Special Issue "Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensory and Motor Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Filipe Manuel Clemente
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, School of Sport and Leisure, 4960-320 Melgaço, Portugal
Interests: football; soccer; match analysis; performance analysis; network analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sports and exercise have been related to acute and chronic changes in brain health and function. Regular exercise has been used as a non-pharmacological approach for protecting brain health while improving some brain functions. With benefits oberserved in young and old individuals and healthy and clinical populations, sports and exercise seem to play an important role in contributing to brain health and function. Despite some evidence regarding the contributions of sports and exercise to brain health and function, there is an increasing number of original research papers and systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis that may help professionals to identify which types of sport and exercise are suitable for specific improvements and the adequate duration of carrying out such activities. Additionally, there is space for further analysis of the contribution of sports and exercise to both the improvement of efficiency in work and to the mitigation of the effects of specific neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the Special Issue “Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise” will include contributions from different areas of knowledge that may asssist in improving our understand ing of the relationships between sports and exercise and brain health and function. Original studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis on the following main topics are welcome (but not exclusively): (i) role of exercise in neurodegenerative diseases; (ii) role of sport and exercise in cognitive performance; (iii) role of sport and exercise in brain health; (iv) effects of different sport and exercise modes on brain function and health; and (v) dose–response relationships between exercise and brain health and function. 

Dr. Filipe Manuel Clemente
Dr. Ana Filipa Silva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sports
  • exercise
  • physical activity
  • brain health
  • brain function
  • brain activity
  • dose–response relationship

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Balance Expertise Is Associated with Superior Spatial Perspective-Taking Skills
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(11), 1401; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11111401 - 24 Oct 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Balance training interventions over several months have been shown to improve spatial cognitive functions and to induce structural plasticity in brain regions associated with visual-vestibular self-motion processing. In the present cross-sectional study, we tested whether long-term balance practice is associated with better spatial [...] Read more.
Balance training interventions over several months have been shown to improve spatial cognitive functions and to induce structural plasticity in brain regions associated with visual-vestibular self-motion processing. In the present cross-sectional study, we tested whether long-term balance practice is associated with better spatial cognition. To this end, spatial perspective-taking abilities were compared between balance experts (n = 40) practicing sports such as gymnastics, acrobatics or slacklining for at least four hours a week for the last two years, endurance athletes (n = 38) and sedentary healthy individuals (n = 58). The balance group showed better performance in a dynamic balance task compared to both the endurance group and the sedentary group. Furthermore, the balance group outperformed the sedentary group in a spatial perspective-taking task. A regression analysis across all participants revealed a positive association between individual balance performance and spatial perspective-taking abilities. Groups did not differ in executive functions, and individual balance performance did not correlate with executive functions, suggesting a specific association between balance skills and spatial cognition. The results are in line with theories of embodied cognition, assuming that sensorimotor experience shapes cognitive functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Article
Impact of Long-Rope Jumping on Monoamine and Attention in Young Adults
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(10), 1347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11101347 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Previous research has shown that rope jumping improves physical health; however, little is known about its impact on brain-derived monoamine neurotransmitters associated with cognitive regulation. To address these gaps in the literature, the present study compared outcomes between 15 healthy participants (mean age, [...] Read more.
Previous research has shown that rope jumping improves physical health; however, little is known about its impact on brain-derived monoamine neurotransmitters associated with cognitive regulation. To address these gaps in the literature, the present study compared outcomes between 15 healthy participants (mean age, 23.1 years) after a long-rope jumping exercise and a control condition. Long-rope jumping also requires co-operation between people, attention, spatial cognition, and rhythm sensation. Psychological questionnaires were administered to both conditions, and Stroop task performance and monoamine metabolite levels in the saliva and urine were evaluated. Participants performing the exercise exhibited lower anxiety levels than those in the control condition. Saliva analyses showed higher 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (a norepinephrine metabolite) levels, and urine analyses revealed higher 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (a serotonin metabolite) levels in the exercise condition than in the control. Importantly, urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid level correlated with salivary and urinary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol levels in the exercise condition. Furthermore, cognitive results revealed higher Stroop performance in the exercise condition than in the control condition; this performance correlated with salivary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol levels. These results indicate an association between increased 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and attention in long-rope jumping. We suggest that long-rope jumping predicts central norepinephrinergic activation and related attention maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Article
Influence of Aerobic Fitness on White Matter Integrity and Inhibitory Control in Early Adulthood: A 9-Week Exercise Intervention
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(8), 1080; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11081080 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Previous cross-sectional studies have related aerobic fitness to inhibitory control and white matter (WM) microstructure in young adults, but there is no longitudinal study to confirm whether these relationships exist. We carried out a longitudinal study comparing aerobic fitness, inhibitory control, and WM [...] Read more.
