Special Issue "New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 June 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Stefania Cantore
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Faculty of Dentistry (Fakulteti i Mjekësisë Dentare-FMD), Tirana, University of Medicine
2. Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy
3. BPP University, London, UK
Interests: translational research; oral health–systemic health; microbiota; oral diseases
Prof. Lucio Quagliuolo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy
Interests: precision medicine; biochemistry; bio-medical research
Dr. Mariarosaria Boccellino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Napoli, Italy
Interests: cell signaling and cancer; model tumourigenesis; breast and prostate cancers; oral disorders; antioxidant activity; obesity; molecular biology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Special Issue tentative title: "New trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health".

Precision medicine has emerged as a powerful model that focuses on how biomolecular factors can influence individual responses to different medications/therapies affecting drug efficacy, side effects and adverse events related to therapy. The long-term goal of the research being conducted is the identification of responders and non-responders to therapy and, thus, the avoidance of adverse events and the optimization of drug/therapeutic doses.

Moreover, dentistry—and in particular, oral health—is recognized by the WHO as a significant part of the Global Oral Health Program, having a vital impact on daily life and overall health, and has important implications for the clinical practice of medicine and dental research. Oral health maintenance—by means of a diagnostic, rehabilitative, therapeutic or surgical approach—is an integral part of general human health and well-being.

This Special Issue seeks research papers on various aspects related to the emerging field of precision medicine, dentistry and oral health, covering different aspects of the basics of translational research, applied biology and health promotion.

We especially encourage the submission of interdisciplinary work and multi-country collaborative research. We welcome submissions of original research papers using different study designs and critical and relevant reviews, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses, methodological papers, and manuscripts that emphasize theoretical content.

Prof. Stefania Cantore
Prof. Lucio Quagliuolo
Dr. Mariarosaria Boccellino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biology is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Precision Medicine 
  • Health Promotion 
  • Translational Research 
  • Preventive Medicine 
  • Medicine and Dentistry 
  • Oral Health and Clinical Microbiology 
  • Biochemistry 
  • Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Clinical Biology 
  • Bio-Medical Research 
  • Cancer research

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Article
Deficiencies in Root Canal Fillings Subsequent to Adaptive Instrumentation of Oval Canals
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1074; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10111074 - 21 Oct 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of instrumentation and the potential for debris deposition using XP-endo shaper plus (XP-SP) and full-sequence SAF (F-SAF) on the adaption of thermoplastic root canal fillings in oval canals. Following the manufacturer’s instructions, ninety [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of instrumentation and the potential for debris deposition using XP-endo shaper plus (XP-SP) and full-sequence SAF (F-SAF) on the adaption of thermoplastic root canal fillings in oval canals. Following the manufacturer’s instructions, ninety human permanent mandibular incisors with a single oval canal 6 mm from the apex (verified using pre-operative CBCT scanning) were instrumented with XP-SP and F-SAF. Obtura III Max apparatus was used for root canal obturation without the use of a root canal sealer. The roots were then sectioned 6 mm from the apex and examined with a digital stereomicroscope at x25 magnification to assess the root canal fillings. The F-SAF was associated with a significantly higher (p < 0.01) percentage of entire adaptation of the root fillings (76%) compared to the XP-SP (57%). Furthermore, the XP-SP group was also associated with higher (p < 0.01) defective obturation with debris at 17% and with voids at 26%. However, the F-SAF had lower percentages of defective obturations (7% with debris and 17% with voids). The quality of obturation of oval canals instrumented using full-sequence SAF was better. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Response to Titanium Implant Surface: Extracellular Matrix Deposition
Biology 2021, 10(9), 931; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10090931 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
The major challenge for dentistry is to provide the patient an oral rehabilitation to maintain healthy bone conditions in order to reduce the time for loading protocols. Advancement in implant surface design is necessary to favour and promote the osseointegration process. The surface [...] Read more.
