Special Issue "Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular and Translational Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100-Dragana, Alexandroupolis, Greece
Interests: microbial ecology; health; disease; microbiota; hygiene; environment; food; antibiotics; probiotics; diet; antimicrobials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Elisavet Stavropoulou
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Infectious Diseases, CHUV (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois), 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
Interests: infectious diseases; antibiotics; probiotics; microbial ecology; health; disease; microbiota; hygiene; antibiotics; probiotics; diet; intestine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will collect research on the different human microbial ecosystems in order to illuminate their role in health and disease. This field of research has drawn increased attention in recent years as scientists have helped to advance our knowledge of the normal microbial flora, ‘the microbiome’, and its role in infection. Nevertheless, the disastrous effects of the different medical or other technical, chemical substances and antibiotics closely related to the alterations of the microbiota are attracting more and more attention.

This Special Issue will consider manuscripts on the different aspects of microbial ecology in health and disease, focusing on the human and animal microbiotas as well as on food and environmental ecosystems, which may be of interest in terms of preserving public health.

The role of antibiotics, antimicrobials, probiotics, supplements or diet upon the human microbiota, inducing deleterious or benefic modifications, will be considered for publication.

The immunological status, induced mechanisms and interactions which determine the human microflora, as well as clinical microflora applications in treatment and prevention of disease, will be of interest. 

Lastly, microbial communities and ecosystems of any organism or environment will be of interest for their role in improving public health.

Prof. Dr. Eugénie Bezirtzoglou
Dr. Elisavet Stavropoulou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomedicines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microbial ecology
  • health
  • disease
  • microbiota
  • hygiene
  • environment
  • food
  • antibiotics
  • diet
  • probiotics
  • antimicrobials

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Monoassociation of Preterm Germ-Free Piglets with Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. lactis BB-12 and Its Impact on Infection with Salmonella Typhimurium
Biomedicines 2021, 9(2), 183; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines9020183 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
Preterm germ-free piglets were monoassociated with probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB12) to verify its safety and to investigate possible protection against subsequent infection with Salmonella Typhimurium strain LT2 (LT2). Clinical signs of salmonellosis, bacterial colonization in the intestine, bacterial translocation to [...] Read more.
Preterm germ-free piglets were monoassociated with probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB12) to verify its safety and to investigate possible protection against subsequent infection with Salmonella Typhimurium strain LT2 (LT2). Clinical signs of salmonellosis, bacterial colonization in the intestine, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), blood, liver, spleen, and lungs, histopathological changes in the ileum, claudin-1 and occludin mRNA expression in the ileum and colon, intestinal and plasma concentrations of IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 were evaluated. Both BB12 and LT2 colonized the intestine of the monoassociated piglets. BB12 did not translocate in the BB12-monoassociated piglets. BB12 was detected in some cases in the MLN of piglets, consequently infected with LT2, but reduced LT2 counts in the ileum and liver of these piglets. LT2 damaged the luminal structure of the ileum, but a previous association with BB12 mildly alleviated these changes. LT2 infection upregulated claudin-1 mRNA in the ileum and colon and downregulated occludin mRNA in the colon. Infection with LT2 increased levels of IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 in the intestine and plasma, and BB12 mildly downregulated them compared to LT2 alone. Despite reductions in bacterial translocation and inflammatory cytokines, clinical signs of LT2 infection were not significantly affected by the probiotic BB12. Thus, we hypothesize that multistrain bacterial colonization of preterm gnotobiotic piglets may be needed to enhance the protective effect against the infection with S. Typhimurium LT2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Article
Novel Ex Vivo Model to Examine the Mechanism and Relationship of Esophageal Microbiota and Disease
Biomedicines 2021, 9(2), 142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines9020142 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 549
Abstract
Rates of esophageal cancer have increased over the last 40 years. Recent clinical research has identified correlations between the esophageal microbiome and disease. However, mechanisms of action have been difficult to elucidate performing human experimentation. We propose an ex vivo model, which mimics [...] Read more.