Previous cross-sectional studies have related aerobic fitness to inhibitory control and white matter (WM) microstructure in young adults, but there is no longitudinal study to confirm whether these relationships exist. We carried out a longitudinal study comparing aerobic fitness, inhibitory control, and WM integrity across time points, before versus after completing an exercise intervention in young adults (18–20 years old) relative to a control group. The exercise group (n = 35) participated in a 9-week exercise protocol, while the control group (n = 24) did not receive any regular exercise training. Behavioral data and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were collected prior to and following the intervention. After the exercise intervention, aerobic fitness and inhibitory control performance were significantly improved for the exercise group, but not for the control group. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) of the DTI data demonstrated significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right corticospinal tract and significantly decreased FA in the left superior fronto-occipital fasciculus in the exercise group after the intervention versus before. The enhanced aerobic fitness induced by exercise was associated with better inhibitory control performance in the incongruent condition and lower FA in the Left superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFOF). Regression analysis of a mediation model did not support Left SFOF FA as a mediator of the relationship between improvements in aerobic fitness and inhibitory control. The present data provide new evidence of the relationship between exercise-induced changes in aerobic fitness, WM integrity, and inhibitory control in early adulthood. Longer-duration intervention studies with larger study cohorts are needed to confirm and further explore the findings obtained in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Article
Pupillometry Reveals the Role of Arousal in a Postexercise Benefit to Executive Function
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(8), 1048; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11081048 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
A single bout of aerobic exercise improves executive function; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this improvement remains unclear. Here, we employed a 20-min bout of aerobic exercise, and at pre- and immediate post-exercise sessions examined executive function via pro- (i.e., saccade to veridical target [...] Read more.
A single bout of aerobic exercise improves executive function; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this improvement remains unclear. Here, we employed a 20-min bout of aerobic exercise, and at pre- and immediate post-exercise sessions examined executive function via pro- (i.e., saccade to veridical target location) and anti-saccade (i.e., saccade mirror symmetrical to a target) performance and pupillometry metrics. Notably, tonic and phasic pupillometry responses in oculomotor control provided a framework to determine the degree that arousal and/or executive resource recruitment influence behavior. Results demonstrated a pre- to post-exercise decrease in pro- and anti-saccade reaction times (p = 0.01) concurrent with a decrease and increase in tonic baseline pupil size and task-evoked pupil dilations, respectively (ps < 0.03). Such results demonstrate that an exercise-induced improvement in saccade performance is related to an executive-mediated “shift” in physiological and/or psychological arousal, supported by the locus coeruleus norepinephrine system to optimize task engagement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Article
Regular Vigorous-Intensity Physical Activity and Walking Are Associated with Divergent but not Convergent Thinking in Japanese Young Adults
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(8), 1046; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11081046 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
The beneficial effects of regular physical activity (PA) on cognitive functions have received much attention. Recent research suggests that regular PA may also enhance creative thinking, an indispensable cognitive factor for invention and innovation. However, at what intensity regular PA brings the most [...] Read more.
