Special Issue "Biological Mechanisms Underlying Physical Fitness and Sports Performance"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 16 May 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Filipe Manuel Clemente
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, School of Sport and Leisure, 4960-320 Melgaço, Portugal
Interests: football; soccer; match analysis; performance analysis; network analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Georgian Badicu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Physical Education and Mountain Sports, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500068 Brasov, Romania
Interests: physical activity; fitness; obesity; diet; sleep; well-being; football; public health; quality of life; sports activities; physical education; didactic of physical education and sports
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Eugenia Murawska-Ciałowicz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Physiology and Biochemistry Department, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: exercise biochemistry and physiology; exercise and performance; exercise monitoring; physical activity assessment; exercise benefits; physiological adaptation; adipose tissue; BDNF

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to have this Special Issue on “Biological Mechanisms Underlying Physical Fitness and Sports Performance” in the Biology journal.

In general, the concept of mechanism in biology has three distinct meanings. It may refer to a philosophical thesis about the nature of life and biology, to the internal workings of a machine-like structure, or to the causal explanation of a particular phenomenon. In this Special Issue, we try to discuss these possible biological mechanisms that underly the beneficial effects of physical fitness and sports performance, as well their importance and role/influences on physical health.

Understanding the biological mechanisms that justify acute and chronic physiological responses to exercise interventions is determinant to sustain training principles and training methods. A strong understanding of the effects of exercise in humans may help to identify which causes may justify specific biological changes and properly identify the most adequate processes for implementing the training stimulus.

Despite the significant body of knowledge regarding the physiological and physical effects of different training methods (based on dimensions of load), some of the biological causes for those changes are still unknown. Additionally, few studies have focused on the natural biological variability in humans and how specific properties of humans may justify different effects for the same training intervention. Thus, more original research is needed to provide plausible biological mechanisms that may explain the physiological and physical effects of exercise and training in humans.

In this Special Issue, we welcome the contributions that describe and list the link between physical fitness, sports performance and human biology. Your contribution is welcome in the form of an original article, case report, commentary, and systematic review with meta-analysis. This Special Issue offers the opportunity to address the following types of topics:

(i) biological mechanisms related to acute and chronic responses to training stimulus and/or physical activity;

(ii) biological variability and associations to different training methods;

(iii) physiological and physical adaptations to specific training interventions;

(iv) biological mechanisms of recovery after exercise;

(v) clinical exercise.

Dr. Filipe Manuel Clemente
Dr. Badicu Georgian
Dr. Eugenia Murawska-Ciałowicz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biology is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioenergetics
  • biological mechanisms
  • physical fitness
  • athletic performance
  • sport performance psychophysiological
  • training load
  • sports and exercise physiology
  • physical health