The major challenge for dentistry is to provide the patient an oral rehabilitation to maintain healthy bone conditions in order to reduce the time for loading protocols. Advancement in implant surface design is necessary to favour and promote the osseointegration process. The surface features of titanium dental implant can promote a relevant influence on the morphology and differentiation ability of mesenchymal stem cells, induction of the osteoblastic genes expression and the release of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The present study aimed at evaluating the in vitro effects of two different dental implants with titanium surfaces, TEST and CTRL, to culture the human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Expression of ECM components such as Vimentin, Fibronectin, N-cadherin, Laminin, Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Integrin beta-1 (ITGB1), and the osteogenic related markers, as runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were investigated. Human PDLSCs cultured on the TEST implant surface demonstrated a better cell adhesion capability as observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and immunofluorescence analysis. Moreover, immunofluorescence and Western blot experiments showed an over expression of Fibronectin, Laminin, N-cadherin and RUNX2 in hPDLSCs seeded on TEST implant surface. The gene expression study by RT-PCR validated the results obtained in protein assays and exhibited the expression of RUNX2, ALP, Vimentin (VIM), Fibronectin (FN1), N-cadherin (CDH2), Laminin (LAMB1), FAK and ITGB1 in hPDLSCs seeded on TEST surface compared to the CTRL dental implant surface. Understanding the mechanisms of ECM components release and its regulation are essential for developing novel strategies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Our results demonstrated that the impact of treated surfaces of titanium dental implants might increase and accelerate the ECM apposition and provide the starting point to initiate the osseointegration process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
Cell Differentiation and Replication during Postnatal Development of the Murine First Molar
Biology 2021, 10(8), 776; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10080776 - 14 Aug 2021
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Various signaling molecular pathways are involved in odontogenesis to promote cellular replication and differentiation. Tooth formation is controlled mainly by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. The aim of this work was to investigate how cellular replication and differentiation ensue during the formation of the murine first [...] Read more.
Various signaling molecular pathways are involved in odontogenesis to promote cellular replication and differentiation. Tooth formation is controlled mainly by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. The aim of this work was to investigate how cellular replication and differentiation ensue during the formation of the murine first molar in postnatal ages until eruption, focusing on morphogenesis, odontoblast differentiation and cellular replication. Wild-type CD1 mice were examined from birth to weaning. Morphogenesis and interaction between developing epithelial and mesenchymal tissues were evaluated in hematoxylin–eosin and Gomori trichome stained sections. Immunohistochemistry for nestin, which mediates the differentiation of odontoblasts, especially their polarization and elongation, showed that this intermediate filament was apparent already at postnatal day P1 in the apical region of odontoblasts and progressed apically from cusp tips, while it was not present in epithelial tissues. The expression of nuclear antigen Ki-67 highlighted dividing cells in both epithelial and mesenchymal tissues at P1, while one week later they were restricted to the cementoenamel junction, guiding root elongation. The link between odontoblast maturation and cellular replication in the different tooth tissues is essential to understand the development of tooth shape and dimension, to outline mechanisms of tooth morphogenesis and possibly eruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
Longitudinal 3D Study of Anterior Tooth Wear from Adolescence to Adulthood in Modern Humans
Biology 2021, 10(7), 660; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10070660 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 489
Abstract
In modern humans, tooth wear can easily be observed as a loss of tooth substance, but its precise measurement is problematic. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study was to determine the precise amount of occlusal tooth wear in the anterior permanent dentition [...] Read more.
