices. Its ciders are often described as more complex and aromatic, however, the production yield is quite low. The Exhaustion method associated with the previous one proposes the valorisation of the discarded apple juice fractions for the making of new ciders. Three types of apple juices and three species of yeasts (S. bayanus, C6; S. cerevisiae, Levuline-CHP, and T. delbrueckii, Biodiva-TD291) have been used to evaluate the Exhaustion method. The ciders obtained were analysed for chemical and volatile composition as well as sensory characteristics. The yield (%) of the Exhaustion process ranged between 24 and 37%. The yeasts promoted the fermentation at different rates, providing ciders with alcoholic degrees between 9 and 12 (%v/v), and low volatile acidities. The yeast strain significantly influenced most of the parameters analysed, whereas the raw apple juice influenced the perception of the attributes fruity, apple and butter. Although the ciders produced by Exhaustion presented significantly lower concentrations of all the volatile compounds analysed than the corresponding ice ciders obtained by Cryo-extraction, the S. bayanus C6 and T. delbrueckii TD291 gave highly valued ciders from the sensory point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uniqueness, Diversity and Quality of Cider)
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Article
Anti-Platelet Properties of Apple Must/Skin Yeasts and of Their Fermented Apple Cider Products
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7030054 - 01 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Alcoholic beverages like apple cider are considered functional beverages with several health benefits, when consumed in moderation, which are mainly attributed to their microbiota and the plethora of their bioactive compounds. Among them, bio-functional polar lipids (PL) have recently been found in apple [...] Read more.
Alcoholic beverages like apple cider are considered functional beverages with several health benefits, when consumed in moderation, which are mainly attributed to their microbiota and the plethora of their bioactive compounds. Among them, bio-functional polar lipids (PL) have recently been found in apple cider, which despite low quantities, have exhibited strong anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet properties, while fermentation seems to affect the functionality of apple cider’s PL bioactives. The aim of the present study was to elaborate yeast strains isolated from the complex mixtures of apple surface and must yeasts for evaluating their effects on the anti-platelet functional properties of PL bioactives from their final fermented apple cider products. First, bio-functional PL were extracted and separated from the biomass of the different isolated apple surface/must yeast strains, and were further assessed for their anti-platelet potency against human platelet aggregation induced by the potent inflammatory and thrombotic mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF), or by a classic platelet agonist like adenosine diphopshate (ADP). Novel functional apple ciders were then produced from the fermentation of apple juice by elaborating the most bioactive and resilient yeast strains isolated from the apple must with optimum fermentation properties. PL bioactives extracted from these novel apple cider products were also further assessed for their anti-platelet properties against both the PAF and ADP pathways of human platelet aggregation. These novel cider products were found to contain PL bioactives with lower IC50 values (~40 μg) and thus increased anti-platelet potency against platelet aggregation induced by PAF and ADP. GC-MS analysis of the PL bioactives extracted from these novel apple ciders showed that apple cider PL bioactives are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) and the omega-3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA), with favorably lower levels for their omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio, which further support the observed strong anti-platelet properties putative anti-inflammatory potency for the apple cider PL bioactives. However, further studies are needed in order to elucidate and fully characterize the apple yeast strains that can be utilized for increasing the anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet and cardioprotective functional properties of their fermented apple cider products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uniqueness, Diversity and Quality of Cider)
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Article
Authentication Using Volatile Composition: A Proof-of-Concept Study on the Volatile Profiles of Fourteen Queensland Ciders
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020028 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Although relatively small, the Australian cider industry has experienced significant growth in recent years. One of the current challenges in the industry is the lack of research specific to Australian ciders. Establishing baseline volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles of Australian cider is paramount [...] Read more.
Although relatively small, the Australian cider industry has experienced significant growth in recent years. One of the current challenges in the industry is the lack of research specific to Australian ciders. Establishing baseline volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles of Australian cider is paramount to developing a better understanding of the industry. This understanding may ultimately be utilized for both the categorization and authentication of existing ciders, and the targeted modification of cider volatiles for the development and improvement of cider quality. This study utilized gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry, to identify key VOCs present in 14 ciders sourced from four different manufacturers in Queensland, Australia. A total of 40 VOCs were identified across the ciders, with significant variation depending on the flavor and manufacturer. Principal component analysis indicated that the ciders were well-separated based on the manufacturer, supporting the prospect of using the volatile composition to discriminate between cider manufacturers. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis highlighted the commonalities and differences in cider composition between different manufacturers, which may be indicative of the varying ingredients and manufacturing processes used to create the ciders. Future studies profiling the volatile composition of larger numbers of Australian ciders are recommended to support the use of this analytical technique for authentication purposes. Likewise, exploration of the relationship between specific processes and VOCs is recommended to fortify an understanding of how to optimize cider production to improve consumer satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uniqueness, Diversity and Quality of Cider)
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Article
The Use of Temporal Check-All-That-Apply and Category Scaling by Experienced Panellists to Evaluate Sweet and Dry Ciders
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages7020024 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 913
Abstract
Cider is a growing market in North America, but more studies need to be completed to fully understand ciders’ sensory properties. The primary objective of this study was to identify the differences in the sensory properties of ciders described as “sweet” or “dry” [...] Read more.
Cider is a growing market in North America, but more studies need to be completed to fully understand ciders’ sensory properties. The primary objective of this study was to identify the differences in the sensory properties of ciders described as “sweet” or “dry” using both static (category scales) and dynamic (temporal check-all-that-apply, TCATA) sensory methodologies. The secondary objective was to evaluate experienced panellists with a familiar methodology (category scales) and an unfamiliar methodology (TCATA). The sweet ciders were characterized by sweet, floral, cooked apple, and fresh apple attributes, and they had a sour aftertaste. The dry ciders were found to be bitter, sour, earthy, and mouldy, and they had a sour and bitter aftertaste. The experienced panellists produced reproducible results using both methodologies; however, they did not find small differences between the cider samples. Future research should investigate a wider range of cider and investigate ciders’ aftertaste. More studies need to be completed on experienced panellists and on when researchers and the food industry should use them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uniqueness, Diversity and Quality of Cider)
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