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Physical Training Increases Erythroferrone Levels in Men
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10111215 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Intense physical activity contributes to an increased demand for red blood cells, which transport oxygen to working muscles. The purpose of this study was to assess the concentration of erythroferrone (ERFE), the novel marker of erythroid activity in athletes, during the beginning of [...] Read more.
Intense physical activity contributes to an increased demand for red blood cells, which transport oxygen to working muscles. The purpose of this study was to assess the concentration of erythroferrone (ERFE), the novel marker of erythroid activity in athletes, during the beginning of their training season. The study group consisted of 39 athletes aged 23.24 ± 3.77 years. The study was carried out during the athletes’ preparatory period of the training cycle. The control group consisted of 34 healthy men aged 22.33 ± 2.77 years. The erythropoietic activity was evaluated by determining athletes’ concentrations of erythropoietin (EPO) and erythroferrone (ERFE). The level of physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). In the athletes’ group, we observed higher concentrations of EPO (Me = 12.65 mIU/mL) and ERFE (40.00 pg/mL) compared to the control group (EPO: Me = 5.74 mIU/ml, p = 0.001; ERFE: Me = 25.50 pg/mL, p = 0.0034). The average intensity of physical exercise significantly differentiated the participants as far as EPO and ERFE concentrations. These results suggest that intense physical activity, at least at the beginning of the training season, may stimulate EPO production, which increases ERFE release. This seems to be an adaptative mechanism that provides adequate iron for enhanced erythropoiesis. Full article
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Article
Effect of 12 Weeks Core Training on Core Muscle Performance in Rhythmic Gymnastics
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1210; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10111210 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 242
Abstract
Background: Rhythmic gymnastics performance is characterized by technical elements involving flexibility, aerobic capacity and strength. Increased core strength in rhythmic gymnastics could lead to improved sporting performance. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of core [...] Read more.
Background: Rhythmic gymnastics performance is characterized by technical elements involving flexibility, aerobic capacity and strength. Increased core strength in rhythmic gymnastics could lead to improved sporting performance. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of core muscle training on core muscle performance in rhythmic gymnasts. Methods: A randomized controlled study involving 24 rhythmic gymnastics was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; n = 12; age 13.50 ± 3.17 years) or a training group (TG; n = 12; age 14.41 ± 2.35 years). Body composition, isometric strength of trunk, core endurance and core muscle electromyographic activity were measured (EMG) after 12 weeks of core training. Independent sample t-tests were carried out to compare baseline values between groups. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (time × group) was applied. Results: The TG improved body composition, trunk lean mass (mean differences MD = −0.31; p = 0.040), lean mass (MD = 0.43; p = 0.037) and bone mass (MD = −0.06; p < 0.001) after training. Core training increased isometric strength of trunk, flexion test (MD = −21.53; p = 0.019) and extension test (MD = 22.7; p = 0.049), as well as the prone bridge core endurance test (MD = −11.27; p = 0.040). The EMG values also increased in the TG in prone bridge for front trunk (MD = −58.58; p = 0.026). Conclusions: Core strength training leads to improvements in body composition, as well as improvements in trunk strength and increases in muscle electromyographic activity. These improvements could therefore improve performance during competitive rhythmic gymnastics exercises. Full article
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Article
Performance Profile among Age Categories in Young Cyclists
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10111196 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Endurance profile assessment is of major interest to evaluate the cyclist’s performance potential. In this regard, maximal oxygen uptake and functional threshold power are useful functional parameters to determine metabolic training zones (ventilatory threshold). The aim of this study was to evaluate and [...] Read more.
Endurance profile assessment is of major interest to evaluate the cyclist’s performance potential. In this regard, maximal oxygen uptake and functional threshold power are useful functional parameters to determine metabolic training zones (ventilatory threshold). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the physiological profile of different road cyclist age categories (Youth, Junior, and Under-23) to obtain the performance requirements. Sixty-one competitive road cyclists (15–22 years) performed a maximal incremental test on a bike in order to determine functional parameters (maximal fat oxidation zone, ventilatory thresholds, maximal oxygen uptake, and functional threshold power) and metabolic training zones. The results suggest major differences, with the Youth group showing clear changes in all metabolic zones except in fat oxidation. The main differences between Under-23 vs. Junior groups were observed in maximal relative power output (Under-23: 6.70 W·Kg−1; Junior: 6.17 W·Kg−1) and relative functional threshold power (Under-23: 4.91 W·Kg−1; Junior: 4.48 W·Kg−1). The Youth group physiological profile is clearly different to the other age categories. Some parameters normalized to body weight (maximal oxygen consumption, load and functional threshold power) could be interesting to predict a sporting career during the Junior and Under-23 stages. Full article
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Article
The Effects of Exercise Order on the Psychophysiological Responses, Physical and Technical Performances of Young Soccer Players: Combined Small-Sided Games and High-Intensity Interval Training
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10111180 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the order effects of combined small-sided games (SSGs) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the psychophysiological responses and physical and technical performances of young soccer players. Twenty-four soccer players (aged 14.63 ± 0.71 years) were randomly divided into [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the order effects of combined small-sided games (SSGs) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the psychophysiological responses and physical and technical performances of young soccer players. Twenty-four soccer players (aged 14.63 ± 0.71 years) were randomly divided into SSGs + HIIT (n = 12) and HIIT + SSGs (n = 12) for 6 weeks. The SSGs consisted of two 4–16 min rounds of 2, 3, and four-a-side games with 2 min of passive resting, whereas the HIIT consisted of 6–10 min of high-intensity runs at varying intensities (from 90 to 100%). Pre-test and post-test elements included a 5–30 m sprint test, countermovement jump test, zigzag agility test with the ball and without the ball, repeated sprint ability test, speed dribbling ability test, three-corner run test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1. Both combined training interventions produced similar improvements in physical performance and technical responses (p ≥ 0.05, d values ranging from 0.40 to 1.10). However, the combined HIIT + SSGs training produced meaningfully lower perceived exertion (p = 0.00, d = 2.98) and greater physical enjoyment (p = 0.00, d = 4.28) compared with the SSGs + HIIT intervention. Furthermore, the SSGs + HIIT group showed a higher training load than those from the HIIT + SSGs group for all weeks (p ≤ 0.05, d values ranging from 1.36 to 2.05). The present study’s results might be used by coaches and practitioners to design training programmes for youth soccer players. Full article