The beneficial effects of regular physical activity (PA) on cognitive functions have received much attention. Recent research suggests that regular PA may also enhance creative thinking, an indispensable cognitive factor for invention and innovation. However, at what intensity regular PA brings the most benefits to creative thinking remains uninvestigated. Furthermore, whether the levels of regular PA affect the acute PA effects on creative thinking is also unclear. In the present study, using a previous dataset that investigated the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on creative thinking in healthy Japanese young adults (22.98 ± 1.95 years old) in the year 2020, we tested the association between different intensities of regular PA (i.e., vigorous, moderate, and walking) and creative thinking with the cross-sectional baseline data using multiple linear regression. We also investigated whether regular PA levels were associated with the acute aerobic exercise intervention effects on creative thinking. The results showed that cross-sectionally, the regular PAs were differentially associated with divergent but not convergent thinking. Specifically, whereas the amount of vigorous-intensity PA was positively associated with fluency and flexibility, the amount of walking was positively associated with novelty on the alternate uses test (AUT) measuring divergent thinking. Importantly, the explained variances of fluency, flexibility, and novelty were 20.3% (p = 0.040), 18.8% (p = 0.055), and 20.1% (p = 0.043), respectively. None of the regular PAs predicted convergent thinking (i.e., an insight problem-solving task), nor were they associated with the acute aerobic exercise intervention effects on divergent and convergent thinking. These findings suggest that engaging in regular vigorous-intensity PA and walking may be useful strategies to enhance different aspects of divergent thinking in daily life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Article
Higher Handgrip Strength Is Linked to Better Cognitive Performance in Chinese Adults with Hypertension
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(8), 985; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11080985 - 25 Jul 2021
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Objective: There is growing evidence that in adults, higher levels of handgrip strength (HGS) are linked to better cognitive performance. However, the relationship between HGS and cognitive performance has not been sufficiently investigated in special cohorts, such as individuals with hypertension who have [...] Read more.
Objective: There is growing evidence that in adults, higher levels of handgrip strength (HGS) are linked to better cognitive performance. However, the relationship between HGS and cognitive performance has not been sufficiently investigated in special cohorts, such as individuals with hypertension who have an intrinsically higher risk of cognitive decline. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between HGS and cognitive performance in adults with hypertension using data from the Global Ageing and Adult Health Survey (SAGE). Methods: A total of 4486 Chinese adults with hypertension from the SAGE were included in this study. Absolute handgrip strength (aHGS in kilograms) was measured using a handheld electronic dynamometer, and cognitive performance was assessed in the domains of short-term memory, delayed memory, and language ability. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to examine the association between relative handgrip strength (rHGS; aHGS divided by body mass index) and measures of cognitive performance. Results: Overall, higher levels of rHGS were associated with higher scores in short-term memory (β = 0.20) and language (β = 0.63) compared with the lowest tertiles of rHGS. In male participants, higher HGS was associated with higher scores in short-term memory (β = 0.31), language (β = 0.64), and delayed memory (β = 0.22). There were no associations between rHGS and cognitive performance measures in females. Conclusion: We observed that a higher level of rHGS was associated with better cognitive performance among hypertensive male individuals. Further studies are needed to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms, including sex-specific differences driving the relationship between measures of HGS and cognitive performance in individuals with hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
Article
Using Brain-Breaks® as a Technology Tool to Increase Attitude towards Physical Activity among Students in Singapore
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(6), 784; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11060784 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of classroom-based Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solution in Southeast Asia Singaporean primary school students and their attitude towards physical activity (PA) over a ten-week intervention. A total of 113 participants (8–11 years [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of classroom-based Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solution in Southeast Asia Singaporean primary school students and their attitude towards physical activity (PA) over a ten-week intervention. A total of 113 participants (8–11 years old) were randomly assigned to either an experimental (EG) or a control group (CG), with six classes to each group; the Brain Breaks® group (EG: six classes) and the Control group (CG: six classes). All EG members participated in a Brain Breaks® video intervention (three–five min) during academic classes and the CG continued their lessons as per normal. The student’s attitudes towards PA in both research conditions were evaluated using the self–reported Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale (APAS), applied before and after intervention. The effects of the intervention on APAS scores were analysed using a mixed model analysis of variance with Time as within-subject and Group as between-subject factors. The analysis revealed evidence in support of the positive effect of classroom video interventions such as Brain Breaks® on student’s attitudes toward benefits, importance, learning, self-efficacy, fun, fitness, and trying to do their personal best in PA. The Brain Breaks® intervention provided a positive significant impact on students in Singapore. This study also revealed that interactive technology tools implemented into the school curriculum benefit students in terms of health and education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Article
Physical Activity and Inhibitory Control: The Mediating Role of Sleep Quality and Sleep Efficiency
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(5), 664; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11050664 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
Objectives: the current study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) level and inhibitory control performance and then to determine whether this association was mediated by multiple sleep parameters (i.e., subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and sleep disturbance). Methods: [...] Read more.