In modern humans, tooth wear can easily be observed as a loss of tooth substance, but its precise measurement is problematic. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study was to determine the precise amount of occlusal tooth wear in the anterior permanent dentition from adolescence to adulthood. Corresponding tooth crowns from serial 3D digital dental models of 72 individuals were best fit-approximated by applying novel, highly accurate 3D superimposition methods. The superimposed crowns were simultaneously sliced on intact structures, and the differences in the volumes of the subsequent occlusal parts were calculated. Over a thirteen-year period, there was an average loss of anterior occlusal surfaces of 1.58 mm3 per tooth. Tooth surface loss in at least one tooth was higher than 1 mm3 in 93.1% of the human subjects. Tooth wear severity differed by sex and tooth type, with males showing higher values versus females and upper canines versus other anterior teeth. The study revealed the endemic occurrence of occlusal anterior tooth wear, highlighting the need for monitoring of the condition in the population to identify high-risk patients and enable timely interventions. The novel methods applied here on 3D digital models are recommended for this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
“Dental Cluster” Versus “Metabolic Cluster”: Analyzing the Associations of Planned and Delivered Dental Procedures with Metabolic Syndrome, Utilizing Data from the Dental, Oral, Medical Epidemiological (DOME) Cross-Sectional Record-Based Nationwide Study
Biology 2021, 10(7), 608; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10070608 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 935
Abstract
There are conflicting results existing regarding the association between dental status and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The present research analyzed the associations of the sum of the standard dental unit (SDU) scores of planned (SDU-P) and delivered (SDU-D) dental procedures per patient with MetS [...] Read more.
There are conflicting results existing regarding the association between dental status and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The present research analyzed the associations of the sum of the standard dental unit (SDU) scores of planned (SDU-P) and delivered (SDU-D) dental procedures per patient with MetS components, consequences, and related conditions. The SDU score of each dental procedure represents the time and complexity of the executed procedure. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Dental, Oral, Medical Epidemiological (DOME) repository, which includes comprehensive socio-demographic, medical, and dental databases of a nationally representative sample of 132,529 military personnel. Univariate analyses revealed that SDU-P had statistically significant positive associations with all systemic morbidities related to MetS, while the SDU-D exhibited positive associations with some of the systemic morbidities and with lower ORs. SDU-P and SDU-D were associated with worse scores of auxiliary examinations used in the assessment of MetS components. SDU-P retained significant positive associations in the multivariate analysis with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (OR = 7.40 (1.91–28.57)), deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (OR = 5.61 (1.53–20.83)), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (OR = 5.05 (2.40–10.63)), and fatty liver (OR = 1.82 (1.17–2.84)). In contrast, obesity was the only systemic parameter retaining a significant association with SDU-D following multivariate analysis (OR = 1.47 (1.23–1.76)). It can be concluded that SDU-P, but not SDU-D, is a better predictor of systemic morbidities related to MetS. In other words, MetS is associated with a higher dental treatment needs burden, rather than with dental treatments performed de facto. Dental and general health authorities should collaborate and share information and focus on reducing common health-related risk factors, such as smoking and sugar consumption, in particular among high-risk populations, such as immigrants and those with lower SES and rural locality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
Article
A Comparison of Craniofacial Characteristics between Two Different Adult Populations with Class II Malocclusion—A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study
Biology 2021, 10(5), 438; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10050438 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
The dental, skeletal, and soft-tissue characteristics of a particular malocclusion can differ based on ethnicity, race, age, sex and geographical location with Class II malocclusion being one of the most prevalent malocclusions encountered in orthodontic clinical practice. The broad understanding of the characteristics [...] Read more.
