Special Issue "Advances in Pediatric Renal Diseases"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Integrative Pediatrics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Anna Di Sessa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Woman, Child and General and Specialized Surgery, University of Studies of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 80138 Napoli, Italy
Interests: pediatric obesity, nutrition, and metabolism; pediatric gastroenterology; pediatric liver diseases; obesity-related comorbidities

Special Issue Information

It is a great honor to serve as the Guest Editor for this Special Issue of Children, entitled “Advances in Pediatric Renal Diseases”. Renal diseases in childhood encompass a very wide range of conditions that significantly impact morbidity and mortality later in life. In particular, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health concern, currently affecting up to 10–15% of the general population. It is a complex, progressive chronic condition that represents a major risk factor not only for end-stage kidney disease but also for cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities.

Given the pathogenic role of the kidney in several biological processes and its involvement in various diseases with growing prevalence worldwide (e.g., diabetes, obesity), there is a need for additional investigation in the field of pediatric renal diseases.

The goal of this Special Issue is to discuss any aspects of pediatric renal diseases to increase our understanding of these conditions, by also sharing knowledge about incompletely understood and controversial areas in this field.

We invite investigators to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles that will stimulate the continuing efforts to improve our understanding in this challenging field. As the title implies, new developments, unconventional, or inspirational contributions are also very encouraged.

We look forward to receiving your contributions

Dr. Anna Di Sessa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • renal function
  • child
  • adolescent
  • kidney injury
  • treatment
  • management
  • innovations

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
New Diagnostic Criteria for Hypertension in Children and Adolescents: Lights and Shadows
Children 2020, 7(11), 196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7110196 - 24 Oct 2020
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Pediatric hypertension (HTN) represents a challenging disease with a major cardiometabolic risk (CMR) burden from childhood to adulthood. In fact, it has been linked to cardiac and vascular damage even at pediatric age and recognized as an independent risk factor for HTN in [...] Read more.
Pediatric hypertension (HTN) represents a challenging disease with a major cardiometabolic risk (CMR) burden from childhood to adulthood. In fact, it has been linked to cardiac and vascular damage even at pediatric age and recognized as an independent risk factor for HTN in adulthood. Therefore, HTN in children has gained remarkable scientific interest during the past decades. However, the availability of different diagnostic classifications complicates HTN definition. The Clinical Practice Guidelines released in 2017 updated the diagnostic criteria, by highlighting some important issues with clinical implications. Lowering the new cut-offs proposed by the CPG, as compared with those proposed by IV Report criteria, will increase the number of young people at risk of hypertension. However, evidence suggests that the CPG cutoff-points in further identifying subjects with an altered CMR profile. Currently, some issues are still debated such as the adoption of a fixed cut-off of BP ≥ 130/80 mmHg for children aged ≥ 13 years, or the adoption of criteria for cardiac damage derived from adults. Given the CMR burden of pediatric HTN, a better and early identification of children at higher HTN risk is strictly recommended in order to improve HTN management to reduce the cardiovascular risk in these youths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Renal Diseases)

Research

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Article
Patterns of Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Acute Kidney Injury in Neonates Receiving Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Children 2020, 7(9), 132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7090132 - 09 Sep 2020
Viewed by 790
Abstract
Elevated urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) predicts acute kidney injury (AKI) in children following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery, but little is known about uNGAL’s predictive ability in neonates in this setting. We sought to determine the relationship between AKI and post-CPB [...] Read more.
Elevated urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) predicts acute kidney injury (AKI) in children following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery, but little is known about uNGAL’s predictive ability in neonates in this setting. We sought to determine the relationship between AKI and post-CPB uNGAL in neonates in the first 72 post-operative hours. Methods: Urine samples for uNGAL analysis were collected at preoperative baseline and serially post-operatively from 76 neonates undergoing CPB. Mixed-effects regression models and logistic models assessed associations between uNGAL and AKI (controlling for sex, gestational age, CPB time, surgical complexity, and age at surgery). Receiver-operator curves were applied to define optimal uNGAL cut-off values for AKI diagnosis. Results: Between 0 and 4 h post-operatively, uNGAL values did not differ between neonates with and without AKI. After 4 h until 16 h post-operatively, significant time-wise separation occurred between uNGAL values of neonates with AKI and those without AKI. Odds ratios at each time point significantly exceeded unity, peaking at 10 h post-operatively (3.48 (1.58, 8.71)). Between 4 and 16 h post-operatively, uNGAL discriminated AKI from no-AKI, with a sensitivity of 0.63 (0.49, 0.75) and a specificity of 0.68 (0.62, 0.74) at a cut-off value of 100 ng/mL. Conclusion: After 4 h until 16 h post-operatively, elevated uNGAL is associated with AKI in neonates receiving CPB during cardiac surgery; however, this relationship is more complex than in older children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Renal Diseases)
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Review

