Special Issue "Nanocarbon-Based Composites and Their Thermal, Electrical, and Mechanical Properties"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Gil Goncalves
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
TEMA / Department of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitário de Santiago, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: graphene-based porous structures for heterogeneous catalysis (catalysis) and water purification (environmental applications); three-dimensional graphene foam as a biocompatible and conductive scaffold for biomedical applications (biomaterials); SERS active nanostructured substrates based on graphene for selective biomolecules detection (sensors); graphene oxide nanoplatforms development for detection and therapy of cancer cells and tumors (therapeutic agent)
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is committed to exploring novel nanocomposite materials reinforced with carbon nanostructures for improved mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. This Issue will cover the development of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric multifunctional nanocomposites through the incorporation of graphene-based materials, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and nanohorns.

Carbon nanomaterials with different dimensions are characterized by excellent mechanical resistance, electrical and thermal conductivity, and high versatility for chemical surface functionalization. This is a critical feature for modulating their interfaces at the atomic level for improved dispersibility and compatibility with several matrices. Within this context, this Issue will be dedicated to manufacturing processes, simulation prediction and analysis, and structural characterization of the carbon-based nanocomposite.

The manuscripts should explore the outstanding mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties that arise from the synergistic effect between carbon nanostructures and diverse matrices, with strong scientific and technological relevance in the energy, biomedical, environment, sensors, and structural materials fields.

Dr. Gil Goncalves
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Graphene
  • Carbon dots
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Nanodiamonds
  • Carbon nanohorns
  • Graphene-based materials
  • Polymeric nanocomposites
  • Metallic nanocomposites
  • Ceramic nanocomposites
  • Biomaterials
  • Energy
  • Environment
  • Mechanical properties
  • Electrical properties
  • Thermal properties
  • Structural characterization

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Article
Applicability of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) Discharge for the Reduction in Graphene Oxide Films and Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials
C 2021, 7(4), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7040071 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 218
Abstract
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) are widely used in industry for surface cleaning and chemical modification. In the recent past, they have gained more scientific attention especially in the processing of carbon nanomaterials. In this work, a novel power generation technique was applied [...] Read more.
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) are widely used in industry for surface cleaning and chemical modification. In the recent past, they have gained more scientific attention especially in the processing of carbon nanomaterials. In this work, a novel power generation technique was applied to realize the stable discharge in N2 (10 vol.% H2) forming gas in ambient conditions. This APPJ was used to reduce solution-processed graphene oxide (GO) thin films and the result was compared with an established and optimized reduction process in a low–pressure capacitively coupled (CCP) radiofrequency (RF) hydrogen (H2) plasma. The reduced GO (rGO) films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Effective deoxygenation of GO was observed after a quick 2 s treatment by AAPJ. Further deoxygenation at longer exposure times was found to proceed with the expense of GO–structure integrity. By adding acetylene gas into the same APPJ, carbon nanomaterials on various substrates were synthesized. The carbon materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. Fullerene-like particles and graphitic carbon with short carbon nanotubes were detected on Si and Ag surfaces, respectively. We demonstrate that the APPJ tool has obvious potential for the versatile processing of carbon nanomaterials. Full article
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Article
Nanoporous Carbon Magnetic Hybrid Derived from Waterlock Polymers and Its Application for Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solution
C 2021, 7(4), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7040069 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Sodium polyacrylate is the superabsorbent waterlock polymer used in disposable diapers, which are the third largest single consumer item in landfills. As diapers are difficult to recycle, their use produces an incredible amount of environmental waste. In the present article, we present a [...] Read more.
