Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 2nd Ellisras Longitudinal Study and Other Non-Communicable Diseases Studies Intenational Conference"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Global and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Kotsedi Daniel Monyeki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology and Environmental Health, University of Limpopo, Sovenga 0727, South Africa
Interests: smoking; alcohol; physical finess; diabetic; dietary intake; hypertension; metabolic syndrome; anthropometric measurements; socio-economic status; body composition
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The Ellisras Longitudinal Study and other Non-Communicable Disease Studies International Conference organizing committee takes pleasure in inviting you to the 2nd International Conference on poverty and cardiovascular diseases from 3–5 December 2019 at the University of Limpopo and Ellisras/Lephalale. The major sub-themes for the conference include: 1) lifestyle risk factors for non-communicable diseases: tobacco and alcohol consumption; 2) nutrition, dietary intake and physical activity; 3) biological risk factors for non-communicable diseases: biochemical parameters, hypertension, genetics, lipid profiles, diabetes; 4) growth, maturation and ageing; and 5) child health and health education. The conference provides a unique inclusive platform for discussion by ordinary members of the Ellisras/Lephalale community, expert scholars, students and experienced professionals from all over the world offering a truly special international networking experience, as well as a comprehensive and interactive programme in which participants can cultivate their cross-cultural and communication skills while highlighting different topics related to poverty and cardiovascular diseases.

Keynote speakers for the conference include Prof. Han C.G. Kemper, Paediatric Exercise Physiologist and Epidemiologist, Principal Investigator of the Amsterdam Growth And Health Longitudinal Study, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, The Netherlands and Prof. Mahmoud U. Sani (MBBS, FWACP, FACP, FACC, FRCP Edin), MD and Cardiologist, Department of Medicine, Bayero University Kano/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Preliminary speakers will also be scheduled at the conference.

The programme will have a long-lasting effect on the conference participants as well as the Ellisras/Lephalale communities, as the knowledge gained will be taken back to our respective communities and families. Only papers presented at the conference will undergo vigorous peer review and be considered for publication in this Special Issue of Children.

Prof. Kotsedi Daniel Monyeki
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Non-communicable diseases
  • Poverty
  • Child health
  • Lifestyle factors
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Growth
  • Genetics
  • Maturation
  • Physical activity
  • Lipids

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
“Selected Papers from the 2nd Ellisras Longitudinal Study and Other Non-Communicable Diseases Studies International Conference” Special Issue Editorial
Children 2021, 8(2), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8020146 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are presently emerging and on the increase in South Africa. It is increasingly recognized that the occurrence of adult chronic disease are influenced by factors operating from childhood, which are sustained throughout the individual’s life course. Increased risk [...] Read more.
Epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are presently emerging and on the increase in South Africa. It is increasingly recognized that the occurrence of adult chronic disease are influenced by factors operating from childhood, which are sustained throughout the individual’s life course. Increased risk may start in infancy or even before birth and will continue to be influenced by health related behavior during adulthood. The academic level of people in the community influence the level of their health status. Commitment to the promotion of health through prevention, education, and suitable management is the building block for creating a healthy society. The community must make strides to shift from traditional knowledge and medication, and seek new innovative ways of addressing issues facing the population with regard to obesity, overweight, hypertension health, smoking cessation, alcohol abuse, and low physical activity in line with a healthy living lifestyle. The NCDs pose health problems in South Africa and deserve more attention. Poor control of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, to name just a few, only adds to the current problems. The South African government and the business sector of South Africa should provide safe walking/riding trails in the cities and in rural area to combat emerging NCDs that are killing our community members indiscriminately without considering race, gender, age, and place of residence. Compulsory introduction of physical education lessons to all public schools cannot be over emphasized in the current escalating NCD situation in South Africa. Full article
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Research