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Article
Effects of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Body Composition and Bioelectrical Phase Angle in Serie A Soccer Players: A Comparison of Two Consecutive Seasons
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10111175 - 13 Nov 2021
Viewed by 317
Abstract
The present study compared changes in body composition during the COVID-19-associated lockdown with the same period of the following season in elite soccer players. Fifteen elite male soccer players (30.5 ± 3.6 years.) underwent a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) before (end of February) [...] Read more.
The present study compared changes in body composition during the COVID-19-associated lockdown with the same period of the following season in elite soccer players. Fifteen elite male soccer players (30.5 ± 3.6 years.) underwent a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) before (end of February) and after (end of May) the lockdown, which occurred during the 2019/2020 season, and at the same period during the following competitive season in 2020/2021, when restrictions were lifted. Fat and muscle mass were estimated using predictive equations, while phase angle (PhA) and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) patterns were directly measured. After lockdown, fat mass remained unchanged (p > 0.05), while muscle mass (95%CI = −1.12/−0.64; ES = −2.04) and PhA (95%CI = 0.51/−0.24, ES = −1.56) decreased. A rightward displacement of the BIVA vector was also found (p < 0.001, ES = 1.50). After the same period during the regular season, FM% and muscle mass did not change (p > 0.05), while the PhA increased (95%CI = 0.01/0.22; ES = 0.63). A leftward vector displacement (p < 0.001, ES = 1.05) was also observed. The changes in muscle mass correlated with changes in PhA (“lockdown” season 2019/2020: ß = −1.128, p = 0.011; “regular” season 2020/21: ß = 1.963, p = 0.011). In conclusion, coaches and strength conditioners should monitor muscle mass in soccer players during detraining periods as this parameter appears to be mainly affected by changes in training plans. Full article
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Article
Effect of Physical Exercise Program Based on Active Breaks on Physical Fitness and Vigilance Performance
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10111151 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
The scientific literature has shown the beneficial effects of chronic Physical Exercise (PE) on a wide range of tasks that involve high-order functioning. For this reason, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of active breaks on physical fitness and vigilance performance [...] Read more.
The scientific literature has shown the beneficial effects of chronic Physical Exercise (PE) on a wide range of tasks that involve high-order functioning. For this reason, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of active breaks on physical fitness and vigilance performance in high school students through eight weeks of physical training. A total of 42 healthy students (age = 16.50 ± 0.59 years; height = 171.08 ± 8.07 cm; weight = 67.10 ± 13.76 kg) from one Andalusian high school (Spain) were assigned for convenience and matched into two groups, a Control Group (CG) and an Active-Break Group (ABG). The ABG performed two active breaks (based on strength and self-loading exercises) during the school day, first at 10:00 a.m. and second at 12:30 p.m. The participants were assessed before and after the training program using the Alpha-Fitness test battery and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT). Significant differences were observed in the post-training PVT results, compared with the pretraining PVT, showing ABG responding faster than CG. Thus, the presents study demonstrated that eight weeks of physical training affects vigilance performance (compared to CG) and improves the efficiency of vigilance in high school students, contributing to enhancement of quality of education. Full article
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Article
Performance Prediction Equation for 2000 m Youth Indoor Rowing Using a 100 m Maximal Test
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1082; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10111082 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Background: The exhaustive series of tests undergone by young athletes of Olympic rowing prior to important competitions imply loads of physical stress that can ultimately impact on mood and motivation, with negative consequences for their training and performance. Thus, it is necessary to [...] Read more.
Background: The exhaustive series of tests undergone by young athletes of Olympic rowing prior to important competitions imply loads of physical stress that can ultimately impact on mood and motivation, with negative consequences for their training and performance. Thus, it is necessary to develop a tool that uses only the performance of short distances but is highly predictive, offering a time expectancy with high reliability. Such a test must use variables that are easy to collect with high practical applicability in the daily routine of coaches. Objective: The objective of the present study was to develop a mathematical model capable of predicting 2000 m rowing performance from a maximum effort 100 m indoor rowing ergometer (IRE) test in young rowers. Methods: The sample consisted of 12 male rowing athletes in the junior category (15.9 ± 1.0 years). A 100 m time trial was performed on the IRE, followed by a 2000 m time trial 24-h later. Results: The 2000 m mathematical model to predict performance in minutes based on the maximum 100 m test demonstrated a high correlation (r = 0.734; p = 0.006), strong reliability index (ICC: 0.978; IC95%: [0.960; 0.980]; p = 0.001) and was within usable agreement limits (Bland -Altman Agreement: −0.60 to 0.60; 95% CI [−0.65; 0.67]). Conclusion: The mathematical model developed to predict 2000 m performance is effective and has a statistically significant reliability index while being easy to implement with low cost. Full article
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Article
Effects of Ibuprofen Use on Lymphocyte Count and Oxidative Stress in Elite Paralympic Powerlifting
Biology 2021, 10(10), 986; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10100986 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Background: Paralympic Powerlifting (PP) training tends to promote fatigue and oxidative stress. Objective: To analyze the effects of ibuprofen use on performance and oxidative stress in post-training PP athletes. Methodology: Ten national level PP athletes (age: 27.13 ± 5.57) were analyzed for oxidative [...] Read more.