Sodium polyacrylate is the superabsorbent waterlock polymer used in disposable diapers, which are the third largest single consumer item in landfills. As diapers are difficult to recycle, their use produces an incredible amount of environmental waste. In the present article, we present a reliable and facile approach to transform sodium polyacrylate, the main constitute in the used diapers, in a carbon-based magnetic sorbent material, capable for use in environmental applications. A nanoporous carbon magnetic hybrid material was prepared by reacting NaPA with iron acetate species under chemical activation conditions. Analysis of the characterization results revealed, the creation of a nanoporous structure, with high specific surface area value (SgBET = 611 m2/g), along with the formation of nanosized zero valent iron nanoparticles and iron carbide (Fe3C), inside the carbon pore system. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy verified also the existence of these two main iron-bearing phases, as well as additional minor magnetic phases, such as Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) measurements of the obtained hybrid confirmed its ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic behavior. The hybrid material demonstrated a rapid sorption of Cr(VI) ions (adsorption capacity: 90 mg/g, 24 h, pH = 3). The results showed highly pH-dependent sorption efficiency of the hybrids, whereas a pseudo-second-order kinetic model described their kinetics. Full article
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Article
Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanolayered Carbon Films
C 2021, 7(4), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7040067 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 293
Abstract
In this paper, carbon thin films were grown using the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). Methane (CH4) was used as the carbon precursor to grow the carbon thin film. The grown film was analyzed by the high-resolution transmission electron micrograph (TEM), [...] Read more.
In this paper, carbon thin films were grown using the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). Methane (CH4) was used as the carbon precursor to grow the carbon thin film. The grown film was analyzed by the high-resolution transmission electron micrograph (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and Raman spectrum analysis. The analyses show that the PE-ALD-grown carbon film has an amorphous structure. It was found that the existence of defective sites (nanoscale holes or cracks) on the substrate of copper foil could facilitate the formation of nanolayered carbon films. The mechanism for the formation of nanolayered carbon film in the nanoscale holes was discussed. This finding could be used for the controlled growth of nanolayered carbon films or other two-dimensional nanomaterials while combining with modern nanopatterning techniques. Full article
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Article
Conformational Analysis of [60]PCBM from DFT Simulations of Electronic Energies, Bond Strain and the 13C NMR Spectrum: Input Geometry Determination and Ester Bond Rotation Dynamics
C 2021, 7(3), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7030066 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
With the aim of determining the best input geometry for DFT calculations of [60]PCBM, the geometry of 24 chemically possible [60]PCBM conformers were optimised and their electronic energies and average bond strains were determined. A DFT analysis of the relevant dihedral angles provided [...] Read more.
With the aim of determining the best input geometry for DFT calculations of [60]PCBM, the geometry of 24 chemically possible [60]PCBM conformers were optimised and their electronic energies and average bond strains were determined. A DFT analysis of the relevant dihedral angles provided insights into the dynamical behaviour of the ester group through sterically restricted bond rotations. In addition, the 13C NMR spectra of the six better performing conformers were simulated and compared with an experiment. There is a close correlation between average bond strain, total electronic energy and mean absolute error of the simulated 13C NMR spectra of the ester carbons. The best overall candidate conformer for the input geometry had the C61-C4, C4-C3 and C3-C2 single bonds of the alkyl chain in syn, anti and anti arrangements, respectively, and had the C2-C1 and C1-O single bonds of the ester in syn and anti arrangements, respectively. This contrasts strikingly with most representations of PCBM in the literature, which depict all relevant bonds in anti arrangements. Full article
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Article
Applicability and Limitations of Simplified Elastic Shell Theories for Vibration Modelling of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
C 2021, 7(3), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7030061 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
The applicability and limitations of simplified models of thin elastic circular cylindrical shells for linear vibrations of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are considered. The simplified models, which are based on the assumptions of membrane and moment approximate thin-shell theories, are compared with the [...] Read more.
