Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C and COVID-19

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Pediatric Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 July 2024 | Viewed by 17316

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics and Kawasaki Disease Center, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
Interests: Kawasaki disease
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics and Kawasaki Disease Center, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital,Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
Interests: Kawasaki disease
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began, as the name suggests, in 2019 and has been ongoing since. The effect of COVID-19 on children is usually mild, but some are susceptible to a novel Kawasaki-like disease, also known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Kawasaki disease (KD) is different than MIS-C in terms of age, severity, clinical presentation, susceptibility, immune response, cause, and therapy. Coronary artery involvement, the BCG vaccination relationship, mucosa/skin manifestations, and treatment strategies have shown great overlap between KD and MIS-C. This Special Issue focuses on articles outlining comparisons between KD and MIS-C.

Dr. Ho-Chang Kuo
Dr. Ying-Hsien Huang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Kawasaki Disease
  • MIS-C
  • COVID-19
  • Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
  • Epidemiology
  • Treatment
  • Symptoms
  • Laboratory

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 180 KiB  
Editorial
Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C and COVID-19
by Ying-Hsien Huang and Ho-Chang Kuo
Children 2023, 10(10), 1587; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10101587 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a form of systemic vasculitis characterized by inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body, and its exact cause remains unknown [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C and COVID-19)

Research

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9 pages, 1283 KiB  
Article
Reappraisal of VEGF in the Pathogenesis of Kawasaki Disease
by Chun-Yu Chen, Shih-Hui Huang, Kuang-Jen Chien, Tsung-Jen Lai, Wei-Hsiang Chang, Kai-Sheng Hsieh and Ken-Pen Weng
Children 2022, 9(9), 1343; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children9091343 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important factor in mediating the inflammation of Kawasaki disease (KD). The literature regarding the relationship between VEGF and KD is sparse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of VEGF and KD. In [...] Read more.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important factor in mediating the inflammation of Kawasaki disease (KD). The literature regarding the relationship between VEGF and KD is sparse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of VEGF and KD. In a prospective study of 42 Taiwanese KD patients (18.9 ± 12.2 months, M/F 22/20) treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a series of VEGF levels was measured from the acute to convalescent phases. KD patients were classified into two subgroups with (n =20) and without (n = 22) acute coronary artery lesions (CALs). Control samples were obtained from 30 febrile controls (19.1 ± 13.7 months, M/F 13/17). In KD patients, VEGF levels in the pre-IVIG acute phase were significantly higher than those in the subacute and convalescent phases (both p < 0.001). In KD patients with CALs, VEGF levels significantly increased immediately in the post-IVIG phase (p = 0.039), and then significantly decreased in the subacute phase (p = 0.002). KD patients with acute CALs had higher median VEGF levels than those without acute CALs from acute to convalescent phases. In the subacute phase, KD patients with acute CALs had significantly higher VEGF levels (p = 0.022) than those without acute CALs. Our data show that VEGF did not decrease after IVIG treatment, and increased significantly after IVIG treatment in KD patients with acute CALs in acute phase. VEGF might be related to the complications of CALs in KD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C and COVID-19)
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12 pages, 655 KiB  
Article
Cardiovascular Manifestations in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Associated with COVID-19 According to Age