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Review
Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) in Pediatric Renal Diseases: From Pathophysiological Phenomenon to Clinical Biomarker and Beyond
Children 2021, 8(10), 837; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8100837 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, inhibits NO synthesis and contributes to the pathogenesis of many human diseases. In adults, ADMA has been identified as a biomarker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and cardiovascular risk. However, little attention [...] Read more.
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, inhibits NO synthesis and contributes to the pathogenesis of many human diseases. In adults, ADMA has been identified as a biomarker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and cardiovascular risk. However, little attention is given to translating the adult experience into the pediatric clinical setting. In the current review, we summarize circulating and urinary ADMA reported thus far in clinical studies relating to kidney disease in children and adolescents, as well as systematize the knowledge on pathophysiological role of ADMA in the kidneys. The aim of this review is also to show the various analytical methods for measuring ADMA and the issues tht need to be addressed before transforming to clinical practice in pediatric medicine. The last task is to suggest that ADMA may not only be suitable as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker, but also a promising therapeutic strategy to treat pediatric kidney disease in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Renal Diseases)
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Review
Update on the Classification and Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Pediatric Cardiorenal Syndromes
Children 2021, 8(7), 528; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8070528 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 824
Abstract
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is defined as a disorder resulting from the abnormal interaction between the heart and kidney, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ may lead to acute and/or chronic dysfunction of the other. The functional interplay between the heart [...] Read more.
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is defined as a disorder resulting from the abnormal interaction between the heart and kidney, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ may lead to acute and/or chronic dysfunction of the other. The functional interplay between the heart and kidney is characterized by a complex bidirectional symbiotic interaction, regulated by a wide array of both genetic and environmental mechanisms. There are at least five known subtypes of CRS, based on the severity of clinical features and the degree of heart/renal failure. The fourth subtype (cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS4)) is characterized by a primary chronic kidney disease (CKD), which in turn leads to a decreased cardiac function. Impairment of renal function is among the most important pathophysiological factors contributing to heart failure (HF) in the pediatric age group, and cardiovascular complications could be one of the most important causes of mortality in pediatric patients with advanced CKD. In this context, a loss of glomerular filtration rate directly correlates with both the progression of cardiovascular complications in CRS and the risk of HF. This review describes the interaction pathways between the heart and kidney and the recently identified pathophysiological mechanisms underlying pediatric CRS, with a special focus on CRS4, which encompasses both primary CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Renal Diseases)
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Other

Case Report
A Rare Cause of Chronic Hypokalemia with Metabolic Alkalosis: Case Report and Differential Diagnosis
Children 2020, 7(11), 212; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7110212 - 05 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 748
Abstract
Hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis can be present in different rare diseases, and the differential diagnosis of these forms is challenging. Apparent mineralcorticoid (AME) excess syndrome is one of these conditions. Characterized by increased blood pressure due to excessive sodium retention and plasma volume, [...] Read more.
Hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis can be present in different rare diseases, and the differential diagnosis of these forms is challenging. Apparent mineralcorticoid (AME) excess syndrome is one of these conditions. Characterized by increased blood pressure due to excessive sodium retention and plasma volume, it is caused by a mutation in the HSD11B2 gene encoding the oxydoreductase enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroide dehydrogenase type 2. We report the case of a child presenting with failure to thrive associated with early detection of hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, nephrocalcinosis and hypertension in which AME syndrome was detected. A novel mutation in the HSD11B2 gene was identified in this patient. In clinical pictures characterized by metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia, the evaluation of renin, aldosterone and blood pressure is crucial for accurate diagnosis. AME syndrome is a rare disorder that can be an insidious but lethal disease, if untreated. With clinical signs appearing during the first days of life. Early diagnosis is imperative in order to enable prompt and adequate treatment to improve the outcome of these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Renal Diseases)
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