The applicability and limitations of simplified models of thin elastic circular cylindrical shells for linear vibrations of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are considered. The simplified models, which are based on the assumptions of membrane and moment approximate thin-shell theories, are compared with the extended Sanders–Koiter shell theory. Actual discrete DWCNTs are modelled by means of couples of concentric equivalent continuous thin, circular cylindrical shells. Van der Waals interaction forces between the layers are taken into account by adopting He’s model. Simply supported and free–free boundary conditions are applied. The Rayleigh–Ritz method is considered to obtain approximate natural frequencies and mode shapes. Different aspect and thickness ratios, and numbers of waves along longitudinal and circumferential directions, are analysed. In the cases of axisymmetric and beam-like modes, it is proven that membrane shell theory, differently from moment shell theory, provides results with excellent agreement with the extended Sanders–Koiter shell theory. On the other hand, in the case of shell-like modes, it is found that both membrane and moment shell theories provide results reporting acceptable agreement with the extended Sanders–Koiter shell theory only for very limited ranges of geometries and wavenumbers. Conversely, for shell-like modes it is found that a newly developed, simplified shell model, based on the combination of membrane and semi-moment theories, provides results in satisfactory agreement with the extended Sanders–Koiter shell theory in all ranges. Full article
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Article
The Growth Behavior of Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon a-C:H Layers on Industrial Polycarbonates—A Weak Interlayer and a Distinct Dehydrogenation Zone
C 2021, 7(3), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7030059 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Polycarbonate (PC) is a material that is used in many areas: automotive, aerospace engineering and data storage industries. Its hardness is of particular importance, but some applications are affected by its low wettability or scratch susceptibility. This can be changed either by blending [...] Read more.
Polycarbonate (PC) is a material that is used in many areas: automotive, aerospace engineering and data storage industries. Its hardness is of particular importance, but some applications are affected by its low wettability or scratch susceptibility. This can be changed either by blending with other polymers, or by surface modifications, such as the application of an amorphous hydrogenated carbon layer (a-C:H). In this study, individual a-C:H layers of different thicknesses (10–2000 nm) were deposited on PC by RF PECVD. Both the layer morphology with AFM and SEM and the bonding states of the carbon on the surface with synchrotron-assisted XPS and NEXAFS were studied. The aim was to investigate the coatability of PC and the stability of the a-C:H. Special attention was paid to the interlayer region from 0 to 100 nm, since this is responsible for the layer to base material bonding, and to the zone of dehydrogenation (from about 1000 nm), since this changes the surface composition considerably. For PC, the interlayer was relatively small with a thickness of only 20 nm. Additionally, a correlation was found between the evolving grain structure and the development of the C‒H peak according to NEXAFS C K-edge measurements. Full article
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Article
Reduction of Device Operating Temperatures with Graphene-Filled Thermal Interface Materials
C 2021, 7(3), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7030053 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 640
Abstract
The majority of research into few layer graphene (FLG) thermal interface materials (TIM) concerns the direct quantification of innate composite properties with much less direct analysis of these materials in realistic applications. In this study, equilibrium temperatures of engineered device substitutes fixed to [...] Read more.
The majority of research into few layer graphene (FLG) thermal interface materials (TIM) concerns the direct quantification of innate composite properties with much less direct analysis of these materials in realistic applications. In this study, equilibrium temperatures of engineered device substitutes fixed to passive heat sink solutions with varying FLG concentration TIMs are experimentally measured at varying heat dissipation rates. A custom, precisely-controlled heat source’s temperature is continually measured to determine equilibrium temperature at a particular heat dissipation. It is found that altering the used FLG TIM concentrations from 0 vol.% to as little as 7.3 vol.% resulted in a decrease of combined TIM and passively-cooled heat sink thermal resistance from 4.23C/W to 2.93C/W, amounting to a reduction in operating temperature of ≈108C down to ≈85C at a heat dissipation rate of 20 W. The results confirm FLG TIMs’ promising use in the application of device heat dissipation in a novel, controllable experimental technique. Full article
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Article
Fused Filament Fabrication Three-Dimensional Printing Multi-Functional of Polylactic Acid/Carbon Black Nanocomposites
C 2021, 7(3), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7030052 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 691
Abstract
Conductive Polymer Composites (CPCs) have recently gained an extensive scientific interest as feedstock materials in Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) Three-dimensional (3D) printing. Polylactic Acid (PLA), widely used in FFF 3D printing, as well as its Carbon Black (CB) nanocomposites at different weight percentage [...] Read more.