The dental, skeletal, and soft-tissue characteristics of a particular malocclusion can differ based on ethnicity, race, age, sex and geographical location with Class II malocclusion being one of the most prevalent malocclusions encountered in orthodontic clinical practice. The broad understanding of the characteristics of vertical skeletal and dental parameters in patients with Class II malocclusion can help clinicians to identify patterns and variations in the expression of this phenotype for better treatment outcomes. Hence, we compared the craniofacial characteristics of skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion traits from Indian and Vietnamese individuals to analyze the vertical skeletal and dental patterns in both population groups. The sample comprised of lateral cephalograms from 100 young adults with Class II malocclusion, of which fifty (25 males and 25 females) were from South India and the other 50 age- and sex-matched adults from Vietnam. The lateral cephalometric radiographs were digitized into anonymous image files and were traced and assessed for 16 vertical skeletal and dental parameters. The ANB angle was greater in males (+1.4 deg; p < 0.001) and females (+1.9 deg; p < 0.001) in the South Indian population. The Vietnamese males had a larger mandibular plane angle, articular angle, anterior facial height and lower anterior facial height compared to the Indian males. The Vietnamese females had larger mandibular plane and articular angles compared to the Indian females. The skeletal class II malocclusion was more severe in the South Indian compared to the Vietnamese adults. The Vietnamese sample showed a generalized tendency towards a more vertical skeletal growth pattern and in males this pattern seemed to be due to the dentoalveolar component. The Vietnamese females showed a tendency towards a vertical growth pattern, but without apparent contribution by the dentoalveolar component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
Comparative Analysis of Periodontal Pain According to the Type of Precision Orthodontic Appliances: Vestibular, Lingual and Aligners. A Prospective Clinical Study
Biology 2021, 10(5), 379; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10050379 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 559
Abstract
The objective of this prospective clinical study was to analyze the pain (intensity, location and type) that patients presented after the placement of different types of orthodontic appliances: conventional, low friction, lingual and aligners. The sample consisted of 120 patients divided into four [...] Read more.
The objective of this prospective clinical study was to analyze the pain (intensity, location and type) that patients presented after the placement of different types of orthodontic appliances: conventional, low friction, lingual and aligners. The sample consisted of 120 patients divided into four groups: conventional (CON), low friction (LF), lingual (LO) and aligners (INV). The participants were given the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (Ortho-SF-MPQ), where they had to record the pain intensity (no pain, mild, moderate or intense) and the periodontal location at different time points, from the first 4 h to 7 days after the start of treatment. In all the study groups, the most frequent location was both anterior arches, with maximum values between 56.7% (CON group at 24 h) and 30% (LO group at 4 h). The “whole mouth” and “complete lower arch” locations were indicated only by the patients in the lingual group. Regarding pain intensity, the patients reported a higher percentage of mild–moderate pain during the first 3 days of treatment (96.7% in LO at 4 h, 86.7% in CON, 83.3% in LF and 90% in INV at 24 h); later, the reported pain decreased to no pain/mild pain, especially in the lingual group, until reaching values close to zero at 7 days post-treatment. The most frequent type of pain was acute in the low friction and lingual groups (with maxima of 60% and 46.7% at 24 h, respectively). On the contrary, in the conventional (36.7% at 4 h) and Invisalign (40% at 24 h) groups, the sensitive type was the most frequent. There are differences regarding periodontal pain in its intensity, location and type according to the use of different orthodontic techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
The Myokine Irisin Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation of Dental Bud-Derived MSCs
Biology 2021, 10(4), 295; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10040295 - 03 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
The myokine irisin, well known for its anabolic effect on bone tissue, has been demonstrated to positively act on osteoblastic differentiation processes in vitro. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have captured great attention in precision medicine and translational research for several decades due to [...] Read more.
