Topical Collection "Carbon-Derived Materials from Bioresources for Advanced Applications"

A topical collection in C (ISSN 2311-5629). This collection belongs to the section "Carbon Materials and Carbon Allotropes".

Editors

Dr. Camélia Matei Ghimbeu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS UMR 7361 UHA, 15 Rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse, France
Interests: hybrid carbon materials; confinement of metal-based NPs in carbon; carbon synthesis and modification (mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, hard carbon, graphitic carbon); hard and soft-templated carbon; biosourced derived carbon; carbon surface chemistry and reactivity modification; carbon-based materials for gas and energy storage (supercapacitors and batteries); carbon for air and water cleaning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Jorge Bedia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: carbon materials; MOFs; adsorption; photocatalysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit comprehensive research articles, reviews, communications, or letters to a Special Issue of C—Journal of Carbon Research dedicated to Carbon-Derived Materials from Bioresources for Advanced Applications.

In this Special Issue, we are looking for outstanding carbon materials of any type (graphite, graphene, activated carbons, carbon nanofibers or nanotubes, carbon black, hard carbons, carbon dots, carbon carbides, and so on) synthesized from different bioresources, such as biomass or biological waste, bio-polymers, etc.

The aim is to present novel and interesting insights in the field of synthesis of biocarbons for advanced applications, including adsorption, catalysis/photocatalysis, energy storage, gas capture/storage, drug delivery, and sensing, among others. We would like to publish inspiring works that would produce a step forward in the science of carbon materials.

We look forward to receiving your excellent submissions.

Dr. Camélia Ghimbeu
Prof. Dr. Jorge Bedia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • carbon materials
  • bioresources
  • biomass
  • catalysis
  • photocatalysis
  • energy storage
  • gas capture and storage
  • drug delivery
  • sensing