Conductive Polymer Composites (CPCs) have recently gained an extensive scientific interest as feedstock materials in Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) Three-dimensional (3D) printing. Polylactic Acid (PLA), widely used in FFF 3D printing, as well as its Carbon Black (CB) nanocomposites at different weight percentage (wt.%) filler loadings (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt.%), were prepared via a melt mixing filament extrusion process in this study and utilized to manufacture FFF 3D printed specimens. The nanocomposites were examined for their electrical conductivity. The highest loaded 3D printed CPC (5.0 wt.%) was tested as an electrothermal Joule heating device. Static tensile, flexural, Charpy’s impact and Vickers microhardness mechanical properties were investigated for the neat and PLA/CB 3D printed nanocomposites. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) revealed a stiffening mechanism for the PLA/CB nanocomposites. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) elucidated the samples’ internal and external microstructural characteristics. The PLA/CB 5.0 wt.% nanocomposite demonstrated also antibacterial properties, when examined with a screening process, against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). It can be envisaged that the 3D printed PLA/CB CPCs exhibited a multi-functional performance, and could open new avenues towards low-cost personalized biomedical objects with complex geometry, amongst others, i.e., surgery tools, splints, wearables, etc. Full article
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Article
Comments on the XPS Analysis of Carbon Materials
C 2021, 7(3), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7030051 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
The surface chemistry of carbon materials is predominantly explored using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). However, many published papers have critical failures in the published analysis, stemming from an ill-informed approach to analyzing the spectroscopic data. Herein, a discussion on lineshapes and changes in [...] Read more.
The surface chemistry of carbon materials is predominantly explored using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). However, many published papers have critical failures in the published analysis, stemming from an ill-informed approach to analyzing the spectroscopic data. Herein, a discussion on lineshapes and changes in the spectral envelope of predominantly graphitic materials are explored, together with the use of the D-parameter, to ascertain graphitic content, using this information to highlight a simple and logical approach to strengthen confidence in the functionalization derived from the carbon core-level spectra. Full article
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Article
Fluorescent Nanodiamonds Synthesized in One-Step by Pulsed Laser Ablation of Graphite in Liquid-Nitrogen
C 2021, 7(2), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7020049 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 687
Abstract
In this work, we present a relevant upgrade to the technique of pulsed laser ablation of fluorescent nanodiamonds (NDs), relying on an automatized graphite-target movement maintaining a constant level of liquid nitrogen over its surface during hours of deposition. Around 60 mg of [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a relevant upgrade to the technique of pulsed laser ablation of fluorescent nanodiamonds (NDs), relying on an automatized graphite-target movement maintaining a constant level of liquid nitrogen over its surface during hours of deposition. Around 60 mg of NDs nanopowder was synthesized and optomagnetically characterized to assess its optical quality. Chemical purification of the ablated nanopowders, which removes the graphitic byproducts, permits to obtain pure fluorescent NDs with an efficiency of 7 ± 1% with respect to the total nanopowder mass. This value compares positively with the efficiency of other commercial NDs synthesis techniques such as detonation, cavitation, and high pressure–high temperature. Full article
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Article
Energy Absorption in Carbon Fiber Composites with Holes under Quasi-Static Loading
C 2021, 7(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7010016 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
Composite tubular structures have shown promise as energy absorbers in the automobile industry. This paper investigates the energy absorption characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) tubes with pre-existing holes. Holes may represent an extreme case of impact damage that perforates the tube, [...] Read more.