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Article
Dietary Diversity and Nutritional Status of Preschool Children in North West Province, South Africa: A Cross Sectional Study
Children 2020, 7(10), 174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7100174 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Preschool children consume diets inadequate to meet their macro and micronutrient requirements, which ultimately affect their nutritional status due to lack of dietary diversity. A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary diversity scores (DDS) and the nutritional status [...] Read more.
Preschool children consume diets inadequate to meet their macro and micronutrient requirements, which ultimately affect their nutritional status due to lack of dietary diversity. A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary diversity scores (DDS) and the nutritional status of 379 preschool children in North West Province of South Africa. A 24 h qualitative recall by mothers of their children’s food consumption was used to calculate DDS based on 12-foods groups following Food and Agriculture Organization protocols. DDS was calculated by counting each of 12-food groups and classified as low (≤4), medium (5–8) and high (9–12). The weight and height of children were measured and height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) z-scores were calculated based on 2006 WHO standards. Stunting, underweight and thinness were defined as HAZ, WAZ and BAZ < −2SD, respectively. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between DDS and the nutritional indicators. Mean age for children was 4 ± 0.7 years, and the prevalence of stunting (29%), underweight (13%) and thinness (6%) was observed. Mean DDS was 4.39 ± 1.55 out of 12-food groups, with a prevalence of 61% and 39% for low and medium DDS, respectively. Cereals (100%) accounted for the main food group consumed, while fish and other seafood (17%) were the least consumed. Consumption of a diversified diet was associated with lower odds of being stunted [AOR = 0.25, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.92] among the four-year olds, while in the unadjusted model, 5-year-olds had lower odds of being underweight [OR = −0.32, 95%CI: −0.57 to 0.07]. The findings of this study reinforce the importance of continued nutrition education of mothers, caregivers and preschool staff on the need to ensure consumption of diverse food sources in order to improve the nutritional status of children. Further studies are recommended on the association of DDS with the nutritional status, and factors associated with low dietary diversity among preschool children. Full article
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Article
Genesis, Procedures, Attrition Rate and Major Reasons for Missing Measurement Session by the Study Participants in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study
Children 2020, 7(6), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7060051 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
The noncommunicable diseases’ (NCDs) profile is changing rapidly from one country to another. A well-formulated cohort study in Africa could answer major questions relating to the changing profile of NCDs risk in Africa. The aim of the present study was to outline the [...] Read more.
The noncommunicable diseases’ (NCDs) profile is changing rapidly from one country to another. A well-formulated cohort study in Africa could answer major questions relating to the changing profile of NCDs risk in Africa. The aim of the present study was to outline the genesis, procedures, attrition rate and major reasons for study participants to miss measurement sessions in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study (ELS). Method: The ELS followed multiple longitudinal designs comprising repeated measurements in more than one cohort with overlapping ages. Age cohort and time of measurement effects could be identified. A cluster random sampling method was used to sample 2255 participants (1201 males and 1054 females), aged 2 to 10.9 years at baseline (November 1996). Information on lifestyle (tobacco and smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and socioeconomic status) and biological risk factors for NCD and educational achievements were collected over time. The participants were followed 17 times over the past 25 years with measurements (blood pressure and anthropometry) collected twice during the first consecutive 8 years to account for growth dynamics and other health-related variables. The attrition rate for ELS sample for boys (14%–27.3%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than girls (7.9%–18.6%) from May 1999 to November 2003. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase (25.3%–70.3%) in attrition rate from November 2009 to December 2015. The ELS participant migration to urban areas provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effect of urban life on these rural young adults given the previous data collected on the same subjects at a younger age (3–10 years at baseline in 1996). Conclusion: A well-formulated ELS study in Africa could answer major questions relating to the changing magnitude of NCDs risk factor profiles in Africa. Full article
Article
An Assessment of the Relationship between Anthropometric Parameters and Blood Pressure among Polokwane Private School Children
Children 2020, 7(4), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040029 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
High blood pressure (HBP) among children and adolescents has been associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure among Polokwane private school children. Mean body [...] Read more.
High blood pressure (HBP) among children and adolescents has been associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure among Polokwane private school children. Mean body fat % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in girls (23.74) than the boys (16.77). There was a significant (P < 0.05) association between systolic blood pressure (BP) and waist circumference (WC) unadjusted (OR = 1.125) and adjusted (OR = 1.097) for age and gender. This study included a total of 1665 children and adolescents (846 boys and 819 girls) aged 5 to 15 years old. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, hip circumference (HC) and waist circumference (WC) were taken according to standard procedures. Descriptive statistics were done to determine the prevalence of hypertension and mean of all the variables. Pearson correlation, linear regression and logistic regression were all done to determine the association between blood pressure (BP) and the anthropometric measurements. All statistical analysis were done using SPSS. There was a significant association between body composition and blood pressure among Polokwane Private School children. Lowering the risk factors of high BP in children and adolescents will lower their risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Full article
Article
Association of Hypertension and Obesity with Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases in Children Aged 6–9 Years Old in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa
Children 2020, 7(4), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7040025 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are known to begin early in life, but limited data on the relationship of obesity and hypertension with other known CVD risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and chronic low-grade inflammation is available on children. In [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are known to begin early in life, but limited data on the relationship of obesity and hypertension with other known CVD risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and chronic low-grade inflammation is available on children. In this cross-sectional study involving 6–9 years old school children aged from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa the relationship between obesity/hypertension and other risk factors for CVDs was investigated. General anthropometric parameters were measured, followed by blood pressure (BP) measurements and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Urine samples were collected for the determination of albumin, creatinine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), 8-hydroxy-2deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS). Overweight/obesity (19.28%) and pre-hypertension/hypertension (42.16%) were prevalent in children. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), a marker of obesity, was positively correlated with ADMA, while ADMA and PWV were significantly different (p < 0.05) between hypertensive and normotensive children. Also, TBARS and 8-OHdG were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in hypertensive subjects. Creatinine was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in obese, as well as in hypertensive children, and positively associated with waist circumference (WC) and neck circumference (NC). In conclusion, obesity and hypertension were associated with renal-cardiovascular disease risk, while oxidative stress showed a possible association with obesity in 6 to 9 year old South African children of African descent. This suggests that South African children of African descent may be becoming more prone to developing CVDs, and therefore may require early intervention for the prevention of CVDs in the near future. Full article
Article
Using the SITAR Method to Estimate Age at Peak Height Velocity of Children in Rural South Africa: Ellisras Longitudinal Study
Children 2020, 7(3), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7030017 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
Various studies have been conducted on children using the Ellisras Longitudinal Study Survey in South Africa, but none of these has addressed growth variations of children in this rural location. The aim of this paper is to assess the age at peak height [...] Read more.
Various studies have been conducted on children using the Ellisras Longitudinal Study Survey in South Africa, but none of these has addressed growth variations of children in this rural location. The aim of this paper is to assess the age at peak height velocity using the superimposition by translation and rotation (SITAR) method for both boys and girls in rural South Africa. The study is part of the on-going Ellisras Longitudinal Study, and has employed secondary data during the period from November 1996 to November 2003. The data was collected biannually in May and November each year. The Ellisras study initially followed a cluster sampling method. All participating children underwent a series of anthropometric measurements of height and weight according to the standard procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. The analysis was done using the SITAR model. Age at peak height velocity for Ellisras rural children was at 14.45 years for boys at 11.82 years for girls. Ellisras rural girls had their age at peak height velocity way earlier than Ellisras rural boys did by an estimated 2.63 years. Ellisras rural children and their growth variations were comparable to other studies. Full article
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