Special Issue "Microbiota and Immune System Crosstalk 2020"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Andrés Moya
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Integrative Systems Biology Institute, University of Valencia and CSIC, 46980 Valencia, Spain
Interests: genetics; biological evolution; experimental and genome evolution; philosophy of biology; study of the human and animal microbiome under an evolutionary and system biology perspective
Dr. Luigi Santacroce
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Ionian Department (DJSGEM), University of Bari "Aldo Moro", 70121 Bari, Italy
Interests: pathology; treatment; infection; stem cells; gastroenterology; stem cell isolation; periodontics; PCR; odontoblasts
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Paolo Maggi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Salute Mentale e Fisica e Medicina Preventiva, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Almost a century has passed since Paul de Kruif, in 1926, published his "Microbe Hunter" in which he narrated the first heroes of microbiology. This narrative reflected our idea of ​​a relationship with the microbial world, similar to a war and quite different from the relationship of beneficial mutualism that scientific studies have been demonstrating in recent years. This vision continued unchanged until the early years of this century, considering only some bacteria of our organism as useful to facilitate some intestinal functions and little else. Today, we know that the commensal microorganisms that make up the microbiota resident in the various body districts, in fact, not only support the functions of the human organism, such as metabolism and defense against the proliferation of pathogens, but have a key role in the development of the immune system in the early childhood and, consequently, on the state of inflammation of the body. Early intestinal colonization is important for the development and maintenance of immune tolerance, which in turn is necessary for the prevention of immune-mediated diseases. The lack of development of immunological tolerance in the first months of life, as well as the loss of immunological tolerance in later times, predispose to the appearance of allergic or autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this Special Issue is a collection of scientific contributions for understanding the role of the microbiota and the microbiome in the regulation of the immune system, as well as its possible manipulation by diet and probiotics. Original articles and extensive reviews are preferable, but any type of article, including those on the history of microbiology and the immune system, is welcome.

Prof. Dr. Andrés Moya
Dr. Luigi Santacroce
Prof. Paolo Maggi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microbiology
  • microbiota
  • microbiome
  • immune system
  • lymphocytes
  • antibodies
  • MALT
  • immune tolerance
  • autoimmune diseases
  • diet
  • probiotics
  • synbiotics
  • history of immunology
  • history of microbiology

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Article
Oral Microbiota and Immune System Crosstalk: A Translational Research
Biology 2020, 9(6), 131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology9060131 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
Background: Oral pathogens may exert the ability to trigger differently the activation of local macrophage immune responses, for instance Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induce predominantly pro-inflammatory (M1-like phenotypes) responses, while oral commensal microbiota primarily elicits macrophage functions consistent with the anti-inflammatory (M2-like [...] Read more.
Background: Oral pathogens may exert the ability to trigger differently the activation of local macrophage immune responses, for instance Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induce predominantly pro-inflammatory (M1-like phenotypes) responses, while oral commensal microbiota primarily elicits macrophage functions consistent with the anti-inflammatory (M2-like phenotypes). Methods: In healthy individuals vs. periodontal disease patients’ blood samples, the differentiation process from monocyte to M1 and M2 was conducted using two typical growth factors, the granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Results: In contrast with the current literature our outcomes showed a noticeable increase of macrophage polarization from healthy individuals vs. periodontal patients. The biological and clinical significance of these data was discussed. Conclusions: Our translational findings showed a significant variance between control versus periodontal disease groups in M1 and M2 marker expression within the second group significantly lower skews differentiation of M2-like macrophages towards an M1-like phenotype. Macrophage polarization in periodontal tissue may be responsible for the development and progression of inflammation-induced periodontal tissue damage, including alveolar bone loss, and modulating macrophage function may be a potential strategy for periodontal disease management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Immune System Crosstalk 2020)
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Review

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Review
The Human Respiratory System and its Microbiome at a Glimpse
Biology 2020, 9(10), 318; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology9100318 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2693
Abstract
The recent COVID-19 pandemic promoted efforts to better understand the organization of the respiratory microbiome and its evolution from birth to adulthood and how it interacts with external pathogens and the host immune system. This review aims to deepen understanding of the essential [...] Read more.
The recent COVID-19 pandemic promoted efforts to better understand the organization of the respiratory microbiome and its evolution from birth to adulthood and how it interacts with external pathogens and the host immune system. This review aims to deepen understanding of the essential physiological functions of the resident microbiome of the respiratory system on human health and diseases. First, the general characteristics of the normal microbiota in the different anatomical sites of the airways have been reported in relation to some factors such as the effect of age, diet and others on its composition and stability. Second, we analyze in detail the functions and composition and the correct functionality of the microbiome in the light of current knowledge. Several studies suggest the importance of preserving the micro-ecosystem of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microbes of the respiratory system, and, more recently, its relationship with the intestinal microbiome, and how it also leads to the maintenance of human health, has become better understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Immune System Crosstalk 2020)
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