Special Issue "Carbon Fiber Composites – Composite Driven Multifunctionality and Applications"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Martin Gurka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut für Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH, Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße 58, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
Interests: carbon fiber; composite materials; multi-functionality; smart structures; nondestructive testing; materials characterization
Prof. Dr. Ulf Breuer
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Institut für Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH, Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße 58, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
Interests: carbon fiber; composite structures; airframe technology; organo sheet forming
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lazaros Tzounis
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Department, Hellenic Mediterranean University (HMU), Estavromenos, GR-71004 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Interests: thermoelectrics; thermoelectric generators (TEGs); organic and printed electronics; nanomaterials and nanocomposites; additive manufacturing; advanced fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites; hierarchical composites
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

We are pleased to present our project, a Special Issue of the journal C, focusing on the composite-driven multifunctionality of carbon fiber composites (CFCs). We would like to join the competent researchers in the field of studying carbon fiber-based composites, starting from classical structural carbon fiber-reinforced polymers together with multifunctionality-driven hybrid approaches, and combination with other materials, e.g., metals, ceramics, and semiconductors, on different length scales to achieve multifunctionality on a material level.

The main focus of the project is on the advanced properties of the investigated composites (mechanical, electrical, magnetic, thermal, optical), but also on their use in typical applications.

The reported manuscripts will represent both the experimental and the theoretical point of view, including simulative works. The final target is to give readers an overview of the hot topics and the state of the art of multifunctional carbon fiber composites, based on a largely interdisciplinary perspective typical for materials science. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Advanced properties of CFC—mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical;
  • Composite-driven multifunctionality—combination with other materials (e.g., metals, electro-ceramics, semi-conductors) at various length scales (e.g., energy harvesting thermoelectric composites, photovoltaic effect in CFC, energy storage-enabled composites, shape morphing, actuation active composites, self-strain sensing composites, composites responsive to an external stimuli, i.e., optical, thermal, electrical—as well as EMI shielding-enabled composites, recyclable and reshapable composites);
  • Applications of CFC—advanced structures, sensors, actuators, energy harvesting, aeronautics, naval, mobility, health;
  • Advanced structural FRP composites (hierarchical composites, fuzzy reinforcements, multi-scale composites);
  • Light harvesting and/or light interaction-enabled FRPs (photovoltaic effect, photo-responsive, photo-activated actuation, plasmonic curing, etc.);
  • Thermal energy harvesting enabled FRPs (thermoelectric effect) and thermoelectric sensing for T-sensing and/or SHM purposes;
  • Triboelectric harvesting enabled FRP composites;
  • Electrical and electronic properties of advanced FRP composites (SHM via conductivity, power transfer, remote charging via induction, EMI and other shielding properties, IR heating due to CF metallic nature, etc.);
  • Energy storage enabled FRP composites (performance/operation as a battery or a supercapacitor);
  • Advanced manufacturing of multifunctional composites (e.g., advanced techniques for prepregs, remote curing via Joule heating and 3D printing additive manufacturing (AM) of continuous fiber composites);
  • Nanotechnology-enabled CFRPs and related concepts (nanoparticles localized at the interphase region with fluorescent properties to monitor cracks, plasmonic nanoparticles, magnetically active reinforcements, nanostructured interphases, etc.).

Kind regards,
Dr. Martin Gurka
Prof. Dr. Ulf Breuer
Dr. Lazaros Tzounis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Polymer composites
  • Multifunctionality
  • Smart structures
  • Smart materials
  • Structural health monitoring
  • Self healing
  • Sensors and actuators
  • Electrical, mechanical, thermal properties
  • Structural characterization
  • Multiphysical characterization

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Thermal and Principal Ablation Properties of Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Polymers with Out-of-Plane Fibre Orientation
C 2021, 7(3), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7030064 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
This work characterises thermal properties of a typical epoxy-based carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer used in aircraft construction, but with an out-of-plane fibre orientation, and assesses its potential as a structural ablative material. Samples of the commercially available Hexply® 8552/IM7 are prepared with out-of-plane angles [...] Read more.
This work characterises thermal properties of a typical epoxy-based carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer used in aircraft construction, but with an out-of-plane fibre orientation, and assesses its potential as a structural ablative material. Samples of the commercially available Hexply® 8552/IM7 are prepared with out-of-plane angles up to 90°, with a focus on 0° to 15°, enhancing thermal conductivity through the thickness of the panel. Ablation processes are simulated by a hot-air blower at 580 °C, and examined in detail by ultrasonic testing and microfocused computed X-ray tomography afterwards. Matrix degradation is characterised by infrared spectroscopy and mass loss. To assess structural properties, tensile, compression, and bending tests are performed. The results show a loss in mechanical performance with an increasing fibre angle, which may be negligible for angles lower than ~5° in the initial state. Composite material with an out-of-plane fibre orientation is deeply penetrated concerning matrix degradation by thermal loading, but it is held together by the fibres fixed in the intact matrix underneath. This type of material shows a high potential for structural components in single-use, high-temperature, ablative applications with a focus on saving weight. Full article
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Article
Asymmetric Fiber Supercapacitors Based on a FeC2O4/FeOOH-CNT Hybrid Material
C 2021, 7(3), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7030062 - 14 Aug 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
The development of new flexible and lightweight electronics has increased the demand for compatible energy storage devices to power them. Carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers have long been known for their ability to be assembled into yarns, offering their integration into electronic devices. They [...] Read more.
The development of new flexible and lightweight electronics has increased the demand for compatible energy storage devices to power them. Carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers have long been known for their ability to be assembled into yarns, offering their integration into electronic devices. They are hindered, however, by their low intrinsic energy storage properties. Herein, we report a novel composite yarn, synthesized through solvothermal processes, that attained energy densities in the range between 0.17 µWh/cm2 and 3.06 µWh/cm2, and power densities between 0.26 mW/cm2 and 0.97 mW/cm2, when assembled in a supercapacitor with a PVDF-EMIMBF4 electrolyte. The created unique composition of iron oxalate + iron hydroxide + CNT as an anode worked well in synergy with the much-studied PANI + CNT cathode, resulting in a highly stable yarn energy storage device that maintained 96.76% of its energy density after 4000 cycles. This device showed no observable change in performance under stress/bend tests which makes it a viable candidate for powering wearable electronics. Full article
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