The myokine irisin, well known for its anabolic effect on bone tissue, has been demonstrated to positively act on osteoblastic differentiation processes in vitro. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have captured great attention in precision medicine and translational research for several decades due to their differentiation capacity, potent immunomodulatory properties, and their ability to be easily cultured and manipulated. Dental bud stem cells (DBSCs) are MSCs, isolated from dental tissues, that can effectively undergo osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we analyzed, for the first time, the effects of irisin on DBSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Our results indicated that DBSCs were responsive to irisin, showed an enhanced expression of osteocalcin (OCN), a late marker of osteoblast differentiation, and displayed a greater mineral matrix deposition. These findings lead to deepening the mechanism of action of this promising molecule, as part of osteoblastogenesis process. Considering the in vivo studies of the effects of irisin on skeleton, irisin could improve bone tissue metabolism in MSC regenerative procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
The Side Effects of Therapeutic Radioiodine-131 on the Structure of Enamel and Dentin in Permanent Human Teeth
Biology 2021, 10(4), 284; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10040284 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Radioiodine-131 (I-131) is an essential therapy for patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC). Generally, I-131 is safe and well tolerated, but patients may present early or late complications in the oral and maxillofacial areas. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Radioiodine-131 (I-131) is an essential therapy for patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC). Generally, I-131 is safe and well tolerated, but patients may present early or late complications in the oral and maxillofacial areas. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in-vitro, the alteration of enamel and dentin after I-131 exposure using histopathological assessment, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For I-131 irradiation, an in-vitro protocol was used that simulates the procedure for irradiation therapy performed for patients with DTCs. A total of 42 teeth were divided into seven groups (n = 6) and irradiated as follows: control, irradiation groups (3, 6, 12, 36, 48 h, 8 days). Histological changes were observed at 48 h (enamel surface with multifocal and irregular areas) and at 8 days (enamel surface with multiple, very deep, delimited cavities). SEM imaging revealed the enamel destruction progresses along with the treatment time increasing. The alterations are extended into the enamel depth and the dislocated hydroxyapatite debris is overwhelming. The enamel-dentine interface shows small gaps after 6 h and a very well developed valley after 12 h; the interface microstructure resulted after 8 days is deeply altered. The AFM imaging shows that I-131 affects the protein bond between hydroxyapatite nano-crystals causing loss of cohesion, which leads to significant increasing of nano-particles diameter after 6 h. In conclusion, both enamel and dentin appear to be altered between 12 and 48 h and after 8 days of treatment are extended in depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
Observational Study Regarding Possible Side Effects of Miniscrew-Assisted Rapid Palatal Expander (MARPE) with or without the Use of Corticopuncture Therapy
Biology 2021, 10(3), 187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10030187 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
The use of maxillary expanders has the effect of distancing the maxillary bones at the level of the median palatal suture. During maxillary expansion, the main resistance forces occur at the zygomatico-maxillary sutures, and not in the median palatal suture, which is the [...] Read more.
The use of maxillary expanders has the effect of distancing the maxillary bones at the level of the median palatal suture. During maxillary expansion, the main resistance forces occur at the zygomatico-maxillary sutures, and not in the median palatal suture, which is the basic principle on which this method is based. In this observational study, we evaluated possible complications at the skeletal and dentoalveolar level after palatal split using miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) associated or not with corticopuncture (CP) therapy. The study included 27 patients with maxillary transverse deficiency and unilateral or bilateral cross-bite. Skeletal and dentoalveolar changes were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images acquired before and after expansion. The mid-palatal suture was separated in 88.88% of cases, buccal bone height of the alveolar crest had decreased at first molar both at oral and palatal level by approximately 2.07 mm in 40.7% of cases whilst the remaining 59.3% showed insignificant bone loss, with canines exhibiting buccal tipping of 4.10° in 62.5% of cases. Changes of the occlusal planes were observed in 10 cases (37%). Maxillary canines tended to show symmetric buccal inclinations relative to the maxillary basal bone. Six patients; 22.22% showed hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the palatal mucosa associated with ulcerations, erythema, itching, and discomfort in the area. Swelling at the mid-palatal suture after split was observed in all cases and was caused by the resultant force. No cases of necrosis of the palatal mucosa were observed. Although occlusal modifications occur after palatal split, especially in unilateral cross-bite cases, these changes can be treated with the help of fixed orthodontic appliances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
Cognitive Performance and Its Associations with Dental Caries: Results from the Dental, Oral, Medical Epidemiological (DOME) Records-Based Nationwide Study
Biology 2021, 10(3), 178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10030178 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
Relatively few studies have analyzed the association between cognitive performance and dental status. This study aimed to analyze the association between cognitive performance and dental caries. Included were data from the dental, oral, medical epidemiological (DOME) study; cross-sectional records-based research, which integrated large [...] Read more.
