Special Issue "Application of Response Surface Methodology for Food Optimization Processes"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Methods, Instrumentation and Miniaturization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jesus Simal-Gandara
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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
Interests: phenolic compounds; antioxidants; marine drugs; food safety; bioaccessibility; functional foods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Antía González Pereira
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
1. University of Vigo, Science Faculty – Ourense Campus. E32004 Ourense, Spain
2. Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: Agricultural Chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is an international forum for researchers in the area of analysis, evaluation, and development of solutions using mathematical tools such as response surface methodology to optimize biological, chemical, cellular, molecular, and immunological responses, among others. We search for studies describing theoretical problems and/or experimental results where molecules with relevant properties for the industrial sector are extracted/identified/quantified/concentrated in food processes systems and employed in the development of novel products in different sectors, such as nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. This Special Issue will present recent results, to identify and explore directions for future research of analytical tools to aid and guide the decision-making process, and to foster collaborations.

The applications of the chemometric tools in food analytical chemistry can be divided into two approaches: optimization of the experimental conditions during the sample preparation step and also optimization of the instrumental variables of analytical techniques. The employ of chemometric tools for the optimization of sample preparation procedures in food analysis is quite diverse. Between these, we can report analytical strategies using microwave assisted radiation, ultrasound assisted extraction, high pressure, among others. Moreover, the application of experimental designs allows to optimize instrumental variables of analytical techniques. Therefore, chemometric tools allow the determination of the critical conditions of experimental factors of the analytical methods, considering the interaction between these, with lower consumption of reagents and lower time spent during the optimization step.

This can be achieved using response surface methodology (RSM), which is a technique widely used to optimize various processes. This special issue intends to collect chemometric tools used in RSM in the optimization of different food processes such as extraction, drying, blanching, enzymatic hydrolysis and clarification, production of microbial metabolites, and formulation. The principles of RSM, its implementation steps, and different designs (full factorial design (FFD), Box-Behnken design (BBD), and central composite design (CCD)) are described. Furthermore, this work presents a comprehensive study of RSM literature recently published about the various food process fields and evaluating their RSM elements summarized in tables. Finally, the challenges and future prospects of using this statistical technique in the food industry processes are welcome. RSM is an appropriate approach and widely used to optimize food industry processes. However, some researchers are not familiar with this approach. This misusing can be attributed to perform inappropriate experimental design, inappropriate screening of independent variables, and improper selection of levels for independent variables. We have tried to address these issues in this study. In addition, this paper presents a comprehensive summary of literature recently published on optimization of food processes by using RSM. “Can RSM be utilized for optimization of all food industry processes without any limitation?” Before addressing this challenge, the principles of the approach are first presented.

We invite researchers to contribute to this special issue. Submissions should have relation to all related themes, including but not restricted to:

  • New bioactive molecules found;
  • Analysis of bioactive compounds;
  • Scientific studies assessing the properties of molecules;
  • Innovative applications in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industry;
Prof. Dr. Miguel A. Prieto Lage
Prof. Dr. Jesus Simal-Gandara
Dr. Antía González Pereira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Chemosensors in bioactive compounds analysis
  • Mathematical tools
  • Response surface methodology
  • Optimization processes
  • Plant food discards
  • Industrial applications