by Claudia Campanello, Claudia Mercuri, Maria Derchi, Gianluca Trocchio, Alessandro Consolaro, Roberta Caorsi, Angelo Ravelli, Alessandro Rimini, Maurizio Marasini and Marco Gattorno
Children 2022, 9(5), 583; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children9050583 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
Cardiac involvement in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus-19 disease is often observed with a high risk of heart failure. The aim is to describe cardiovascular involvement, management and early outcome in MIS-C by comparing cardiovascular manifestations in children younger [...] Read more.
Cardiac involvement in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus-19 disease is often observed with a high risk of heart failure. The aim is to describe cardiovascular involvement, management and early outcome in MIS-C by comparing cardiovascular manifestations in children younger and older than 6 years old. This retrospective observational study included 25 children with MIS-C, admitted to a single pediatric center between March 2020 and September 2021. The median age was 5 years (13 patients under 6 years and 12 over 6 years); coronary artery abnormalities were observed in 77% of preschoolers, with small and medium aneurysms in half of the cases and two cases of mild ventricular dysfunction. School-age children presented myopericardial involvement with mild to moderate ventricular dysfunction in 67% of cases, and two cases of transient coronary dilatation. There was a significant NT-pro-BNP and inflammatory markers increase in 25 of the patients, and mild elevation of troponin I in 9. All patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids, and 8 with anakinra. None of the patients needed inotropes or intensive care unit admission. Our study shows the frequent cardiovascular involvement in MIS-C with a peculiar distribution, according to different age group: coronary artery anomalies were more frequent in the younger group, and myopericardial disease in the older one. A prompt multitarget, anti-inflammatory therapy could probably contribute to a favorable outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C and COVID-19)
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10 pages, 1315 KiB  
Article
Complement 3 and the Prognostic Nutritional Index Distinguish Kawasaki Disease from Other Fever Illness with a Nomogram
by Yi-Shuang Huang, Xiao-Ping Liu, Han-Bing Xia, Li-Na Cui, Xin-Ling Lang, Chun-Yi Liu, Wei-Dong Huang, Jia-Yu Zhang, Xi Liu, Ho-Chang Kuo and Tao Zhou
Children 2021, 8(9), 825; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8090825 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to establish a model to distinguish Kawasaki disease (KD) from other fever illness using the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and immunological factors. Method: We enrolled a total of 692 patients (including 198 with KD and 494 children with febrile [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to establish a model to distinguish Kawasaki disease (KD) from other fever illness using the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and immunological factors. Method: We enrolled a total of 692 patients (including 198 with KD and 494 children with febrile diseases). Of those, 415 patients were selected to be the training group and 277 patients to be the validation group. Laboratory data, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and immunological factors, were retrospectively collected for an analysis after admission. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regressions and nomograms for the analysis. Result: Patients with KD showed significantly higher C3 and a lower PNI. After a multivariate logistic regression, the total leukocyte count, PNI, C3, and NLR showed a significance (p < 0.05) and then performed well with the nomogram model. The areas under the ROC in the training group and the validation group were 0.858 and 0.825, respectively. The calibration curves of the two groups for the probability of KD showed a near agreement to the actual probability. Conclusions: Compared with children with febrile diseases, patients with KD showed increased C3 and a decreased nutritional index of the PNI. The nomogram established with these factors could effectively identify KD from febrile illness in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C and COVID-19)
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Other