Objectives: the current study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) level and inhibitory control performance and then to determine whether this association was mediated by multiple sleep parameters (i.e., subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and sleep disturbance). Methods: 180 healthy university students (age: 20.15 ± 1.92 years) from the East China Normal University were recruited for the present study. PA level, sleep parameters, and inhibitory control performance were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale (PSQI), and a Stroop test, respectively. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results: A higher level of PA was linked to better cognitive performance. Furthermore, higher subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency were associated with better inhibitory control performance. The mediation analysis revealed that subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediated the relationship between PA level and inhibitory control performance. Conclusion: our results are in accordance with the literature and buttress the idea that a healthy lifestyle that involves a relatively high level of regular PA and adequate sleep patterns is beneficial for cognition (e.g., inhibitory control performance). Furthermore, our study adds to the literature that sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediates the relationship between PA and inhibitory control performance, expanding our knowledge in the field of exercise cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Article
The Effect of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Divergent and Convergent Thinking and Its Influence by Mood
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(5), 546; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11050546 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
Abundant evidence shows that various forms of physical exercise, even conducted briefly, may improve cognitive functions. However, the effect of physical exercise on creative thinking remains under-investigated, and the role of mood in this effect remains unclear. In the present study, we set [...] Read more.
Abundant evidence shows that various forms of physical exercise, even conducted briefly, may improve cognitive functions. However, the effect of physical exercise on creative thinking remains under-investigated, and the role of mood in this effect remains unclear. In the present study, we set out to investigate the effect of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on divergent and convergent thinking and whether this effect depends on the post-exercise mood. Forty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to receive a 15-min exercise or control intervention, before and after which they conducted an alternate use test measuring divergent thinking and an insight problem-solving task measuring convergent thinking. It was found that exercise enhanced divergent thinking in that it increased flexibility and fluency. Importantly, these effects were not mediated by the post-exercise mood in terms of pleasure and vigor. In contrast, the effect on convergent thinking depended on subjects’ mood after exercise: subjects reporting high vigor tended to solve more insight problems that were unsolved previously, while those reporting low vigor became less capable of solving previously unsolved problems. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may affect both divergent and convergent thinking, with the former being mood-independent and the latter mood-dependent. If these findings can be replicated with more rigorous studies, engaging in a bout of mood, particularly vigor-enhancing aerobic exercise, may be considered a useful strategy for gaining insights into previously unsolved problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Review

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Review
Concurrent Performance of Executive Function during Acute Bouts of Exercise in Adults: A Systematic Review
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(10), 1364; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11101364 - 17 Oct 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to systematically review the evidence on the effects of an acute bout of exercise on concurrent performance of core executive function (EF) during exercise in adults. Four electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and SportDiscus) [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to systematically review the evidence on the effects of an acute bout of exercise on concurrent performance of core executive function (EF) during exercise in adults. Four electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and SportDiscus) were searched from inception dates to 30 December 2020. The literature searches were conducted using the combinations of two groups of relevant items related to exercise and executive function. Articles were limited to human studies in adults. The search process, study selection, data extraction, and study quality assessments were carried out independently by two researchers. A total of 4899 studies were identified. Twenty-two studies met our inclusion criteria. Of the 42 reported outcomes in the 22 studies, 13 (31%) of the 42 outcomes showed that core EF performance was enhanced during exercise and 14 (33%) found that core EF performance did not differ from control conditions. Fifteen (36%) found that core EF performance was impaired. Notably, improved EF performances tend to be observed during moderate-intensity exercise, whereas impaired EF performances were more likely to be observed at vigorous-high intensity. The review suggests mixed findings regarding the effects of an acute bout of exercise on concurrent performance of core EF. Exercise intensity seems to influence the effects. The underlying neural mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Other

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Systematic Review
Depressive Symptoms and Burnout in Football Players: A Systematic Review