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Phenolic Compounds from Irradiated Olive Wastes: Optimization of the Heat-Assisted Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology
Chemosensors 2021, 9(8), 231; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9080231 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
Olive pomace, an environmentally detrimental residue generated during olive oil extraction, contains bioactive compounds in demand by the food industry. To valorize this waste product a suitable yield for the extraction process is required. Heat-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from olive pomace was [...] Read more.
Olive pomace, an environmentally detrimental residue generated during olive oil extraction, contains bioactive compounds in demand by the food industry. To valorize this waste product a suitable yield for the extraction process is required. Heat-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from olive pomace was optimized by a circumscribed central composite design and response surface methodology. Our previous studies indicated that irradiation could improve 2.4-fold the extractability of the main phenolic compounds from olive pomace. The effect of extraction time, temperature and solvent concentration on the yield of polyphenols from irradiated olive pomace at 5 kGy was tested. Hydroxytyrosol-1-β-glucoside, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and caffeic acid were quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography to calculate the total polyphenol content. The optimal general conditions by RSM modeling were extraction time of 120 min, temperature of 85 °C, and 76% of ethanol in water. Using these selected conditions, 19.04 ± 1.50 mg/g dry weight, 148.88 ± 8.73 mg/g extract of total polyphenols were obtained, representing a yield of 13.7%, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. This work demonstrated the potential of residues from the olive oil industry as a suitable alternative to obtain compounds that could be used as ingredients for the food industry. Full article
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Article
Development of a Natural Preservative from Chestnut Flowers: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization and Functionality Assessment
Chemosensors 2021, 9(6), 141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9060141 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 827
Abstract
This study was carried out with the aim of optimizing the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from male chestnut flowers (C. sativa Mill) to develop a bioactive extract with potential to be used as a natural antioxidant preservative ingredient in the [...] Read more.
This study was carried out with the aim of optimizing the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from male chestnut flowers (C. sativa Mill) to develop a bioactive extract with potential to be used as a natural antioxidant preservative ingredient in the food industry. Time (t, 1–39 min), solvent concentration (S, 0–100%), and ultrasonic power (P, 5–500 W) were used as the independent variables for a 5-level experimental circumscribed central composite design (CCCD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds by UAE. Regarding the variables, the three showed a significant effect on the extraction of phenolic compounds. The content of phenolic compounds (including flavonoids and tannins) and the extraction yield (extract weight gravimetrically assessed) were the response criteria for the optimization. Based on the statistically validated predictive polynomial models, it was possible to reach a maximum content of phenolic compounds at the global optimal conditions of 24 ± 3 min, 259 ± 16 W, and 51 ± 7% ethanol. Additionally, pentagalloyl-glucoside and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucoside were the major phenolic compounds identified. The optimized extract was then analyzed for their biological properties. The bioactive potential of the chestnut flower extract obtained under these optimized conditions was evaluated using in vitro assays for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity, as well as cytotoxicity and hepatotoxicity tests. The results revealed that the enriched extract has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory activities without toxicity issues. Overall, this study allowed to define the optimal conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from chestnuts male flowers by UAE, to obtain an enriched extract with biological properties that could be further used as a natural antioxidant ingredient with applications on functional foods. Full article
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Article
Red Seaweeds as a Source of Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds: Optimization of the Extraction
Chemosensors 2021, 9(6), 132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9060132 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
The present work aimed to determine the nutritional composition (ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate content and energy value), phenolic compounds, pigments and organic acids content of three typical red algae from the Northwest of Spain: Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, and Gigartina pistillata [...] Read more.
The present work aimed to determine the nutritional composition (ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate content and energy value), phenolic compounds, pigments and organic acids content of three typical red algae from the Northwest of Spain: Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, and Gigartina pistillata; as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, the present work compared two extraction techniques: conventional heat assisted extraction (HAE) and high pressure assisted extraction (HPAE) to maximize the yield and the concentration of target compounds. Different independent variables were considered for the response study. Time (t) and percentage of ethanol of the solvent (S) were chosen for both techniques and temperature (T) and pressure (P) were used for HAE and HPAE, respectively. The experiments were designed following a response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The obtained results showed a similar nutritional composition between algae samples: low-fat content and high content of proteins, carbohydrates and energy. All tested algae showed good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Finally, HEA demonstrated to be the most efficient extraction technique. This study confirms the potential of red algae to be part of the human diet as a source of non-animal protein, due to its nutritional content, phenolic profile, pigments concentration and bioactive properties, which proves that HAE is the optimum technique for the extraction maximization. Full article
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