Relatively few studies have analyzed the association between cognitive performance and dental status. This study aimed to analyze the association between cognitive performance and dental caries. Included were data from the dental, oral, medical epidemiological (DOME) study; cross-sectional records-based research, which integrated large socio-demographic, medical, and dental databases of a nationally representative sample of young to middle-aged military personnel (N = 131,927, mean age: 21.8 ± 5.9 years, age range: 18–50). The cognitive function of draftees is routinely measured at age 17 years using a battery of psychometric tests termed general intelligence score (GIS). The mean number of decayed teeth exhibited a gradient trend from the lowest (3.14 ± 3.58) to the highest GIS category (1.45 ± 2.19) (odds ratio (OR) lowest versus highest = 5.36 (5.06–5.68), p < 0.001). A similar trend was noted for the other dental parameters. The associations between GIS and decayed teeth persisted even after adjusting for socio-demographic parameters and health-related habits. The adjustments attenuated the OR but did not eliminate it (OR lowest versus highest = 3.75 (3.38–4.16)). The study demonstrates an association between cognitive performance and caries, independent of the socio-demographic and health-related habits that were analyzed. Better allocation of resources is recommended, focusing on populations with impaired cognitive performance in need of dental care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
Anisakis Allergy: Is Aquacultured Fish a Safe and Alternative Food to Wild-Capture Fisheries for Anisakis simplex-Sensitized Patients?
Biology 2021, 10(2), 106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10020106 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
Background: Anisakis simplex (A. simplex) infection, in humans, causes a series of clinical manifestations affecting the gastro-intestinal tract known as Anisakiasis/Anisakidosis. Patients may also present allergic manifestations such as hives and/or angioedema and even anaphylactic shock. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: Anisakis simplex (A. simplex) infection, in humans, causes a series of clinical manifestations affecting the gastro-intestinal tract known as Anisakiasis/Anisakidosis. Patients may also present allergic manifestations such as hives and/or angioedema and even anaphylactic shock. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aquacultured fish could be considered A.simplex-free food and constitute a safe, alternative, wild-capture fish food for Gastro-Allergic Anisakiasis (GAA)-sensitized subjects. Methods: Protein extracts from A. simplex larvae in the third stage (L3) and from edible part of heavily infected horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and aquacultured sea bream, have been tested for A. simplex allergens presence by immunological analysis. Western blot analysis using, as source of specific Anisakis allergens antibodies, serum samples from subjects referring allergic symptoms after raw fish ingestion, was performed. These subjects showed high levels of specific IgE anti A.simplex allergens determined by clinical laboratory tests (ISAC test). Results: Our data demonstrate the presence of Ani s4 allergen in both infected and aquacultured fish extracts, providing a possible interpretation for the allergic manifestations reported by subjects, already sensitized to A. simplex, who ate frozen or well-cooked or, even, aquacultured fish. Conclusions: The present data stimulate more accurate prophylaxis suggestions for Anisakis allergy and more specific controls of fishmeal used in aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Article
Effect of Adaptive, Rotary, and Manual Root Canal Instrumentation in Primary Molars: A Triple-Armed, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Biology 2021, 10(1), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10010042 - 10 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
This clinical trial focused on collating the instrumentation time and quality of root canal obturation in primary molars treated with three instrumentation techniques: adaptive, rotary, and manual. A triple-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial was performed on 75 primary molars requiring pulpectomy treatment, divided [...] Read more.