Composite tubular structures have shown promise as energy absorbers in the automobile industry. This paper investigates the energy absorption characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) tubes with pre-existing holes. Holes may represent an extreme case of impact damage that perforates the tube, e.g., stones from road surface impacting the tubes. Tubes with holes represent more conservative performance characteristics, since impact damage of the same size will have residual material, which may carry some load. Tubes with holes can provide the lower limit of CFRP tube performance under axial crushing relative to impact damaged tubes with perforation diameter close to the hole diameter. In this study, tubes with lay-up of [05/902/04] with one and two holes in defined locations and different diameters are experimentally studied under quasi-static loading. It was found that specific energy absorption (SEA) reduces by 50% with one or two holes of 15 mm size, 100 mm from top of the tube. The SEA reduction is about 60% lower than the regular tube when the diameter of the hole is 20 mm located at 100 mm from top. The most severe reduction occurs if the location of single or double holes are 75 mm from the top. In this case, a SEA reduction of 75% can be expected. Results indicate that holes can significantly alter the energy absorption capability of the tubes. It is also clear that in axial crushing of composite tubes, the location of the hole (100 to 75 mm) appears to create more pronounced effect than the size of the hole itself (15 vs. 20 mm) for the cases investigated. The failure modes for tubes with holes seem to preserve similar damage modes with delamination, frond creation, and brittle fracture, which is typically observed in regular composite tubes under axial crushing load. This is due to primarily front end crushing, which dominates the failure modes, while hole induced damage occurs later. Full article
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Article
Effects of the Stacking Faults on the Electrical Resistance of Highly Ordered Graphite Bulk Samples
C 2020, 6(3), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c6030049 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
High anisotropy and the existence of two-dimensional highly conducting interfaces at stacking faults parallel to the graphene planes of the graphite structure influence, in a non-simple way, the transport properties of highly oriented graphite. We report two related effects on the electrical resistance [...] Read more.
High anisotropy and the existence of two-dimensional highly conducting interfaces at stacking faults parallel to the graphene planes of the graphite structure influence, in a non-simple way, the transport properties of highly oriented graphite. We report two related effects on the electrical resistance of highly oriented pyrolytic as well as of natural graphite bulk samples, measured with the four points method in the temperature range 300 K T 410 K. A qualitative and quantitative change in the temperature dependence of the resistance was obtained by simply enlarging the electrodes and contacting the edges of the internal interfaces on the same sample. Additionally, at temperatures T350 K the resistance can change with time. We show that this temperature-dependent annealing effect is related to the stacking faults and can irreversibly change the absolute value of the resistance and its temperature dependence. A partial recovery is obtained after leaving the sample at normal conditions for several days. The overall results stress the importance of the electrodes location on a bulk graphite sample, the contribution of the stacking faults in the interpretation of the measured transport properties and the need of systematic studies on the influence of high temperature annealing on the interfaces properties. Full article
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Article
Expendable Graphite as an Efficient Flame-Retardant for Novel Partial Bio-Based Rigid Polyurethane Foams
C 2020, 6(2), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c6020027 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
The rigid polyurethane foam (PU) is a versatile material, used especially for construction and household applications. The current situation demands a facile, cost-efficient, and greener approach for developing the polyurethanes from bio-derived materials. In this study, we present a novel bio-polyol synthesized using [...] Read more.