Published Papers (6 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Article
Enhanced Breaking of Lignin and Mesopore Formation in Zinc Chloride Assisted Hydrothermal Carbonization of Waste Biomasses
C 2021, 7(4), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7040077 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
Hydrochars from hydrothermal carbonization of different biowaste materials (dried dandelion, sawdust, coconut shell powder) formed in the presence of aqueous salt solutions were compared to those obtained by the common method in pure water. Hydrochars with increased carbon contents, pore volume and surface [...] Read more.
Hydrochars from hydrothermal carbonization of different biowaste materials (dried dandelion, sawdust, coconut shell powder) formed in the presence of aqueous salt solutions were compared to those obtained by the common method in pure water. Hydrochars with increased carbon contents, pore volume and surface areas were specifically obtained from coconut shell powder in the presence of zinc chloride. Compositional and structural changes within the hydrochar products caused by the process conditions and/or the additive were characterized by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy, proving that cellulose and, in particular, lignin units in the biomass are more easily attacked in the presence of the salt. Under saline conditions, a distinct particle break-up led to the creation of mesoporosity, as observable from hysteresis loops in nitrogen adsorption isotherms, which were indicative of the presence of pores with diameters of about 3 to 10 nm. The obtained hydrochars were still rich in functional groups which, together with the mesoporosity, indicates the compounds have a high potential for pollutant removal. This was documented by adsorption capacities for the methylene blue and methyl orange dyes, which exceeded the values obtained for other hydrochar-based adsorbers. A subsequent physical activation of the mesoporous hydrochars in steam at different temperatures and times resulted in a further drastic increase in the surface areas, of up to about 750 m2/g; however, this increase is mainly due to micropore formation coupled with a loss of surface functionality. Consequently, the adsorption capacity for the quite large dyes does not provide any further benefit, but the uptake of smaller gas molecules is favored. Full article
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Review
Activated Carbon from Biomass Sustainable Sources
C 2021, 7(2), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7020039 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
Biomass wastes are abundant around us. They are renewable and inexpensive. Product manufacturing from renewable resources has caught increasing interest recently. Activated carbon preparation from biomass resources, including various trees, leaves, plant roots, fruit peels, and grasses, is a good example. In this [...] Read more.
Biomass wastes are abundant around us. They are renewable and inexpensive. Product manufacturing from renewable resources has caught increasing interest recently. Activated carbon preparation from biomass resources, including various trees, leaves, plant roots, fruit peels, and grasses, is a good example. In this paper, an overview of activated carbon production from biomass resources will be given. The first part will be on the processing technologies. The second part will focus on the carbon activation methods. The third part will introduce the biomass resources. The fourth part will be on surface modification of activated carbon through the addition of various components. Finally, the development of product applications will be discussed with an emphasis on adsorption, filtration, water purification, energy conversions, and energy storage. Full article
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Article
The Role of Surface Chemistry and Polyethylenimine Grafting in the Removal of Cr (VI) by Activated Carbons from Cashew Nut Shells
C 2021, 7(1), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7010027 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
Activated carbons prepared from cashew nut shells and modified by grafting polyethylenimine onto the surface were tested for removal of Cr (VI). The removal efficiency of carbons without and with polyethylenimine decreased with an increase in pH, with maximum efficiency found at pH [...] Read more.
Activated carbons prepared from cashew nut shells and modified by grafting polyethylenimine onto the surface were tested for removal of Cr (VI). The removal efficiency of carbons without and with polyethylenimine decreased with an increase in pH, with maximum efficiency found at pH 2. The average maximum adsorption capacities of carbons were calculated to be 340 ± 20 mg/g and 320 ± 20 mg/g for unmodified and modified carbons, respectively. Surface characterization of carbons revealed that C–O functionalities are actively involved in both polyethylenimine grafting and Cr (VI) removal. Moreover, lactone groups and amides, formed by polyethylenimine grafting, seemingly undergo acid hydrolysis with formation of phenol and carboxylic groups. Considering that Cr (III) is the only form of chromium found on the surface of both carbons, the reduction mechanism is deduced as the predominant one. Here Cr (VI), majorly present as HCrO4¯, is attracted to the positively charged carbon surface, reduced to Cr (III) by phenol groups, and adsorbed inside the pores. The mechanism of Cr (VI) removal appears to be similar for unmodified and modified carbons, where the smaller adsorption capacity of the latter one can be related to steric hindrance and pore inaccessibility. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Study of Aromatization Catalysts: The Advantage of Hybrid Oxy/Carbides and Platinum-Catalysts Based on Carbon Gels
C 2021, 7(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7010021 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 799
Abstract
This manuscript is focused on the relationship between sol-gel synthesis processes and the development of new active phases with fitted morphology, porosity and surface chemistry. The influence of the above parameters on the catalytic performance of the prepared materials for the aromatization of [...] Read more.
This manuscript is focused on the relationship between sol-gel synthesis processes and the development of new active phases with fitted morphology, porosity and surface chemistry. The influence of the above parameters on the catalytic performance of the prepared materials for the aromatization of n-hexane to benzene is also evaluated. Different series of catalysts were prepared, either using noble metals (i.e., Pt) or metal oxides (i.e., Mo, W), as active phases. In both cases, the catalytic performance and stability of classical aromatization catalysts was significantly improved. Interesting one-pot carboreduction process of the metal oxide during carbonization is suggested as a real alternative for the preparation of high-performance aromatization catalysts, leading to the formation of less acidic and non-stoichiometric oxides and carbides. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Article
Jackfruit Seed-Derived Nanoporous Carbons as the Electrode Material for Supercapacitors
C 2020, 6(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c6040073 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
Hierarchically porous activated carbon materials from agro-waste, Jackfruit seeds are prepared by a chemical activation method involving the treatment with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) at different temperatures (600–1000 °C). The electrochemical supercapacitance performances of the prepared materials were studied in an aqueous [...] Read more.
Hierarchically porous activated carbon materials from agro-waste, Jackfruit seeds are prepared by a chemical activation method involving the treatment with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) at different temperatures (600–1000 °C). The electrochemical supercapacitance performances of the prepared materials were studied in an aqueous electrolyte (1 M sulfuric acid, H2SO4) in a three-electrode system. Jackfruit seed carbons display nanoporous structures consisting of both micro- and mesopore architectures and they are amorphous in nature and also contain oxygenated surface functional groups, as confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), Raman scattering, and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. The surface areas and pore volumes were found to be 1216.0 to 1340.4 m2·g−1 and 0.804 to 1.144 cm3·g−1, respectively, demonstrating the better surface textural properties compared to the commercial activated carbons. Due to the high surface area, large pore volume, and well developed hierarchical micro- and mesoporosity, the optimal sample achieved a high specific capacitance of 292.2 F·g−1 at 5 mV·s−1 and 261.3 F·g−1 at 1 A·g−1 followed by outstanding high rate capability. The electrode sustained 71.6% capacity retention at a high current density of 20 A·g−1. Furthermore, the electrode displayed exceptional cycling stability with small capacitance loss (0.6%) even after 10,000 charging–discharging cycles, suggesting that Jackfruit seed would have potential in low-cost and scalable production of nanoporous carbon materials for supercapacitors applications. Full article
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Article
Activated Carbons from Fast Pyrolysis Biochar as Novel Catalysts for the Post-Treatment of Pyrolysis Vapors, Studied by Analytical Pyrolysis
C 2020, 6(4), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c6040065 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Biochars are attractive materials for carbon catalysts since their carbon content and surface area are relatively high and minerals present in biochar can act as active sites for catalytic reactions. In this study, biochars from the fast pyrolysis of birch, pine, and unbarked [...] Read more.
Biochars are attractive materials for carbon catalysts since their carbon content and surface area are relatively high and minerals present in biochar can act as active sites for catalytic reactions. In this study, biochars from the fast pyrolysis of birch, pine, and unbarked willow were activated and acid washed. These materials were tested as catalysts for a post-treatment of pine wood pyrolysis vapors, aiming at stabilizing the vapors before their condensation. All the unmodified biochars had high content of minerals, those being highest in willow due to the bark. After the activation treatments, the surface areas and pore volumes of all biochars significantly increased. All studied biochars and activated carbon catalysts reduced the oxygen content of the pyrolysis degradation products. This effect was more pronounced for compounds derived from polysaccharides vs. lignin. The most promising catalyst for vapor upgrading was unwashed activated carbon from willow, having high surface areas and pore volumes together with high mineral contents. These properties together promoted the high conversion of polysaccharide-derived products (anhydrosugars, acids, and pyrans) into CO2. Release of highly oxidized degradation products may indicate that reductive stabilization takes place via hydrogen migration from the polysaccharide-derivatives to lignin derivatives, mediated by the carbon catalyst. Full article
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