Background: Paralympic Powerlifting (PP) training tends to promote fatigue and oxidative stress. Objective: To analyze the effects of ibuprofen use on performance and oxidative stress in post-training PP athletes. Methodology: Ten national level PP athletes (age: 27.13 ± 5.57) were analyzed for oxidative stress in post-training. The study was carried out in three weeks, (1) familiarization and (2 and 3) evaluated the recovery with the use of a placebo (PLA) and ibuprofen (IBU), 800 mg. The Peak Torque (PT), Torque Development Rate (TDR), Fatigue Index (FI), reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and sulfhydryl groups (SH) were evaluated. The training consisted of five sets of five repetitions (80–90%) 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM) in the bench press. Results: The IBU showed a higher PT (24 and 48 h, p = 0.04, ɳ2 p = 0.39), a lower FI (24 h, p = 0.01, ɳ2p = 0.74) and an increased lymphocyte count (p < 0.001; ɳ2p = 4.36). There was no change in oxidative stress. Conclusions: The use of IBU provided improvements in strength and did not protect against oxidative stress. Full article
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Article
Associations of Vitamin D Levels with Physical Fitness and Motor Performance; A Cross-Sectional Study in Youth Soccer Players from Southern Croatia
Biology 2021, 10(8), 751; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10080751 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Vitamin D level is known to be a factor potentially influencing physical fitness, but few studies have examined this phenomenon among youth athletes. We aimed to evaluate the associations of vitamin D levels (as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations—25(OH)D) with various physical fitness [...] Read more.
Vitamin D level is known to be a factor potentially influencing physical fitness, but few studies have examined this phenomenon among youth athletes. We aimed to evaluate the associations of vitamin D levels (as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations—25(OH)D) with various physical fitness and motor performance tests in youth football (soccer) players. This cross-sectional study included a total of 52 youth soccer players (15.98 ± 2.26 years old) from Southern Croatia. The participants were evaluated at the end of the winter period and data were collected of anthropometric measures (body mass and body height), vitamin D status (25(OH)D levels), physical fitness tests (sprints of 10 and 20 m, 20 yards test, the countermovement jump, the reactive strength index (RSI)) and motor performance tests (the soccer-specific CODS, the soccer-specific agility, and static balance). Among the studied players, 54% had 25(OH)D insufficiency/deficiency, showing a lack of 25(OH)D is widespread even in youth athletes living at a southern latitude. The 25(OH)D level was correlated with sprint 20 m, 20 yards tests, and RSI, showing a greater role of 25(OH)D in physical fitness tests where energetic capacity is essential than in sport-related motor performance tests where skills are crucial. Our results support the idea that vitamin D can play a determinant role in physical fitness tests with a clear physiological component, but is not crucial in motor performance tests related to specific sports where skills are a key component. Future studies should investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the performance in physical fitness and motor performance tests among youth athletes. Full article
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Article
Knowledge about Fibromyalgia in Fibromyalgia Patients and Its Relation to HRQoL and Physical Activity
Biology 2021, 10(7), 673; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10070673 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM) affects 2.40% of the Spanish population. The most widespread treatment has been the combination of patient education, pain coping strategies and exercise. With regard to patient education, there are few previous studies on the efficacy of relating FM education [...] Read more.
Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM) affects 2.40% of the Spanish population. The most widespread treatment has been the combination of patient education, pain coping strategies and exercise. With regard to patient education, there are few previous studies on the efficacy of relating FM education in isolation with an improvement in FM, although there are some studies that report that health education programs could modify the perception of quality of life and improve pain. Objectives: the aim was to find out the level of knowledge about FM among patients in Extremadura, to explore the relationship between knowledge of FM and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and to analyze the relationship between knowledge of physical activity in FM and the practice of physical activity. Methods: A single-measure cross-sectional study was carried out with 121 women with a mean age of 55.06 (±9.93) years. The following questionnaires were used: Fibromyalgia Knowledge Questionnaire (FKQ); SF12v2 (Short-Form Health Survey); and EURO-QOL-5D-5L (EQ-5D-5L). Results: regarding the level of knowledge of the participants about FM, it was found that 10% had a low knowledge, 49% medium and 41% high. In relation to the associations between the level of knowledge and HRQoL, a weak correlation between EQ-5D-5L and the FKQ in the domain of physical activity (r = 0.243) were found. Conclusions: it can be concluded that the level of knowledge about FM of the patients from Extremadura was medium-high and that there is a direct weak relationship between knowledge about physical activity in FM and HRQoL. However, no association was found between knowledge of physical activity in FM and the practice of physical activity. Full article
Article
Specific Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis Identifies Body Fat Reduction after a Lifestyle Intervention in Former Elite Athletes
Biology 2021, 10(6), 524; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10060524 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
Background: specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has been proposed as an alternative bioimpedance method for evaluating body composition. This investigation aimed to verify the ability of specific BIVA in identifying changes in fat mass after a 16-week lifestyle program in former athletes. [...] Read more.
Background: specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has been proposed as an alternative bioimpedance method for evaluating body composition. This investigation aimed to verify the ability of specific BIVA in identifying changes in fat mass after a 16-week lifestyle program in former athletes. Methods: The 94 participants included in the Champ4life project (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03031951) were randomized into intervention (n = 49) and control (n = 45) groups, from which 82 athletes completed the intervention (age 43.9 ± 9.2 y; body mass index 31.1 ± 4.6 kg/m2). Fat mass was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bioelectric resistance, reactance, phase angle, and vector length were assessed by bioelectric impedance spectroscopy, and the BIVA procedure was applied. Results: A significant (p < 0.05) group x time interaction for fat mass, specific resistance, reactance, and vector length was found. Fat mass and vector length significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the intervention group, while no change was measured in the control group. Considering the participants as a whole group, changes in vector length were associated with changes in fat mass percentage (r2 = 0.246; β = 0.33; p < 0.001) even after adjusting for age, sex, and group (R2 = 0.373; β = 0.23; p = 0.002). Conclusions: The specific BIVA approach is suitable to track fat mass changes during an intervention program aimed to reduce body fat in former athletes. Full article
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Review