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(10), 1351; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11101351 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 762
Abstract
The purpose of this article was to systematically review and organise the available literature devoted to the topic of depressive symptoms and burnout in football players. A systematic search was conducted in Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTdiscus, PubMed, and Psychinfo for articles published [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article was to systematically review and organise the available literature devoted to the topic of depressive symptoms and burnout in football players. A systematic search was conducted in Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTdiscus, PubMed, and Psychinfo for articles published up to June 2020. The searches yielded 1589 articles, and after the screening process, a total of 18 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included for review. Playing position and conflicts with coach/management seems to have a direct influence on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in current players as do the injuries and life events of former players. During the pre-competition phase, most of the athletes displayed reduced rates, indicating burnout. An exploration of the mental health of football players will help to create models of care and guide professionals so that they may help players achieve better performance while also having better wellbeing. Understanding how to prevent and cope with the emotional wellbeing of football players will be possible to guide players and coaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Systematic Review
Active School Breaks and Students’ Attention: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(6), 675; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11060675 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
School physical activity breaks are currently being proposed as a way to improve students’ learning. However, there is no clear evidence of the effects of active school breaks on academic-related cognitive outcomes. The present systematic review with meta-analysis scrutinized and synthesized the literature [...] Read more.
School physical activity breaks are currently being proposed as a way to improve students’ learning. However, there is no clear evidence of the effects of active school breaks on academic-related cognitive outcomes. The present systematic review with meta-analysis scrutinized and synthesized the literature related to the effects of active breaks on students’ attention. On January 12th, 2021, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science were searched for published interventions with counterbalanced cross-over or parallel-groups designs with a control group, including school-based active breaks, objective attentional outcomes, and healthy students of any age. Studies’ results were qualitatively synthesized, and meta-analyses were performed if at least three study groups provided pre-post data for the same measure. Results showed some positive acute and chronic effects of active breaks on attentional outcomes (i.e., accuracy, concentration, inhibition, and sustained attention), especially on selective attention. However, most of the results were not significant. The small number of included studies and their heterogeneous design are the primary limitations of the present study. Although the results do not clearly point out the positive effects of active breaks, they do not compromise students’ attention. The key roles of intensity and the leader of the active break are discussed. INPLASY registration number: 202110054. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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Study Protocol
Effects of Open-Skill Exercises on Cognition on Community Dwelling Older Adults: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(5), 609; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/brainsci11050609 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 717
Abstract
(1) Cognitive function may benefit from physical exercise in older adults. However, controversy remains over which mode of exercise is more beneficial. (2) The aim of the proposed study is to investigate the effect of open-skill exercise training on cognitive function in community [...] Read more.
(1) Cognitive function may benefit from physical exercise in older adults. However, controversy remains over which mode of exercise is more beneficial. (2) The aim of the proposed study is to investigate the effect of open-skill exercise training on cognitive function in community dwelling older adults compared with closed-skill exercise, cognitive training, and active control. (3) One hundred and sixty participants, aged between 60 and 80 years old, will be recruited from community senior centers in Yangzhou, China and randomly assigned to one of four groups: open-skill exercise group, closed-skill exercise group, mobile game playing group, and active control group. All participants will join a 24-week program involving 50 min sessions three times a week. The primary outcome measure is visuospatial working memory. Secondary measures include subjective memory complaint, attention network, nonverbal reasoning ability, and physical activities. All participants will be measured before, mid-way, and immediately after intervention, and three months later. (4) If successful, this study is expected to provide evidence-based recommendations for older adults to select the most efficient and effective mode of exercise to improve cognitive function. Importantly, the three intervention groups provide an opportunity to separate the cognitive activity component from the physical activity component. Comparison of these components is expected to help elucidate possible mechanisms contributing to the additional cognitive benefit of open-skill exercises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise)
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