Special Issue "Carbide Derived Carbons"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Eneli Haerk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109, Berlin, Germany
Interests: carbide derived carbons; energy storage and conversion; nanomaterials for energy; material characterization; lithium sulfur batteries; fuel cells; supercapacitors; multidimensional analysis; electrochemistry; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy;surface electrochemistry; small-angle x-ray scattering; small angle neutron scattering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The focus of this Issue of C—Journal of Carbon Research aims to cover tunable carbide-derived carbons for energy storage and conversion applications. Thanks to the flexibility of the synthesis procedure, the development of efficient, functional carbide-derived carbon (CDC) hosts with tunable porosity, unique composition, and required structure has been a highly attractive way to tailor the specific structure suitable for various applications, e.g., host for gas storage; water/air purification; and as materials for fuel-cell, battery, and supercapacitor electrodes.
In light of this, the joint competences of researchers in the field of carbide-derived carbons and its extended family MXenes will focus on a better understanding of the correlations of nanostructure–property relationships and their impact on application performance characteristics.The reported manuscripts will represent in situ and operando characterization interchangeably during controlled electrochemical cycles of the test cells (self-discharge characteristics: Ragone plot, pulse performance, cycle life (depth of discharge (DOD)), and state of health (SOH).
The proposed Special Issue will also cover theoretical aspects, including atomistic modeling, which provides essential insight into the topology and morphology of the carbon structure at the nanoscopic scale.
The final aim is to give readers an overview of novel in situ and operando characterization methods, which, coupled with a deep understanding of electrode mechanisms, enable one to bring new insights to energy technology.
In this Special Issue of C—Journal of Carbon Research, we invite authors to submit original communications, articles, and reviews related to the in situ and operando characterization and applications of carbide-derived carbons and their extended family MXenes. Keywords of interest include but are not limited to the following:

Dr. Eneli Haerk
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Carbide-derived carbon;
  • Metal carbide precursors;
  • Next-generation two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal carbides (MXenes);
  • Tunable-carbide-derived carbon nanostructures;
  • Topology and morphology of the microporous structure;
  • Structure–property relationship;
  • Power/energy density trade-off (Ragone plot);
  • in situ and operando characterization;
  • Atomistic modeling and theoretical characterization (hybrid reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC));
  • Fuel cell;
  • Supercapacitor;
  • Battery;
  • Gravimetric storage devices;
  • Self-healing electrodes.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Carbide-Derived Carbons: WAXS and Raman Spectra for Detailed Structural Analysis
C 2021, 7(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7010029 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Quick characterization methods to determine the structure of carbon materials are sought after for a wide array of technical applications. In this study we present the combined analysis of the structure of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) with Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) [...] Read more.
Quick characterization methods to determine the structure of carbon materials are sought after for a wide array of technical applications. In this study we present the combined analysis of the structure of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) with Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) methods. We present the optimal deconvolution method to be used for the detailed analysis of Raman spectroscopy data of CDCs and comparison to corresponding WAXS results is made. For a broad set of CDCs both WAXS and Raman spectroscopy data showed that the average graphene layer extent increases with synthesis temperature of CDC, while the coherent domain lengths obtained from Raman spectroscopy higher by an average of 4.4 nm. In addition, the presence of correlations between the parameters (D-band width and the parameter A∑D/A∑G) from Raman spectroscopy and the synthesis temperature are established. Based on the WAXS and Raman spectra data analysis the strong influence of the precursor carbide structure on the graphitization pathway is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbide Derived Carbons)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Electrically Conductive MXene-Coated Glass Fibers for Damage Monitoring in Fiber-Reinforced Composites
C 2020, 6(4), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c6040064 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Multifunctional fiber-reinforced composites play a significant role in advanced aerospace and military applications due to their high strength and toughness resulting in superior damage tolerance. However, early detection of structural changes prior to visible damage is critical for extending the lifetime of the [...] Read more.
