Special Issue "2D Ultrathin Carbon Films"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Fabrice Piazza
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanoscience Research Laboratory, Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra, Autopista Duarte Km 1 1/2, Apartado Postal 822, Santiago, Dominican Republic
Interests: carbon nanomaterials: synthesis, structure, physical properties
Dr. Marc Monthioux
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre d’Elaboration des Matériaux et d’Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS, Université de Toulouse, 29, Rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, 31055, Toulouse Cedex 4, France
Interests: carbon (nano)materials: synthesis, structure, behaviour

Special Issue Information

CARBON: THE UNBEATEN VERSATILITY!

Dear Colleagues,

We are excited to introduce this Special Issue of the Journal C, focusing on 2D ultrathin carbon films.

Although a number of 2D ultrathin carbon films have been the focus of research for quite a long time now, such as nanometer-thick amorphous carbon films for hard drive protective coating application, the field has recently experienced a surge in activity with new promising materials arising, such as twisted bi-layer graphene (2LG) and diamanoids. The outstanding physical properties of these 2D carbon materials, such as superconductivity in twisted 2LG and tunable semiconducting behavior in wide band-gap diamanoids, combined with high potentiality for green mass-production, opens the door to significant advances in a wide range of key technologies, where they can compete with more complex materials, which are more challenging to manufacture, such as transition metal dichalcogenides. One example is single-photon emission from NV centers in diamane for creating photonic qubits for quantum information processing.

The scope of the proposed Special Issue is to attract journal and review papers covering broad aspects around the topic, including calculations on formation mechanisms and physical properties, synthesis approaches, devices, characterization methods, evaluation of physical properties, and applications.

Among the materials targeted are sp3-bonded carbon-based ones: graphane, fluorographene, diamanoids (which include diamane, fluorodiamane, nitrodiamane), diamond (nanometer-thick films or membranes), amorphous carbon (single layer or nanometer-thick film), and sp2-bonded carbon-based ones: graphene, twisted bi-layer graphene, and few atomic layer graphene (<10 layers).

Prof. Dr. Fabrice Piazza
Dr. Marc Monthioux
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 2D carbon
  • Ultrathin film, nanometer-thick, membrane
  • Graphane
  • Fluorographene
  • Diamanoids
  • Diamane
  • Fluorodiamane
  • Nitrodiamane
  • Diamond
  • Amorphous carbon
  • Diamond-like carbon
  • Graphene
  • Bi-layer graphene
  • Twisted bi-layer graphene
  • Few-layer graphene

