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Special Issue "Advances of Molecular Sciences in Dental Diseases Detection and Treatment"

A special issue of Current Issues in Molecular Biology (ISSN 1467-3045). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Zohaib Khurshid
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, School of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
Interests: dental materials; prosthodontics; dental implantology; saliva; biomolecules; antimicrobial peptides; teaching, learning, and dental education
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

This special issue aims to cover the dental hard and soft tissues diseases diagnosis, detection of associated biomarkers, management, and treatment with the help of molecular biology. With the advancements in the molecular science, it is quite helpful to identify the molecular mechanism of dental diseases such as dental caries, gum diseases and oral cancer. How to detect them in the early phases with different biomarkers present in oral fluids (saliva, GCF, peri-implant fluid) and their management with the help of novel drugs. For this purpose, a plenty of research on proteomics, genomics, and molecular biology has been conducted in relation to gingival, periodontal, and oral diseases. Similarly, gene therapy has evolved rapidly for a range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications in oral health. Recently, we went through with COVID-19 pandemic, and the role of molecular sciences is unbelievably valuable for the isolation of SARS-Cov-2 virus from oral cavity. In addition, various potential oral manifestations of COVID-19 on oral health require investigations at the molecular level. Therefore, the objective of this special issue is to publish high quality articles including original research, reviews, short communications, and clinical trials reporting all the current and past advancement in the diagnosis, investigation, and treatment of oral diseases at the molecular level.

We look forward to receiving the valuable contribution form the researchers and academicians all around the world.

Dr. Zohaib Khurshid
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sohail Zafar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Current Issues in Molecular Biology is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomolecules
  • biomarkers
  • omics
  • dentistry
  • oral cancer
  • caries
  • gum diseases
  • periodontium
  • saliva
  • dental materials
  • oral tissue repair/regeneration
  • diseases detection
  • biosensors
  • oral diagnostics
  • bacterial plaque
  • growth factors
  • gene therapy and genomics
  • bone grafts
  • regenerative medicine
  • COVID-19
  • SARS_CoV-2

