Special Issue "Centrosome"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).
2. Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Moscow State University, Leninskye gory 73, 119992 Moscow, Russia
Interests: centrosome; centriole; cilium; flagellum; pericentriolar material (PCM); centriolar adjunct
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Interests: centriole; centrosome; cilium in sperm and male fertility
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
The centrosome, its centrioles, and their surrounding pericentriolar material are amazing centers of activities in a eukaryotic cell. The striking geometrically organization, which combines the ninth-order symmetry in the transverse direction and the polarity of the organization in the longitudinal direction, makes the centriole a unique component of the cell. This ninth-order symmetry is reflected in the organization of the pericentriolar material that executes many of the functions of the centrosome, and in the internal structure of cilium that is nucleated by the centriole.
During evolution, centrioles appeared in the ancient single-celled flagellates in the form of a basal body of flagella. This original function is conserved in centrioles of multicellular organisms in the cells of the ciliary epithelium and in the flagellated spermatozoa. However, during evolutionary development, a new cellular organelle—the centrosome—was formed around centrioles, which acquired new functions that are important for the cell. The appearance of the centrosome during evolution was facilitated by organizing the pericentriolar material that nucleates and anchors the microtubule, converting them to cytoplasmic microtubules nucleation centers. The intracellular motors associated with the microtubule transport of the molecules or whole organelles within the cells and the point of convergence of these transport paths is the centrosome. It is not surprising, therefore, that many regulatory molecules are concentrated to the centrosome, where they interact with each other. In somatic cells, the first morphological feature of a cell preparing for cell division is centrioles duplication. Later, each centriole pair is located to each pole of the mitotic spindle.
All functions of the centrosome are somehow connected to the organization of the microtubule. When flagellum or cilium is formed, all of its microtubules, except for the two central ones, are the continuation of the centriolar microtubules. In the spindle, microtubules are either directly nucleated in the mitotic halo surrounding the centrioles, or are transported there by motor proteins. Many regulatory molecules that are concentrated to the centrosome region are also delivered there via the radial microtubule system, the microtubule aster, of cells.
This Special Issue of the Journal Cells aims to familiarize readers with the diverse aspects of centrosome investigations. It will collect answers from leading centrosome biology specialists to the most pressing issues related to its function, structure, and evolution.
These answers include, but are not limited to, the following:
1) What is the structural basis for ninth-order symmetry?
2) Why are there two centrioles in a diploid cell?
3) When do duplications of centrioles begin in the cell cycle?
4) What is the mechanism of the centrioles appearance?
5) How are centrioles duplication and cell cycle regulation co-regulated?
6) How is microtubule nucleation on the centrosome regulated?
7) What is the mechanism of centrosome separation before mitosis?
8) What is the role of the centrosome in the formation of the spindle and cell division?
9) What morphological variants of centrioles exist in various organisms?
10) How do the centrosomes form and change during evolution?
Prof. Rustem E. Uzbekov
Prof. Tomer Avidor-Reiss
Manuscript Submission Information
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- pericentriolar material (PCM)