Rates of esophageal cancer have increased over the last 40 years. Recent clinical research has identified correlations between the esophageal microbiome and disease. However, mechanisms of action have been difficult to elucidate performing human experimentation. We propose an ex vivo model, which mimics the esophagus and is ideal for mechanistic studies on the esophageal microbiome and resultant transcriptome. To determine the microbiome and transcriptome profile of the human distal esophagus, the microbiome was assessed in 74 patients and the transcriptome profile was assessed in 37 patients with and without Barrett’s esophagus. Thereafter, an ex vivo model of the esophagus was created using an air–liquid interfaced (ALI) design. This design created a sterile apical surface and a nutrient-rich basal surface. An epithelial layer was grown on the apical surface. A normal microbiome and Barrett’s microbiome was harvested and created from patients during endoscopic examination of the esophagus. There was a distinct microbiome in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. The ex vivo model was successfully created with a squamous epithelial layer on the apical surface of the ex vivo system. Using this ex vivo model, multiple normal esophageal and Barrett’s esophageal cell lines will be created and used for experimentation. Each microbiome will be inoculated onto the sterile apical surface of each cell line. The resultant microbiome and transcriptome profile on each surface will be measured and compared to results in the human esophagus to determine the mechanism of the microbiome interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Article
Isolation of a Lactobacillus paracasei Strain with Probiotic Attributes from Kefir Grains
Biomedicines 2020, 8(12), 594; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines8120594 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
Κefir is a rich source of potentially probiotic bacteria. In the present study, firstly, in vitro screening for probiotic characteristics of ten lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kefir grains was performed. Strain AGR 4 was selected for further studies. Molecular characterization of [...] Read more.
Κefir is a rich source of potentially probiotic bacteria. In the present study, firstly, in vitro screening for probiotic characteristics of ten lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kefir grains was performed. Strain AGR 4 was selected for further studies. Molecular characterization of strain AGR 4, confirmed that AGR 4 belongs to the Lactobacillus paracasei (reclassified to Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei) species. Further testing revealed that L. paracasei AGR 4 displayed adhesion capacity on human adenocarcinoma cells, HT-29, similar to that of the reference strain, L. casei ATCC 393. In addition, the novel strain exerted significant time- and dose-dependent antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cells and human melanoma cell line, A375, as demonstrated by the sulforhodamine B cytotoxicity assay. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to investigate the mechanism of cellular death; however, it was found that AGR 4 did not act by inducing cell cycle arrest and/or apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these findings promote the probiotic character of the newly isolated strain L. paracasei AGR 4, while further studies are needed for the detailed description of its biological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Article
Perinatal Resveratrol Therapy Prevents Hypertension Programmed by Maternal Chronic Kidney Disease in Adult Male Offspring: Implications of the Gut Microbiome and Their Metabolites
Biomedicines 2020, 8(12), 567; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines8120567 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
The gut microbiota plays a critical role in kidney disease and hypertension; however, whether maternal chronic kidney disease (CKD)-induced offspring hypertension is associated with alterations of the microbiota and microbial metabolites remains elusive. Using rat as an animal model, we conducted a maternal [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota plays a critical role in kidney disease and hypertension; however, whether maternal chronic kidney disease (CKD)-induced offspring hypertension is associated with alterations of the microbiota and microbial metabolites remains elusive. Using rat as an animal model, we conducted a maternal adenine-induced CKD model to examine whether adult male offspring develop hypertension and kidney disease. As resveratrol has antioxidant and prebiotic properties, we also aimed to elucidate whether its use in pregnancy and lactation can benefit hypertension programmed by maternal CKD via mediation of the gut microbiota and oxidative stress. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow (C) or chow supplemented with 0.5% adenine (CKD) from 3 weeks before pregnancy until lactation. One group of the adenine-induced CKD pregnant rats received resveratrol (R; 50 mg/L) in drinking water during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were divided into three groups: C, CKD, and CKD+R. The microbial metabolites analyzed were short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces and trimethylamine (TMA)/trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in plasma. We found perinatal resveratrol therapy protected against maternal CKD-induced hypertension in adult male offspring. The overall microbial compositions and diversity of bacterial community in the three groups were different. Resveratrol therapy increased α-diversity, decreased the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, and increased the abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Perinatal resveratrol therapy increased plasma TMA levels but decreased the plasma TMAO-to-TMA ratio. Although resveratrol had negligible effect on fecal concentrations of SCFAs, it increased G-protein coupled receptor-41 (GPR41) protein levels in the offspring’s kidneys. Additionally, resveratrol therapy increased plasma levels of L-arginine and the L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio (AAR), and decreased oxidative stress. Overall, the protective effects of resveratrol against programmed hypertension are related to gut microbiome remodeling, including an increased abundance of beneficial microbes, mediation of the TMA-TMAO pathway, and alterations of SCFA receptors. Our results highlighted that targeting the microbiome and their metabolites might be potential therapeutic strategies to prevent maternal CKD-induced adverse pregnancy and offspring outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Article
Microbiota in Clostridioides difficile-Associated Diarrhea: Comparison in Recurrent and Non-Recurrent Infections
Biomedicines 2020, 8(9), 335; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines8090335 - 08 Sep 2020
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Abstract
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized elderly patients, representing a global public health concern. Clinical presentations vary from mild diarrhea to severe pseudomembranous colitis that may progress to toxic megacolon or intestinal perforation. Antibiotic therapy [...] Read more.