Multifunctional fiber-reinforced composites play a significant role in advanced aerospace and military applications due to their high strength and toughness resulting in superior damage tolerance. However, early detection of structural changes prior to visible damage is critical for extending the lifetime of the part. MXenes, an emerging class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, possess hydrophilic surfaces, high electrical conductivity and mechanical properties that can potentially be used to identify damage within fiber-reinforced composites. In this work, conductive Ti3C2Tx MXene flakes were successfully transferred onto insulating glass fibers via oxygen plasma treatment improving adhesion. Increasing plasma treatment power, time and coating layers lead to a decrease in electrical resistance of MXene-coated fibers. Optimized uniformity was achieved using an alternating coating approach with smaller flakes helping initiate and facilitate adhesion of larger flakes. Tensile testing with in-situ electrical resistance tracking showed resistances as low as 1.8 kΩ for small-large flake-coated fiber bundles before the break. Increased resistance was observed during testing, but due to good adhesion between the fiber and MXene, most connective pathways within fiber bundles remained intact until fiber bundles were completely separated. These results demonstrate a potential use of MXene-coated glass fibers in damage-sensing polymer-matrix composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbide Derived Carbons)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Evaluation of Directly Electrospun Carbide-Derived Carbon-Based Electrodes in Different Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Energy Storage Applications
C 2020, 6(4), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c6040059 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 743
Abstract
This study focuses on the electrochemical behavior of thin-layer fibrous carbide-derived carbon (CDC) electrospun electrodes in commercial and research and development stage organic-solvent and ionic liquid (IL) based electrolytes. The majority of earlier published works stated various electrolytes with asymmetric cells of powder-based [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the electrochemical behavior of thin-layer fibrous carbide-derived carbon (CDC) electrospun electrodes in commercial and research and development stage organic-solvent and ionic liquid (IL) based electrolytes. The majority of earlier published works stated various electrolytes with asymmetric cells of powder-based pressure-rolled (PTFE), or slurry-cast electrodes, were significantly different from the presented CDC-based fibrous spun electrodes. The benefits of the fibrous structure are relatively low thickness (20 µm), flexibility and mechanical durability. Thin-layered durable electrode materials are gaining more interest and importance in mechanically more demanding applications such as the space industry and in wearable devices, and need to achieve a targeted balance between mechanical, electrical and electrochemical properties. The existing commercial electrode technologies lack compatibility in such applications due to their limited mechanical properties and high cost. The test results showed that the widest potential window dU ≤ 3.5 V was achieved in 1.5 M 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazoliumbis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide (EMIm-TFSI) solution in acetonitrile (ACN). Gravimetric capacitance reached 105.6 F g−1 for the positively charged electrode. Cycle-life results revealed stable material capacitance and resistance over 3000 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbide Derived Carbons)
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Open AccessArticle
Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming Reaction: Evaluation of CeO2 Addition to Alumina-Based Washcoat Slurry Formulation
C 2020, 6(3), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c6030052 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
The effect of the addition of CeO2 to alumina-based washcoat slurry formulation on the methane steam reforming (MSR) reaction was investigated. Five Al2O3-CeO2-based washcoat slurries, differing from each other in the Al2O3/CeO [...] Read more.
The effect of the addition of CeO2 to alumina-based washcoat slurry formulation on the methane steam reforming (MSR) reaction was investigated. Five Al2O3-CeO2-based washcoat slurries, differing from each other in the Al2O3/CeO2 ratio (nominal ratio equal to ∞, 0.042, 0.087, 0.250, 0.667) were prepared, dried and calcined; the resulting powders were loaded with nickel as an active metal and the obtained catalysts were tested in MSR reaction. Five cylindrical silicon carbide (SiC) monoliths were washcoated with the prepared slurries and their mechanical resistance was evaluated through the ultrasound adherence test. The activity tests results highlighted the best performance in terms of methane conversion and hydrogen selectivity of the powder catalyst, with the Al2O3/CeO2 percentage nominal ratio equal to 0.042. A structured catalyst was finally prepared by loading a SiC monolith with the most active catalytic formulation and tested in MSR reaction. The performance of the structured catalyst was evaluated in terms of methane conversion and its stability was verified in a time-on-stream test, which allowed for the evaluation of the carbon formation rate; furthermore, its activity was characterized by the estimation of the kinetic parameters. The results highlighted the beneficial effect of ceria addition on the catalytic activity; moreover, compared with data of the literature, the calculated carbon formation rate demonstrated a good resistance of the catalyst to coke formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbide Derived Carbons)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Carbonaceous Materials Investigated by Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering
C 2020, 6(4), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c6040082 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Carbonaceous nanomaterials have become important materials with widespread applications in battery systems and supercapacitors. The application of these materials requires precise knowledge of their nanostructure. In particular, the porosity of the materials together with the shape of the pores and the total internal [...] Read more.
Carbonaceous nanomaterials have become important materials with widespread applications in battery systems and supercapacitors. The application of these materials requires precise knowledge of their nanostructure. In particular, the porosity of the materials together with the shape of the pores and the total internal surface must be known accurately. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) present the methods of choice for this purpose. Here we review our recent investigations using SAXS and SANS. We first describe the theoretical basis of the analysis of carbonaceous material by small-angle scattering. The evaluation of the small-angle data relies on the powerful concept of the chord length distribution (CLD) which we explain in detail. As an example of such an evaluation, we use recent analysis by SAXS of carbide-derived carbons. Moreover, we present our SAXS analysis on commercially produced activated carbons (ACN, RP-20) and provide a comparison with small-angle neutron scattering data. This comparison demonstrates the wealth of additional information that would not be obtained by the application of either method alone. SANS allows us to change the contrast, and we summarize the main results using different contrast matching agents. The pores of the carbon nanomaterials can be filled gradually by deuterated p-xylene, which leads to a precise analysis of the pore size distribution. The X-ray scattering length density of carbon can be matched by the scattering length density of sulfur, which allows us to see the gradual filling of the nanopores by sulfur in a melt-impregnation procedure. This process is important for the application of carbonaceous materials as cathodes in lithium/sulfur batteries. All studies summarized in this review underscore the great power and precision with which carbon nanomaterials can be analyzed by SAXS and SANS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbide Derived Carbons)
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