Special Issue "Oral Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine"

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Stem Cells".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Maria Giovanna Gandolfi
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Laboratory of Biomaterials and Oral Pathology, Endodontic Clinical Section, Department of Odontostomatological Science, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; dental materials; dental implants; stem cells; tissue regeneration
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human oral-derived stem cells were first discovered in 2000 by Gronthos et al. in dental pulp. The following years were a continuous discovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral and perioral tissues. Tatullo et Al. first discovered MSCs in human periapical inflammatory cysts (hPCy-MSCs), hypothesizing the use of oral-derived biological waste in biomedical applications. To date, researchers have been working on effective and efficient methods to ensure safe and predictable protocols to translate stem cell research into human models.

In recent decades, the challenge has been to finally use oral-derived stem cells together with smart biomaterials or scaffold-free techniques, to obtain strategic tools for regenerative and translational medicine. Several international groups are working on 3D bioprinting research based on the fabrication of complex multitypic tissue constructs with functional molecular networks for regenerative applications.

The combination of novel oral-derived stem cells and innovative biomaterials and manufacturing techniques will drive the future concept of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

This Special Issue welcomes top-quality articles and impactig rereviews on these and related topics.

Clinical and translational aspects and/or applications of in vitro or ex vivo studies will receive priority: salami-slicing papers, case-reports/case-series, opinions and hypotheses are discouraged and will be not considered for peer-review.

Narrative reviews are typically “invited”: Authors are discouraged from submitting spontaneously narrative reviews unless they are well written and on a topic of interest within the scientific community.

The submissions should mainly be addressed on the following topics:

  • Oral stem cells
  • Tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Smart materials (only with clinical applications)
  • Nanotechnologies
  • Molecular biology
  • Additive manufacturing and tissue regeneration

Prof. Maria Giovanna Gandolfi
Dr. Marco Tatullo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cells is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • stem cells
  • dental pulp stem cells
  • biomaterials
  • smart materials
  • scaffolds
  • nanotechnology
  • molecules
  • epithelial stem cells
  • tooth regeneration
  • neural regeneration
  • bone regeneration