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized elderly patients, representing a global public health concern. Clinical presentations vary from mild diarrhea to severe pseudomembranous colitis that may progress to toxic megacolon or intestinal perforation. Antibiotic therapy is recognized as a risk factor and exacerbates dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, whose role in CDI is increasingly acknowledged. A clinically challenging complication is the development of recurrent disease (rCDI). In this study, using amplicon metagenomics, we compared the fecal microbiota of CDI and rCDI patients (sampled at initial and recurrent episode) and of non-infected controls. We also investigated whether CDI severity relates to specific microbiota compositions. rCDI patients showed a significantly decreased bacterial diversity as compared to controls (p < 0.01). The taxonomic composition presented significant shifts: both CDI and rCDI patients displayed significantly increased frequencies of Firmicutes, Peptostreptococcaceae, Clostridium XI, Clostridium XVIII, and Enterococcaceae. Porphyromonadaceae and, within it, Parabacteroides displayed opposite behaviors in CDI and rCDI, appearing discriminant between the two. Finally, the second episode of rCDI was characterized by significant shifts of unclassified Clostridiales, Escherichia/Shigella and Veillonella. No peculiar taxa composition correlated with the severity of infection, likely reflecting the role of host-related factors in determining severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Article
Exploring the Role of Gut Microbiota in Major Depressive Disorder and in Treatment Resistance to Antidepressants
Biomedicines 2020, 8(9), 311; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines8090311 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common severe psychiatric illness, exhibiting sub-optimal response to existing pharmacological treatments. Although its etiopathogenesis is still not completely understood, recent findings suggest that an altered composition of the gut microbiota might play a role. Here we aimed [...] Read more.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common severe psychiatric illness, exhibiting sub-optimal response to existing pharmacological treatments. Although its etiopathogenesis is still not completely understood, recent findings suggest that an altered composition of the gut microbiota might play a role. Here we aimed to explore potential differences in the composition of the gut microbiota between patients with MDD and healthy controls (HC) and to identify possible signatures of treatment response by analyzing two groups of MDD patients characterized as treatment-resistant (TR) or responders (R) to antidepressants. Stool samples were collected from 34 MDD patients (8 TR, 19 R and 7 untreated) and 20 HC. Microbiota was characterized using the 16S metagenomic approach. A penalized logistic regression analysis algorithm was applied to identify bacterial populations that best discriminate the diagnostic groups. Statistically significant differences were identified for the families of Paenibacillaceae and Flavobacteriaceaea, for the genus Fenollaria, and the species Flintibacter butyricus, Christensenella timonensis, and Eisenbergiella massiliensis among others. The phyla Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and the family Peptostreptococcaceae were more abundant in TR, whereas the phylum Actinobacteria was enriched in R patients. Moreover, a number of bacteria only characterized the microbiota of TR patients, and many others were only detected in R. Our results confirm that dysbiosis is a hallmark of MDD and suggest that microbiota of TR patients significantly differs from responders to antidepressants. This finding further supports the relevance of an altered composition of the gut microbiota in the etiopathogenesis of MDD, suggesting a role in response to antidepressants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Article
The Effectiveness of Multi-Session FMT Treatment in Active Ulcerative Colitis Patients: A Pilot Study
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 268; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines8080268 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
The modification of the microbiome through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming a very promising therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our pilot study aimed to assess the effectiveness of multi-session FMT treatment in active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Ten patients [...] Read more.