This clinical trial focused on collating the instrumentation time and quality of root canal obturation in primary molars treated with three instrumentation techniques: adaptive, rotary, and manual. A triple-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial was performed on 75 primary molars requiring pulpectomy treatment, divided into three groups (n = 25 per group). The teeth in Group 1 were instrumented with an adaptive technique (XP-endo Shaper, FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), Group 2 with pediatric rotary files (Kedo-S; D1 and E1), and Group 3 with a manual technique (hand K-files). The apical size of the final instrumentation was maintained at #30 for all groups. Instrumentation time and the grade of the root canal obturation were evaluated. Instrumentation duration was recorded, employing a digital stopwatch from the insertion of the first file until the completion of final irrigation. Obturation quality was assessed using radiographs. The criteria taken as a reference for obturation were: optimal (1 mm short of the apex), underfilled (2 mm short of the apex), or overfilled (beyond the apex). The use of an adaptive technique was associated with the lowest instrumentation time (p < 0.0001) when used for instrumenting primary molars and with the highest root canal filling quality of the three groups. The application of the new concept of adaptive instrumentation for pulpectomy of primary molars was a favorable technique, considering the significant reduction in instrumentation time and better obturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Review

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Review
Survival Rate and Prosthetic and Sinus Complications of Zygomatic Dental Implants for the Rehabilitation of the Atrophic Edentulous Maxilla: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Biology 2021, 10(7), 601; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10070601 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 670
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyze and compare the survival rate and prosthetic and sinus complications of zygomatic dental implants for the rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla. Materials and methods: We conducted a systematic literature review and [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyze and compare the survival rate and prosthetic and sinus complications of zygomatic dental implants for the rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla. Materials and methods: We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations, of clinical studies that evaluated the survival rate and prosthetic and sinus complications of zygomatic dental implants for the rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla. Four databases were consulted during the literature search: Pubmed–Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. After eliminating duplicate articles and applying the inclusion criteria, 46 articles were selected for the qualitative analysis and 32 for the quantitative analysis. Results: Four randomized controlled trials, 19 prospective clinical studies, 20 retrospective studies, and 3 case series were included in the meta-analysis. Conventional dental implants failure (n = 3549) were seen in 2.89% (IC-95% 1.83–3.96%), while zygomatic dental implants failure (n = 1895) were seen in 0.69% (IC-95% 0.21–1.16%). The measure of the effect size used was the Odds Ratio, which was estimated at 2.05 with a confidence interval of 95% between 1.22 and 3.44 (z test = 2.73; p-value = 0.006). The failure risk of conventional dental implants is 2.1 times higher than that of zygomatic dental implants. Slight heterogeneity was determined in the meta-analysis between 23 combined studies (Q test = 32.4; p-value = 0.070; I2 = 32.1%). Prosthetic complications were recorded in 4.9% (IC-95% 2.7–7.3%) and mild heterogeneity was observed in a meta-analysis of 28 combined studies (Q test = 88.2; p-value = 0.001; I2 = 69.4%). Sinus complications were seen in 4.7% (IC-95% 2.8–6.5%) and mild heterogeneity was observed in a meta-analysis of 32 combined studies (Q test = 75.3; p-value = 0.001; I2 = 58.8%). Conclusions: The high survival rate and low prosthetic and sinus complications related to zygomatic dental implants suggest the use of zygomatic dental implants for the rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Review
Failure Rate, Marginal Bone Loss, and Pink Esthetic with Socket-Shield Technique for Immediate Dental Implant Placement in the Esthetic Zone. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Biology 2021, 10(6), 549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10060549 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 732
Abstract
Aim: To compare the failure rate, marginal bone loss, and pink esthetic for the socket-shield technique and the conventional technique for immediate dental implant placement in the esthetic zone. Material and methods: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis, based on the [...] Read more.