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Ultra-Thin Carbon Films: The Rise of sp3-C-Based 2D Materials?
C 2021, 7(2), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7020030 - 25 Mar 2021
Viewed by 262
Abstract
We warmly thank all the colleagues who have enthusiastically participated in the project of this Special Issue on “2D Ultra-Thin Carbon Films”, considering a globally unfavorable context characterized by (i) a myriad of publication options; (ii) strong pressure, by the highly competitive research [...] Read more.
We warmly thank all the colleagues who have enthusiastically participated in the project of this Special Issue on “2D Ultra-Thin Carbon Films”, considering a globally unfavorable context characterized by (i) a myriad of publication options; (ii) strong pressure, by the highly competitive research (and researcher) funding and evaluation system, to publish in high impact factor journals, specifically for topics of worldwide interest; and (iii) all sorts of restrictions imposed by the sanitary crisis [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Ultrathin Carbon Films)
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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Modifying Electronic and Elastic Properties of 2-Dimensional [110] Diamond by Nitrogen Substitution Cited by 1 | Viewed by 402
Abstract
One type of two-dimensional diamonds that are derived from [111] direction, so-called diamane, has been previously shown to be stabilized by N-substitution, where the passivation of dangling bonds is no longer needed. In the present work, we theoretically demonstrated that another type of [...] Read more.
One type of two-dimensional diamonds that are derived from [111] direction, so-called diamane, has been previously shown to be stabilized by N-substitution, where the passivation of dangling bonds is no longer needed. In the present work, we theoretically demonstrated that another type of two-dimensional diamonds derived from [110] direction exhibiting a washboard conformation can also be stabilized by N-substitution. Three structural models of washboard-like carbon nitrides with compositions of C6N2, C5N3, and C4N4 are studied together with the fully hydrogenated washboard-like diamane (C8H4). The result shows that the band gap of this type structure is only open the dangling bonds that are entirely diminished through N-substitution. By increasing the N content, the C11 and C22 are softer and the C33 is stiffer where their bulk modulus are in the same order, which is approximately 550 GPa. When comparing with the hydrogenated phase, the N-substituted phases have higher elastic constants and bulk modulus, suggesting that they are possibly harder than the fully hydrogenated diamane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Ultrathin Carbon Films)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Preparation and Applications of Fluorinated Graphenes
C 2021, 7(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7010020 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 568
Abstract
The present review focuses on the numerous routes for the preparation of fluorinated graphene (FG) according to the starting materials. Two strategies are considered: (i) addition of fluorine atoms on graphenes of various nature and quality and (ii) exfoliation of graphite fluoride. Chemical [...] Read more.
The present review focuses on the numerous routes for the preparation of fluorinated graphene (FG) according to the starting materials. Two strategies are considered: (i) addition of fluorine atoms on graphenes of various nature and quality and (ii) exfoliation of graphite fluoride. Chemical bonding in fluorinated graphene, related properties and a selection of applications for lubrication, energy storage, and gas sensing will then be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Ultrathin Carbon Films)
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Open AccessReview
Fully Hydrogenated and Fluorinated Bigraphenes–Diamanes: Theoretical and Experimental Studies
C 2021, 7(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7010017 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 455
Abstract
Diamanes are 2D diamond-like films that are nanometers in thickness. Diamanes can exist as bilayer or multilayer graphene with various modes of stacking and interlayer covalent sp3 bonds. The term “diamane” is used broadly for a variety of diamond-like materials at the [...] Read more.
Diamanes are 2D diamond-like films that are nanometers in thickness. Diamanes can exist as bilayer or multilayer graphene with various modes of stacking and interlayer covalent sp3 bonds. The term “diamane” is used broadly for a variety of diamond-like materials at the nanoscale, from individual diamond clusters to nanocrystal films. A short overview of recent progress in the investigation of diamanes, starting from the first theoretical predictions to practical realization, is presented. The results of both theoretical and experimental studies on diamanes with various atomic structures and types of functionalization are considered. It is shown that diamanes are stronger than graphene and graphane and have wide bandgaps ranging from 3.1 to 4.5 eV depending on the structure. Diamane-like structures have been obtained using different experimental techniques, and their structures have been determined by Raman spectroscopy. The potential applications of these carbon nanostructures are briefly reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Ultrathin Carbon Films)
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Open AccessReview
Raman Spectroscopy of Twisted Bilayer Graphene
C 2021, 7(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7010010 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
When two periodic two-dimensional structures are superposed, any mismatch rotation angle between the layers generates a Moiré pattern superlattice, whose size depends on the twisting angle θ. If the layers are composed by different materials, this effect is also dependent on the [...] Read more.
When two periodic two-dimensional structures are superposed, any mismatch rotation angle between the layers generates a Moiré pattern superlattice, whose size depends on the twisting angle θ. If the layers are composed by different materials, this effect is also dependent on the lattice parameters of each layer. Moiré superlattices are commonly observed in bilayer graphene, where the mismatch angle between layers can be produced by growing twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) samples by CVD or folding the monolayer back upon itself. In TBG, it was shown that the coupling between the Dirac cones of the two layers gives rise to van Hove singularities (vHs) in the density of electronic states, whose energies vary with θ. The understanding of the behavior of electrons and their interactions with phonons in atomically thin heterostructures is crucial for the engineering of novel 2D devices. Raman spectroscopy has been often used to characterize twisted bilayer graphene and graphene heterostructures. Here, we review the main important effects in the Raman spectra of TBG discussing firstly the appearance of new peaks in the spectra associated with phonons with wavevectors within the interior of the Brillouin zone of graphene corresponding to the reciprocal unit vectors of the Moiré superlattice, and that are folded to the center of the reduced Brillouin Zone (BZ) becoming Raman active. Another important effect is the giant enhancement of G band intensity of TBG that occurs only in a narrow range of laser excitation energies and for a given twisting angle. Results show that the vHs in the density of states is not only related to the folding of the commensurate BZ, but mainly associated with the Moiré pattern that does not necessarily have a translational symmetry. Finally, we show that there are two different resonance mechanisms that activate the appearance of the extra peaks: the intralayer and interlayer electron–phonon processes, involving electrons of the same layer or from different layers, respectively. Both effects are observed for twisted bilayer graphene, but Raman spectroscopy can also be used to probe the intralayer process in any kind of graphene-based heterostructure, like in the graphene/h-BN junctions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Ultrathin Carbon Films)
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Open AccessReview
Progress on Diamane and Diamanoid Thin Film Pressureless Synthesis Cited by 1 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
Nanometer-thick and crystalline sp3-bonded carbon sheets are promising new wide band-gap semiconducting materials for electronics, photonics, and medical devices. Diamane was prepared from the exposure of bi-layer graphene to hydrogen radicals produced by the hot-filament process at low pressure and temperature. [...] Read more.
Nanometer-thick and crystalline sp3-bonded carbon sheets are promising new wide band-gap semiconducting materials for electronics, photonics, and medical devices. Diamane was prepared from the exposure of bi-layer graphene to hydrogen radicals produced by the hot-filament process at low pressure and temperature. A sharp sp3-bonded carbon stretching mode was observed in ultraviolet Raman spectra at around 1344–1367 cm−1 while no sp2-bonded carbon peak was simultaneously detected. By replacing bi-layer graphene with few-layer graphene, diamanoid/graphene hybrids were formed from the partial conversion of few-layer graphene, due to the prevalent Bernal stacking sequence. Raman spectroscopy, electron diffraction, and Density Functional Theory calculations show that partial conversion generates twisted bi-layer graphene located at the interface between the upper diamanoid domain and the non-converted graphenic domain underneath. Carbon-hydrogen bonding in the basal plane of hydrogenated few-layer graphene, where carbon is bonded to a single hydrogen over an area of 150 μm2, was directly evidenced by Fourier transform infrared microscopy and the actual full hydrogenation of diamane was supported by first-principle calculations. Those results open the door to large-scale production of diamane, diamanoids, and diamanoid/graphene hybrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Ultrathin Carbon Films)
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