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Advanced Glycation End Products Increase Salivary Gland Hypofunction in d-Galactose-Induced Aging Rats and Its Prevention by Physical Exercise
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(3), 2059-2067; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cimb43030142 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 491
Abstract
A declined salivary gland function is commonly observed in elderly people. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging. Although physical exercise is shown to increase various organ functions in human and experimental models, it is not [...] Read more.
A declined salivary gland function is commonly observed in elderly people. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging. Although physical exercise is shown to increase various organ functions in human and experimental models, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in the salivary glands. In the present study, we evaluated the AGEs burden in the salivary gland in the aging process and the protective effect of physical exercise on age-related salivary hypofunction. To accelerate the aging process, rats were peritoneally injected with D-galactose for 6 weeks. Young control rats and d-galactose-induced aging rats in the old group were not exercised. The rats in the physical exercise group ran on a treadmill (12 m/min, 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 6 weeks). The results showed that the salivary flow rate and total protein levels in the saliva of the d-galactose-induced aging rats were reduced compared to those of the young control rats. Circulating AGEs in serum and secreted AGEs in saliva increased with d-galactose-induced aging. AGEs also accumulated in the salivary glands of these aging rats. The salivary gland of aging rats showed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, loss of acinar cells, and apoptosis compared to young control mice. However, physical exercise suppressed all of these age-related salivary changes. Overall, physical exercise could provide a beneficial option for age-related salivary hypofunction. Full article
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Article
Association of Bitter Taste Receptor T2R38 Polymorphisms, Oral Microbiota, and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(3), 1460-1472; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cimb43030103 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
The association of taste genetics and the oral microbiome in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been reported. We explored a novel oral mucosal innate immune pathway involving the bitter taste G protein-coupled receptor T2R38. This case–control study aimed to [...] Read more.
The association of taste genetics and the oral microbiome in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been reported. We explored a novel oral mucosal innate immune pathway involving the bitter taste G protein-coupled receptor T2R38. This case–control study aimed to evaluate whether T2R38 polymorphisms associate with the buccal microbial composition in RA. Genomic DNA was obtained from buccal swabs of 35 RA patients and 64 non-RA controls. TAS2R38 genotypes were determined by Sanger sequencing. The buccal microbiome was assessed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V4-16S rRNA gene. Bacterial community differences were analyzed with alpha and beta diversity measures. Linear discriminant analysis effect size identified taxa discriminating between RA versus non-RA and across TAS2R38 genotypes. TAS2R38 genotype frequency was similar between RA and non-RA controls (PAV/PAV; PAV/AVI; AVI/AVI: RA 42.9%; 45.7%; 11.4% versus controls 32.8%; 48.4%; 18.8%, chi-square (2, N = 99) = 2.1, p = 0.35). The relative abundance of Porphyromonas, among others, differed between RA and non-RA controls. The relative abundance of several bacterial species also differed across TAS2R38 genotypes. These findings suggest an association between T2R38 polymorphisms and RA buccal microbial composition. However, further research is needed to understand the impact of T2R38 in oral health and RA development. Full article
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Article
Effect of Azithromycin on Mineralized Nodule Formation in MC3T3-E1 Cells
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(3), 1451-1459; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cimb43030102 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Azithromycin displays immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and is used to treat inflammatory diseases, including respiratory and odontogenic infections. Few studies have reported the effect of azithromycin therapy on bone remodeling processes. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Azithromycin displays immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and is used to treat inflammatory diseases, including respiratory and odontogenic infections. Few studies have reported the effect of azithromycin therapy on bone remodeling processes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of azithromycin on the osteogenic function of osteoblasts using osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Cells were cultured in the presence of 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL azithromycin, and cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity were determined. In vitro mineralized nodule formation was detected with alizarin red staining. The expression of collagenous and non-collagenous bone matrix protein was determined using real-time PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In cells cultured with 10 µg/mL azithromycin, the ALPase activity and mineralized nodule formation decreased, while the type I collagen, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osteopontin mRNA expression as well as osteopontin and phosphorylated osteopontin levels increased. These results suggest that a high azithromycin concentration (10 µg/mL) suppresses mineralized nodule formation by decreasing ALPase activity and increasing osteopontin production, whereas low concentrations (≤l.0 µg/mL) have no effect on osteogenic function in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Full article
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Article
Changes in the Biomarkers of Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction Are Associated with Cardiovascular Risk in Periodontitis Patients
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(2), 704-715; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cimb43020051 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and periodontitis (PT) show shared risk factors as result of the altered molecular mechanisms associated with pathological conditions. The aim of our study was to evaluate if the plasma biomarkers associated with endothelial dysfunction may also be related [...] Read more.
Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and periodontitis (PT) show shared risk factors as result of the altered molecular mechanisms associated with pathological conditions. The aim of our study was to evaluate if the plasma biomarkers associated with endothelial dysfunction may also be related to alterations in the inflammatory status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Patients with PT, coronary heart disease (CHD), or both diseases as well as controls were enrolled. Plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), 3-nitrotyrosine (NT), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were assessed using HPLC. mRNA levels of caspase-1 (CASP1), NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in PBMC from the recruited subjects were quantified using real-time PCR. Patients with PT + CHD showed lower CoQ10 plasma levels and increased concentrations of NT in comparison to healthy subjects. ADMA levels were higher in CHD and PT + CHD patients compared to controls. Transcript levels of CASP1, NLRP3, and TNF-α were up-regulated in PBMC from all patient groups when compared to healthy subjects. Our results suggest a possible causal link between oxidative stress, high levels of NT and ADMA, and inflammasome activation, which may be involved in the endothelial inflammatory dysfunction leading to the pathogenesis and progression of CHD in PT patients. Full article
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Article
CD44 Sorted Cells Have an Augmented Potential for Proliferation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Stemness, and a Predominantly Inflammatory Cytokine and Angiogenic Secretome
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(1), 423-433; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cimb43010034 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have garnered attention with their potential for early diagnosis and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). It is still indistinct whether CSCs are recognized with a specific set of characteristics. The present study aimed to assess the association [...] Read more.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have garnered attention with their potential for early diagnosis and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). It is still indistinct whether CSCs are recognized with a specific set of characteristics. The present study aimed to assess the association of CD44 with stemness-related, Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition EMT-related genes and the secretome of the CSCs. The single-cell suspension from primary OSCC tumors was prepared by enzymatic digestion and the cells were cultured in-vitro. The cancer stem cells were isolated by CD44+ selection using magnetic cell-sorting. The expression of CD44, proliferation rate, gene expression of EMT-related transcription factors, stemness markers, cytokine levels and angiogenic factors in both cell population was assessed. The sorted CD44+ cells showed significantly higher proliferation rate than heterogenous population. The CD44 expression was >90% in the sorted cells which was higher than the heterogenous cells. The CD44+ CSCs cells demonstrated significant increased levels of EMT-related genes TWIST1 and CDH2 (N-cadherin), CSC-related genes CD44 and CD133 (PROM1), stemness-related genes OCT4, SOX2, inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-12, IL-18 and TNF-α and angiogenic factors Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, bFGF and VEGF while levels of epithelial gene CDH1 (E-cadherin) decreased in comparison to mixed cell population. The genetic and secretome profiling of the CD44+ CSCs could serve as diagnostic and prognostic tools in the treatment of oral cancers. Full article
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Article
Allicin Could Potentially Alleviate Oral Cancer Pain by Inhibiting “Pain Mediators” TNF-alpha, IL-8, and Endothelin
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(1), 187-196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cimb43010016 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
To evaluate the effects of allicin on mediators of pain secreted by oral cancer cells in vitro, single-cell suspensions were prepared by enzymatic method from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cancer stem cells were isolated by the CD133+ selection method with magnetic cell [...] Read more.
To evaluate the effects of allicin on mediators of pain secreted by oral cancer cells in vitro, single-cell suspensions were prepared by enzymatic method from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cancer stem cells were isolated by the CD133+ selection method with magnetic cell sorting. Stemness markers were checked in both cancer cells and cancer stem cells by RT-PCR. Comparative analysis of pain mediators TNF-alpha, IL-8, and endothelin at both RNA and protein levels for normal epithelial cells, cancer cells, and cancer stem cells was carried out with and without allicin treatment. CD133 and CD44 expression levels were checked in cancer cells and cancer stem cells flow cytometrically. Allicin inhibited both gene and protein expression of TNF-alpha, IL-8, and endothelin in both cancer cells and cancer stem cells. Allicin is more likely to be a promising treatment in alleviating the levels of pain and inflammation in OSCCs. Full article
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Review