The rigid polyurethane foam (PU) is a versatile material, used especially for construction and household applications. The current situation demands a facile, cost-efficient, and greener approach for developing the polyurethanes from bio-derived materials. In this study, we present a novel bio-polyol synthesized using carvone, an extract from caraway, spearmint, or dill seeds via facile thiol-ene reaction. Our one-step reaction uses a UV irradiation to allow the room temperature conversion of the carvone to a high purity bio-polyol, as confirmed from the standard analytical characterizations. The hydroxyl number of 365 mg KOH/g close to its theoretical limit confirms the high conversion yield of the polyol for rigid PU synthesis. To overcome the flammability issues in PU, expandable graphite (EG) powder was used as an additive flame-retardant during the synthesis step. The resulting foams with EG maintained the uniform closed cell structure (>95%) with a high compression strength of 175 kPa. The addition of EG in PU results in the formation of a protective char layer during the flammability test and reduces the weight loss from 40.70% to 3.55% and burning time from 87 to 11 s. Our results confirm that the carvone-based polyol can be a novel alternative to the petroleum polyols for an industrial-scale application. Full article
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Article
Power Cycling and Reliability Testing of Epoxy-Based Graphene Thermal Interface Materials
C 2020, 6(2), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c6020026 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
We report on the lifespan evolution of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in curing epoxy-based thermal interface materials with graphene fillers. The performance and reliability of graphene composites have been investigated in up to 500 power cycling measurements. The tested composites were prepared [...] Read more.
We report on the lifespan evolution of thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in curing epoxy-based thermal interface materials with graphene fillers. The performance and reliability of graphene composites have been investigated in up to 500 power cycling measurements. The tested composites were prepared with an epoxy resin base and randomly oriented fillers consisting of a mixture of few-layer and single-layer graphene. The power cycling treatment procedure was conducted with a custom-built setup, while the thermal characteristics were determined using the “laser flash” method. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of these composites do not degrade but instead improve with power cycling. Among all tested filled samples with different graphene loading fractions, an enhancement in the thermal conductivity values of 15% to 25% has been observed. The obtained results suggest that epoxy-based thermal interface materials with graphene fillers undergo an interesting and little-studied intrinsic performance enhancement, which can have important implications for the development of next-generation thermal interface materials. Full article
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Review

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Review
Fabrication and Supercapacitor Applications of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Thin Films
C 2021, 7(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7040070 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a one-dimensional nanomaterial with several desirable material properties, including high mechanical tensile modulus and strength, high electrical conductivity, and good thermal conductivity. A wide variety of techniques have been optimized to synthesize MWCNTs and to fabricate thin films [...] Read more.
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a one-dimensional nanomaterial with several desirable material properties, including high mechanical tensile modulus and strength, high electrical conductivity, and good thermal conductivity. A wide variety of techniques have been optimized to synthesize MWCNTs and to fabricate thin films of MWCNTs. These synthesis and fabrication methods vary based on precursor materials, process parameters, and physical and chemical principals, and have a strong influence on the properties of the nanotubes and films. Thus, the fabrication methods determine the performance of devices that can exploit the advantageous material properties of MWCNTs. Techniques for the fabrication of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube thin films are reviewed, followed by a discussion of the use of MWCNTs as an electrode material for electrochemical double-layer supercapacitors (EDLCs). EDLCs feature high power density, excellent reversibility and lifetime, and improved energy density over electrolytic capacitors. Beyond surveying fabrication techniques previously explored for MWCNT electrodes, an alternative approach based on inkjet printing capable of depositing a small amount of active material is discussed. Such an approach allows for a high degree of control over electrode properties and can potentially reduce cost and active material waste, which are essential components to the gradual conversion to green energy. Full article
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Review
Carbons Formed in Methane Thermal and Thermocatalytic Decomposition Processes: Properties and Applications
C 2021, 7(3), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7030050 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
The hydrogen economy will play a key role in future energy systems. Several thermal and catalytic methods for hydrogen production have been presented. In this review, methane thermocatalytic and thermal decomposition into hydrogen gas and solid carbon are considered. These processes, known as [...] Read more.
The hydrogen economy will play a key role in future energy systems. Several thermal and catalytic methods for hydrogen production have been presented. In this review, methane thermocatalytic and thermal decomposition into hydrogen gas and solid carbon are considered. These processes, known as the thermal decomposition of methane (TDM) and thermocatalytic decomposition (TCD) of methane, respectively, appear to have the greatest potential for hydrogen production. In particular, the focus is on the different types and properties of carbons formed during the decomposition processes. The applications for carbons are also investigated. Full article
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