The modification of the microbiome through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming a very promising therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our pilot study aimed to assess the effectiveness of multi-session FMT treatment in active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Ten patients with UC were treated with multi-session FMT (200 mL) from healthy donors, via colonoscopy/gastroscopy. Patients were evaluated as follows: at baseline, at week 7, and after 6 months, routine blood tests (including C reactive protein (CRP) and calprotectin) were performed. 16S rRNA gene (V3V4) sequencing was used for metagenomic analysis. The severity of UC was classified based on the Truelove–Witts index. The assessment of microbial diversity showed significant differences between recipients and healthy donors. FMT contributed to long-term, significant clinical and biochemical improvement. Metagenomic analysis revealed an increase in the amount of Lactobacillaceaea, Micrococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, and TM7 phylumsp.oral clone EW055 during FMT, whereas Staphylococcaceae and Bacillaceae declined significantly. A positive increase in the proportion of the genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Rothia, Streptococcus, and Veillonella and a decrease in Bacillus, Bacteroides, and Staphylococcus were observed based on the correlation between calprotectin and Bacillus and Staphylococcus; ferritin and Lactobacillus, Veillonella, and Bifidobacterium abundance was indicated. A positive change in the abundance of Firmicutes was observed during FMT and after 6 months. The application of multi-session FMT led to the restoration of recipients’ microbiota and resulted in the remission of patients with active UC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Article
Air Contamination in Different Departments of a Tertiary Hospital. Assessment of Microbial Load and of Antimicrobial Susceptibility
Biomedicines 2020, 8(6), 163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines8060163 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
Air contamination in the hospital setting can be a reason for the spread of nosocomial infection among susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to identify bacterial species, and their load and drug resistance, in the air of a tertiary hospital. Air [...] Read more.
Air contamination in the hospital setting can be a reason for the spread of nosocomial infection among susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to identify bacterial species, and their load and drug resistance, in the air of a tertiary hospital. Air samples were collected on a monthly basis for 12 consecutive months in four different departments of the hospital (Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Internal Medicine Ward (IMW), Surgical Ward (SW), and Neonatal Unit (NU)). In total, 101 samples were collected, out of which 158 Gram-positive (GP) and 44 Gram-negative (GN) strains were isolated. The majority of GP isolates were Staphylococcus spp. (n = 100). The highest total microbial load was reported in the IMW (p = 0.005), while the highest Staphylococcus load was observed in the ICU (p = 0.018). GP bacterial load was higher in autumn, while GN load was higher in spring. Regarding drug resistance, four multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains and one extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strain were isolated in the ICU, two MDR strains and one XDR strain in the SW, one MDR strain in the IMW and one MDR strain in the NU samples. Air in hospital settings is contaminated with various microbes; some of them are MDR, consisting a potential cause of hospital-acquired infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Article
Probiotics-Containing Yogurt Ingestion and H. pylori Eradication Can Restore Fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Dysbiosis in H. pylori-Infected Children
Biomedicines 2020, 8(6), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines8060146 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
This study investigated the compositional differences in fecal microbiota between children with and without H. pylori infection and tested whether probiotics-containing yogurt and bacterial eradication improve H. pylori-related dysbiosis. Ten H. pylori-infected children and 10 controls ingested probiotics-containing yogurt for 4 [...] Read more.
This study investigated the compositional differences in fecal microbiota between children with and without H. pylori infection and tested whether probiotics-containing yogurt and bacterial eradication improve H. pylori-related dysbiosis. Ten H. pylori-infected children and 10 controls ingested probiotics-containing yogurt for 4 weeks. Ten-day triple therapy plus yogurt was given to the infected children on the 4th week. Fecal samples were collected at enrollment, after yogurt ingestion, and 4 weeks after successful H. pylori eradication for cytokines and microbiota analysis using ELISA and metagenomic sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. The results showed H. pylori-infected children had significantly higher levels of fecal TGF-β1 than those who were not infected. Eight of 295 significantly altered OTUs in the H. pylori-infected children were identified. Among them, the abundance of F. prausnitzii was significantly lower in the H. pylori-infected children, and then increased after yogurt ingestion and successful bacterial eradication. We further confirmed probiotics promoted F. prausnitzii growth in vitro and in ex vivo using real-time PCR. Moreover, F. prausnitzii supernatant significantly ameliorated lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 in HT-29 cells. In conclusions, Probiotics-containing yogurt ingestion and H. pylori eradication can restore the decrease of fecal F. prausnitzii in H. pylori-infected children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Review

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Review
The Role of Microbiome and Virome in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Biomedicines 2021, 9(4), 442; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines9040442 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 998
Abstract
The interest in the lung microbiome and virome and their contribution to the pathogenesis, perpetuation and progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been increasing during the last decade. The utilization of high-throughput sequencing to detect microbial and/or viral genetic material in bronchoalveolar [...] Read more.