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Cells: Are They (Still) Essential for Dental Regeneration?
Cells 2021, 10(3), 498; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cells10030498 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Tissue regeneration in dentistry has demonstrated impressive progress over during the last decades compared to other medical sciences [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Article
Hyaluronan-Based Gel Promotes Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Bone Differentiation by Activating YAP/TAZ Pathway
Cells 2021, 10(11), 2899; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cells10112899 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Background: Hyaluronans exist in different forms, accordingly with molecular weight and degree of crosslinking. Here, we tested the capability to induce osteogenic differentiation in hDPSCs (human dental pulp stem cells) of three hyaluronans forms: linear pharmaceutical-grade hyaluronans at high and (HHA) low molecular [...] Read more.
Background: Hyaluronans exist in different forms, accordingly with molecular weight and degree of crosslinking. Here, we tested the capability to induce osteogenic differentiation in hDPSCs (human dental pulp stem cells) of three hyaluronans forms: linear pharmaceutical-grade hyaluronans at high and (HHA) low molecular weight (LHA) and hybrid cooperative complexes (HCC), containing both sizes. Methods: hDPSCs were treated with HHA, LHA, HCC for 7, 14 and 21 days. The effects of hyaluronans on osteogenic differentiation were evaluated by qRT-PCR and WB of osteogenic markers and by Alizarin Red S staining. To identify the involved pathway, CD44 was analyzed by immunofluorescence, and YAP/TAZ expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Moreover, YAP/TAZ inhibitor-1 was used, and the loss of function of YAP/TAZ was evaluated by qRT-PCR, WB and immunofluorescence. Results: We showed that all hyaluronans improves osteogenesis. Among these, HCC is the main inducer of osteogenesis, along with overexpression of bone related markers and upregulating CD44. We also found that this biological process is subordinate to the activation of YAP/TAZ pathway. Conclusions: We found that HA’s molecular weight can have a relevant impact on HA performance for bone regeneration, and we unveil a new molecular mechanism by which HA acts on stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Influence of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sources on Their Regenerative Capacities on Different Surfaces
Cells 2021, 10(2), 481; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cells10020481 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
Current gold-standard strategies for bone regeneration do not achieve the optimal recovery of bone biomechanical properties. To bypass these limitations, tissue engineering techniques based on hybrid materials made up of osteoprogenitor cells—such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)—and bioactive ceramic scaffolds—such as calcium phosphate-based [...] Read more.
Current gold-standard strategies for bone regeneration do not achieve the optimal recovery of bone biomechanical properties. To bypass these limitations, tissue engineering techniques based on hybrid materials made up of osteoprogenitor cells—such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)—and bioactive ceramic scaffolds—such as calcium phosphate-based (CaPs) bioceramics—seem promising. The biological properties of MSCs are influenced by the tissue source. This study aims to define the optimal MSC source and construct (i.e., the MSC–CaP combination) for clinical application in bone regeneration. A previous iTRAQ analysis generated the hypothesis that anatomical proximity to bone has a direct effect on MSC phenotype. MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue, bone marrow, and dental pulp, then cultured both on a plastic surface and on CaPs (hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate), to compare their biological features. On plastic, MSCs isolated from dental pulp (DPSCs) presented the highest proliferation capacity and the greatest osteogenic potential. On both CaPs, DPSCs demonstrated the greatest capacity to colonise the bioceramics. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a trend that DPSCs had the most robust increase in ALP activity. Regarding CaPs, β-tricalcium phosphate obtained the best viability results, while hydroxyapatite had the highest ALP activity values. Therefore, we propose DPSCs as suitable MSCs for cell-based bone regeneration strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Continuing Effect of Cytokines and Toll-Like Receptor Agonists on Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase-1 in Human Periodontal Ligament Stem/Stromal Cells
Cells 2020, 9(12), 2696; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cells9122696 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
Transplanted mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising and innovative approach in regenerative medicine. Their regenerative potential is partly based upon their immunomodulatory activities. One of the most investigated immunomediators in MSCs, such as in periodontal ligament-derived MSCs (hPDLSCs), is indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) which [...] Read more.
Transplanted mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising and innovative approach in regenerative medicine. Their regenerative potential is partly based upon their immunomodulatory activities. One of the most investigated immunomediators in MSCs, such as in periodontal ligament-derived MSCs (hPDLSCs), is indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) which is upregulated by inflammatory stimuli, like cytokines. However, there are no data concerning continuing IDO-1 expression in hPDLSCs after the removal of inflammatory stimuli, such as cytokines and toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist-2 and TLR-3. Hence, primary hPDLSCs were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, TLR-2 agonist Pam3CSK4 or TLR-3 agonist Poly I/C. IDO-1 gene and protein expression and its enzymatic activity were measured up to five days after removing any stimuli. IL-1β- and TNF-α-induced IDO-1 expression and enzymatic activity decreased in a time-dependent manner after cessation of stimulation. IFN-γ caused a long-lasting effect on IDO-1 up to five days after removing IFN-γ. Both, TLR-2 and TLR-3 agonists induced a significant increase in IDO-1 gene expression, but only TLR-3 agonist induced significantly higher IDO-1 protein expression and enzymatic activity in conditioned media (CM). IDO-1 activity of Poly I/C- and Pam3CSK4-treated hPDLSCs was higher at one day after removal of stimuli than immediately after stimulation and declined to basal levels after five days. Among all tested stimuli, only IFN-γ was able to induce long-lasting IDO-1 expression and activity in hPDLSCs. The high plasticity of IDO-1 expression and its enzymatic activity in hPDLSCs due to the variable cytokine and virulence factor milieu and the temporal-dependent responsiveness of hPDLSCs may cause a highly dynamic potential of hPDLSCs to modulate immune responses in periodontal tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine)
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