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11 pages, 1835 KiB  
Case Report
Incomplete Kawasaki Disease with Peripheral Facial Nerve Palsy and Lung Nodules: A Case Report and Literature Review
by Marco Maglione, Annalisa Barlabà, Michela Grieco, Rosaria Cosimi, Giangiacomo Di Nardo, Giovanni Maria Di Marco, Monica Gelzo, Giuseppe Castaldo, Celeste Tucci, Raffaella Margherita Iodice, Maria Concetta Lonardo, Vincenzo Tipo and Antonietta Giannattasio
Children 2023, 10(4), 679; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10040679 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) is challenging and often delayed mainly in case of young infants and in presence of an incomplete disease and atypical features. Facial nerve palsy is one of the rare neurologic symptoms of KD, associated with a higher [...] Read more.
The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) is challenging and often delayed mainly in case of young infants and in presence of an incomplete disease and atypical features. Facial nerve palsy is one of the rare neurologic symptoms of KD, associated with a higher incidence of coronary arteries lesions and may be an indicator of a more severe disease. Here, we describe a case of lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy complicating KD and perform an extensive literature review to better characterize clinical features and treatment of patients with KD-associated facial nerve palsy. The patient was diagnosed at the sixth day of disease and presented extensive coronary artery lesions. A prompt treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, aspirin and steroids obtained a good clinical and laboratory response, with resolution of facial nerve palsy and improvement of coronary lesions. The incidence of facial nerve palsy is 0.9–1.3%; it is often unilateral, transient, more frequent on the left and seemingly associated with coronary impairment. Our literature review showed coronary artery involvement in the majority of reported cases (27/35, 77%) of KD with facial nerve palsy. Unexplained facial nerve palsy in young children with a prolonged febrile illness should prompt consideration of echocardiography to exclude KD and start the appropriate treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C and COVID-19)
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4 pages, 224 KiB  
Case Report
Can Breastfeeding Protect from Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C)? A Preliminary Study
by Xavier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Sergio Verd and Sonia Brio
Children 2022, 9(8), 1160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children9081160 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
Background: Breastfeeding prevents Kawasaki disease (KD), as well as several autoimmune disorders. Since there is an overlap between the Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in children following SARS-CoV-2 infection (MIS-C) and KD, this case series aims to analyze the association between breastfeeding and MIS-C. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Breastfeeding prevents Kawasaki disease (KD), as well as several autoimmune disorders. Since there is an overlap between the Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in children following SARS-CoV-2 infection (MIS-C) and KD, this case series aims to analyze the association between breastfeeding and MIS-C. Methods: A series of 16 cases of children with MIS-C admitted to three pediatric facilities between January 2021 and May 2022 were conducted. Breastfeeding rate was estimated through the Brief Breastfeeding and Milk Expression Recall Survey. Results: Out of 16 children, 9 (56%) had been breastfed at birth. Discussion: Our breastfeeding rate is below the median Spanish rate for initial breastfeeding. These findings do not clearly support the hypothesis that breastfeeding might prevent MIS-C. Conclusion: Contrary to the role of breastfeeding in KD prevention, our case series cannot answer with certainty the question about whether or not breastfeeding does protect children against MIS-C. These findings require confirmation in larger studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C and COVID-19)
8 pages, 622 KiB  
Case Report
Efficacy of Anakinra on Multiple Coronary Arteries Aneurysms in an Infant with Recurrent Kawasaki Disease, Complicated by Macrophage Activation Syndrome
by Grazia Bossi, Alessia Claudia Codazzi, Federica Vinci, Edoardo Clerici, Corrado Regalbuto, Carmela Crapanzano, Daniele Veraldi, Alice Moiraghi and Gian Luigi Marseglia
Children 2022, 9(5), 672; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children9050672 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Kawasaki disease (KD) is rare in infants less than 3 months of age, and its recurrence is exceptional. Infants with KD are at higher risk of severe clinical presentation, therapy failure, complications and coronary aneurysms (CAAs), and this is the reason they deserve [...] Read more.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is rare in infants less than 3 months of age, and its recurrence is exceptional. Infants with KD are at higher risk of severe clinical presentation, therapy failure, complications and coronary aneurysms (CAAs), and this is the reason they deserve more aggressive therapy and a strict clinical follow-up. We report a 2-month-old male with KD, complicated by Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS). Despite timely and aggressive therapy with immunoglobulins, steroids and aspirin, multiple CAAs developed. Two-month therapy with anakinra completely reverted all the aneurysms. After six months, the infant experienced KD relapse and was successfully re-treated with immunoglobulins, steroids and aspirin. A strict echocardiographic follow-up did not show recurrence of aneurysms. Two years later, the child is healthy, without cardiac sequelae. In our experience, anakinra was effective in reverting multiple aneurysms and its effect proved to be long-lasting, even in front of KD recurrence. Based on this evidence, it seems reasonable to hypothesize not to limit the use of anakinra as rescue therapy for complicated or refractory KD, but to consider the possibility of adding it to first-line therapies for some subgroups of very-high-risk patients, in order to strengthen the prevention of CAAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C and COVID-19)
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7 pages, 532 KiB  
Case Report
Appendicitis as a Leading Manifestation of Kawasaki Disease in Older Children
by Ya-Ning Huang, Lu-Hang Liu, Jeng-Jung Chen, Yu-Lin Tai, Yih-Cherng Duh and Chien-Yu Lin
Children 2022, 9(2), 193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children9020193 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systematic inflammatory disease with multiple organ involvement. Timely diagnosis and prompt management are essential for successful treatment. KD, with an atypical presentation, remains a diagnostic challenge for physicians. We report a five-year-old boy who presented with appendicitis. An [...] Read more.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systematic inflammatory disease with multiple organ involvement. Timely diagnosis and prompt management are essential for successful treatment. KD, with an atypical presentation, remains a diagnostic challenge for physicians. We report a five-year-old boy who presented with appendicitis. An appendectomy was performed; however, his fever persisted. The boy was diagnosed with KD and intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. His symptoms resolved, and he had an uneventful recovery. Furthermore, we performed a literature review with 13 cases identified in the literature. Most cases were male, and the average age was older than typical for KD. In conclusion, KD may present with abdominal complaints and appendicitis may be a rare initial presentation of KD. Multidisciplinary cooperation and high awareness are warranted for timely diagnosis, especially in older children experiencing persistent fever after an appendectomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kawasaki Disease, MIS-C and COVID-19)
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