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Review
Immunomodulatory Expression of Cathelicidins Peptides in Pulp Inflammation and Regeneration: An Update
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(1), 116-126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cimb43010010 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 898
Abstract
The role of inflammatory mediators in dental pulp is unique. The local environment of pulp responds to any changes in the physiology that are highly fundamental, like odontoblast cell differentiation and other secretory activity. The aim of this review is to assess the [...] Read more.
The role of inflammatory mediators in dental pulp is unique. The local environment of pulp responds to any changes in the physiology that are highly fundamental, like odontoblast cell differentiation and other secretory activity. The aim of this review is to assess the role of cathelicidins based on their capacity to heal wounds, their immunomodulatory potential, and their ability to stimulate cytokine production and stimulate immune-inflammatory response in pulp and periapex. Accessible electronic databases were searched to find studies reporting the role of cathelicidins in pulpal inflammation and regeneration published between September 2010 and September 2020. The search was performed using the following databases: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO and PubMed. The electronic search was performed using the combination of keywords “cathelicidins” and “dental pulp inflammation”. On the basis of previous studies, it can be inferred that LL-37 plays an important role in odontoblastic cell differentiation and stimulation of antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, based on these outcomes, it can be concluded that LL-37 plays an important role in reparative dentin formation and provides signaling for defense by activating the innate immune system. Full article
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Other

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Systematic Review
Malondialdehyde, an Oxidative Stress Marker in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(2), 1019-1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb43020072 - 28 Aug 2021
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Objective: To qualitative and quantitatively review published literature assessing the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methodology: Pubmed (MeSH), Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Willey Online Library, Cochrane, and Cross Reference were searched for studies assessing MDA [...] Read more.
Objective: To qualitative and quantitatively review published literature assessing the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methodology: Pubmed (MeSH), Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Willey Online Library, Cochrane, and Cross Reference were searched for studies assessing MDA levels in OSCC samples. Results: From the 1008 articles identified, 849 were excluded based on title and abstract screening due to duplication and irrelevance to the topic of interest. Full-text assessment of the remaining 159 articles led to the inclusion of only 46 articles that satisfied the selection criteria. Of these, only 26 studies had data compatible for quantitative analysis. The MDA levels in OSCC groups are significantly increased (p < 0.00001) in plasma, serum, and saliva samples in the majority of the studies evaluated. In contrast, MDA levels in OSCC tissue samples are significantly attenuated (p < 0.00001) compared to healthy controls, supported by fewer studies. Conclusions: The augmented MDA levels in plasma, serum, and saliva samples of the OSCC reflect the heightened oxidative stress level accurately. Further studies are required to understand the attenuated MDA levels in the tissue samples of OSCC. Correlation analysis between MDA levels with established clinicopathological prognostic markers could aid in formulating oxidative stress-based prognostication and treatment planning. Full article
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