Aim: To compare the failure rate, marginal bone loss, and pink esthetic for the socket-shield technique and the conventional technique for immediate dental implant placement in the esthetic zone. Material and methods: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations, of clinical studies that evaluated the failure rate, marginal bone loss, and pink esthetic with the socket-shield technique for immediate dental implant placement in the esthetic zone was performed. A total of 4 databases were consulted in the literature search: PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. After eliminating duplicated articles and applying the inclusion criteria, 16 articles were selected for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results: Four randomized controlled trials, five prospective clinical studies, four retrospective studies, and three case series were included in the meta-analysis. The dental implant failure rate for the socket-shield technique for immediate dental implant placement was 1.37% (95% CI, 0.21–2.54%); however, no statistically significant differences between the conventional and socket-shield technique were found. The estimated mean difference in the marginal bone loss for the socket-shield technique was −0.5 mm (95% CI, −0.82 to −0.18) and statistically significant (p < 0.01), with a high heterogeneity (I2 = 99%). The mean pink esthetic score was 12.27 (Q test = 4.47; p-value = 0.61; I2 = 0%). The difference in pink esthetic between the conventional (n = 55) and socket-shield techniques (n = 55) for immediate dental implant placement was 1.15 (95% CI, 0.73–1.58; Q test = 8.88; p value = 0.11; I2 = 44%). The follow-up time was found to be significant (beta coefficient = 0.023; R2 = 85.6%; QM = 3.82; p = 0.049) for the PES for the socket-shield technique. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this systematic review with meta-analysis, the dental implant failure rate did not differ between the socket-shield technique and conventional technique for immediate implant placement in the esthetic zone. However, a lower marginal bone loss and higher pink esthetic scores were found for the socket-shield technique compared to the conventional technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Review
Effect of Computer-Aided Navigation Techniques on the Accuracy of Endodontic Access Cavities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Biology 2021, 10(3), 212; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology10030212 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the effect of computer-aided navigation techniques on the accuracy of endodontic access cavities. Materials and methods: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of clinical studies, based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and [...] Read more.
The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the effect of computer-aided navigation techniques on the accuracy of endodontic access cavities. Materials and methods: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of clinical studies, based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations, was performed that evaluated the root canal location rate of computer-aided navigation techniques applied to endodontic access cavities. Four different databases were used to consult the literature: PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Cochrane, and Web of Science. After discarding duplicate articles and applying inclusion criteria, 14 articles were selected for qualitative analysis and 13 for quantitative analysis. Results: the root canal location success rate started at 98.1% (CI: 95.7–100%) of the cases performed through a computer-aided navigation technique. The prediction interval ranged from 93.3% to 100%. The meta-analysis did not detect heterogeneity between the combined studies (Q-test = 17.3; p = 0.185; I2 = 25%). No statistically significant differences were found between computer-aided static navigation techniques (success rate: 98.5%) and computer-aided dynamic navigation techniques (success rate: 94.5%) (Q test = 0.57; p = 0.451), nor between in vitro studies (success rate: 96.2%) and in vivo studies (success rate: 100%) (Q test = 2.53; p-value = 0.112). An odds success ratio of 13.1 (CI: 95%; 3.48, 49.1) encourages the use of computer-aided navigation techniques over conventional endodontic access cavity procedures. Conclusions: the endodontic access cavities created using static and dynamic computer-aided navigation techniques are highly accurate in locating the root canal system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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Review
Microbiota and Obesity: Where Are We Now?
Biology 2020, 9(12), 415; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biology9120415 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2103
Abstract
Genetic and environmental factors are underlying causes of obesity and other metabolic diseases, so it is therefore difficult to find suitable and effective medical treatments. However, without a doubt, the gut microbiota—and also the bacteria present in the oral cavity—act as key factors [...] Read more.
Genetic and environmental factors are underlying causes of obesity and other metabolic diseases, so it is therefore difficult to find suitable and effective medical treatments. However, without a doubt, the gut microbiota—and also the bacteria present in the oral cavity—act as key factors in the development of these pathologies, yet the mechanisms have not been fully described. Certainly, a more detailed knowledge of the structure of the microbiota—composition, intra- and inter-species relationships, metabolic functions—could be of great help in counteracting the onset of obesity. Identifying key bacterial species will allow us to create a database of “healthy” bacteria, making it possible to manipulate the bacterial community according to metabolic and clinical needs. Targeting gut microbiota in clinical care as treatment for obesity and health-related complications—even just for weight loss has become a real possibility. In this topical review we provide an overview of the role of the microbiota on host energy homeostasis and obesity-related metabolic diseases, therefore addressing the therapeutic potential of novel and existing strategies (impact of nutrition/dietary modulation, and fecal microbiota transplantation) in the treatment of metabolic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Precision Medicine, Dentistry and Oral Health)
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