The interest in the lung microbiome and virome and their contribution to the pathogenesis, perpetuation and progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been increasing during the last decade. The utilization of high-throughput sequencing to detect microbial and/or viral genetic material in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue samples has amplified the ability to identify and quantify specific microbial and viral populations. In stable IPF, higher microbial burden is associated with worse prognosis but no specific microbe has been identified to contribute to this. Additionally, no causative relation has been established. Regarding viral infections, although in the past they have been associated with IPF, causation has not been proved. Although in the past the diagnosis of acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) was not considered in patients with overt infection, this was amended in the last few years and infection is considered a cause for exacerbation. Besides this, a higher microbial burden has been found in the lungs of patients with AE-IPF and an association with higher morbidity and mortality has been confirmed. In contrast, an association of AE-IPF with viral infection has not been established. Despite the progress during the last decade, a comprehensive knowledge of the microbiome and virome in IPF and their role in disease pathogenesis are yet elusive. Although association with disease severity, risk for progression and mortality has been established, causation has not been proven and the potential use as a biomarker or the benefits of antimicrobial therapeutic strategies are yet to be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Review
The Potential Relevance of the Microbiome to Hair Physiology and Regeneration: The Emerging Role of Metagenomics
Biomedicines 2021, 9(3), 236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines9030236 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Human skin and hair follicles are recognized sites of microbial colonization. These microbiota help regulate host immune mechanisms via an interplay between microbes and immune cells, influencing homeostasis and inflammation. Bacteria affect immune responses by controlling the local inflammatory milieu, the breakdown of [...] Read more.
Human skin and hair follicles are recognized sites of microbial colonization. These microbiota help regulate host immune mechanisms via an interplay between microbes and immune cells, influencing homeostasis and inflammation. Bacteria affect immune responses by controlling the local inflammatory milieu, the breakdown of which can result in chronic inflammatory disorders. Follicular microbiome shifts described in some inflammatory cutaneous diseases suggest a link between their development or perpetuation and dysbiosis. Though the hair follicle infundibulum is an area of intense immunological interactions, bulb and bulge regions represent immune-privileged niches. Immune privilege maintenance seems essential for hair growth and regeneration, as collapse and inflammation characterize inflammatory hair disorders like alopecia areata and primary cicatricial alopecia. Current research largely focuses on immunological aberrations. However, studies suggest that external stimuli and interactions across the follicular epithelium can have profound effects on the local immune system, homeostasis, and cycling. Herein, we review hair follicle bacterial colonization, its possible effects on the underlying tissue, and links to the pathogenesis of alopecia, beyond the pure investigation of specific species abundance. As skin microbiology enters the metagenomics era, multi-dimensional approaches will enable a new level of investigations on the effects of microorganisms and metabolism on host tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Review
Effects of Antibiotics upon the Gut Microbiome: A Review of the Literature
Biomedicines 2020, 8(11), 502; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines8110502 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
The human gastrointestinal tract carries a large number of microorganisms associated with complex metabolic processes and interactions. Although antibiotic treatment is crucial for combating infections, its negative effects on the intestinal microbiota and host immunity have been shown to be of the utmost [...] Read more.
The human gastrointestinal tract carries a large number of microorganisms associated with complex metabolic processes and interactions. Although antibiotic treatment is crucial for combating infections, its negative effects on the intestinal microbiota and host immunity have been shown to be of the utmost importance. Multiple studies have recognized the adverse consequences of antibiotic use upon the gut microbiome in adults and neonates, causing dysbiosis of the microbiota. Repeated antibiotic treatments in clinical care or low-dosage intake from food could be contributing factors in this issue. Researchers in both human and animal studies have strived to explain this multifaceted relationship. The present review intends to elucidate the axis of the gastrointestinal microbiota and antibiotics resistance and to highlight the main aspects of the issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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Review
Mediterranean Diet as a Tool to Combat Inflammation and Chronic Diseases. An Overview
Biomedicines 2020, 8(7), 201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/biomedicines8070201 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
Since ancient times, the quality of nourishment is a milestone for the maintenance of health and as it is stated ‘prevention is better than cure’, amongst the so-called ‘healthy’ diets Mediterranean diet (MD) claims the lion’s share. It stands in good stead because [...] Read more.
Since ancient times, the quality of nourishment is a milestone for the maintenance of health and as it is stated ‘prevention is better than cure’, amongst the so-called ‘healthy’ diets Mediterranean diet (MD) claims the lion’s share. It stands in good stead because of a variety of valuable macro- and micronutrients. So, adherence to a MD is associated with the reduction of inflammation and non-communicable (NCD) OR chronic diseases. Numerous studies try to scrutinize the role of MD components as regards reducing inflammation, lowering rate, and mortality for disorders and illnesses, and preventing NCD. MD regime of the inhabitants of the Mediterranean basin includes a variety of ethnic nutritional habits and regulates an array of effects and epigenetic changes that affect human wellbeing. The research is still ongoing and endeavors to elucidate every aspect of this issue. This review focuses on the impact of MD on inflammation highlights positive results regarding NCD and indicates the need for more high-quality experiments and trials in order to overcome any discrepancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
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