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Review
The Role of Satellite Cells in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration—The Effect of Exercise and Age
Biology 2021, 10(10), 1056; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10101056 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 503
Abstract
The population of satellite cells (mSCs) is highly diversified. The cells comprising it differ in their ability to regenerate their own population and differentiate, as well as in the properties they exhibit. The heterogeneity of this group of cells is evidenced by multiple [...] Read more.
The population of satellite cells (mSCs) is highly diversified. The cells comprising it differ in their ability to regenerate their own population and differentiate, as well as in the properties they exhibit. The heterogeneity of this group of cells is evidenced by multiple differentiating markers that enable their recognition, classification, labeling, and characterization. One of the main tasks of satellite cells is skeletal muscle regeneration. Myofibers are often damaged during vigorous exercise in people who participate in sports activities. The number of satellite cells and the speed of the regeneration processes that depend on them affect the time structure of an athlete’s training. This process depends on inflammatory cells. The multitude of reactions and pathways that occur during the regeneration process results in the participation and control of many factors that are activated and secreted during muscle fiber damage and at different stages of its regeneration. However, not all of them are well understood yet. This paper presents the current state of knowledge on satellite cell-dependent skeletal muscle regeneration. Studies describing the effects of various forms of exercise and age on this process were reviewed. Full article
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