Special Issue "Surface and Interface Analysis of Cultural Heritage"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Claudia Pelosi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Economics, Engineering, Society and Business Organization (DEIM), University of Tuscia, Largo dell’università, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Interests: diagnostics for Cultural Heritage; Chemistry for Restoration; Spectroscopic techniques applied to cultural heritage; multispectral and hyperspectral techniques for Cultural Heritage; conservation and restoration of sacred artworks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Angela Lo Monaco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture and Forest Science, University of Tuscia. Via San Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Interests: wood characterisation; wood anatomy; wood modification; wood coating; mechanical testing; physical testing; wood properties; wood quality; tree growth; forest products; forest resource management; sustainability; wood in cultural heritage; wood in religious art
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit your work to this Special Issue on "Surface and Interface Analysis of Cultural Heritage". Surface and interface analysis is fundamental in cultural heritage (CH) to understand the mechanisms that underlie alterations and consequently to find the most suitable treatment to avoid them. This last issue is particularly relevant in CH because surface treatments are commonly applied to different kinds of artefacts and materials to protect, to restore, to preserve, to recover the aesthetic characteristics. Several commercial formulates are used for these aims, but their interactions with the original materials of artworks and their possible modifications over time have not often been investigated. This could have undesirable effects on surfaces, such as chemical alterations and colour modifications, that clearly need to be avoided. So, it is fundamental in CH to know the surface and interface properties of the materials that constitute artworks both untreated and treated with different kinds of finishes.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest developments in the field through a combination of research papers, communications, and review articles from leading groups around the world that work on surface and interface properties of CH materials and artworks.

Case studies are also welcome. These should report on the monitoring of surface treatments in cultural heritage that have a prominent role in conservation, constituting valuable knowledge in the case of future interventions.

The Special issue will serve as a forum for papers in the following topics:

  • Theoretical and experimental research, knowledge, and new ideas in CH surface and interface analysis to help us understand protective and preventive coating mechanisms.
  • Recent developments in multi-functional organic, inorganic, and hybrid coatings.
  • Experiments on coating performance with exposure to high temperatures, high stress, and other extreme environmental conditions.
  • Understanding the degradation mechanisms of coatings through different spectroscopic techniques combined with mechanical tests.
  • The latest advancements in test methods considering the interplay between mechanical and chemical interactions and the ability to predict performance and/or reliability.
  • Innovative non-invasive techniques to investigate surface and interface characteristics.
  • Computer modeling or simulations to predict coating properties, performance, durability, and reliability in service environments.

Dr. Claudia Pelosi
Prof. Angela Lo Monaco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cultural heritage
  • conservation
  • surface treatments
  • protective coatings
  • non-invasive stratigraphic methods
  • spectroscopic techniques
  • computer modeling
  • test methods

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Methods and Products for the Conservation of Vandalized Urban Art Murals
Coatings 2021, 11(11), 1304; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/coatings11111304 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 495
Abstract
The possibility of contemporary mural paintings to be “tagged” by vandals, with spray and/or markers, represents a serious problem for the conservation of urban art. The present study aims to define the applicability of a protective coating on murals’ surface to preserve them [...] Read more.
The possibility of contemporary mural paintings to be “tagged” by vandals, with spray and/or markers, represents a serious problem for the conservation of urban art. The present study aims to define the applicability of a protective coating on murals’ surface to preserve them against vandalism. The research has been focused on anti-graffiti products currently used in the field of cultural heritage conservation. These products represent an optimum start point to preserve mural artwork from vandal actions. The commercially available anti-graffiti products have been compared with an innovative product, PRO-ART, specifically formulated by YOCOCU in collaboration with Pelicoat, for the conservation of murals. At the same time, it has tested the cleaning of contemporary murals by using different mixtures of solvents and surfactants. The experimentations have been carried out on external walls, followed by the conducting of in situ tests (application tests, empirical evaluations and colorimetric analysis), as well as laboratory investigations (contact angle and optical/electronic microscopy). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Analysis of Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Surface and Interface Investigation of a 15th Century Wall Painting Using Multispectral Imaging and Pulse-Compression Infrared Thermography
Coatings 2021, 11(5), 546; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/coatings11050546 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
Before starting the restoration of an artwork, good practice involves the evaluation of the item healthiness possibly carried out through non-invasive techniques. In the specific case of painting inspection, hyper- and multi- spectral techniques are commonly used to analyze the outer layers (varnish, [...] Read more.
Before starting the restoration of an artwork, good practice involves the evaluation of the item healthiness possibly carried out through non-invasive techniques. In the specific case of painting inspection, hyper- and multi- spectral techniques are commonly used to analyze the outer layers (varnish, pictorial, and drawing), while X-ray, tomography, and many others can be employed to investigate its inner structure. Although highly desirable, a single technique providing all the information about a painting is still not available. Thus, it is of great interest to define the analysis’ protocols that could optimally exploit the complementarities of a minimal set of techniques. To this aim, the present paper shows the combined use of the hypercolorimetric multispectral imaging and pulse-compression thermography on a 15th century wall painting attributed to the Italian artist Antonio del Massaro, also known as Pastura, representing the Madonna with the Child and the Saints Jerome and Francis. The capabilities and the complementarities of the two techniques, whose information can also be fused through post-processing, are illustrated in detail in this paper. In addition, a false-colour imaging approach is proposed to improve the readability and analysis of the thermography results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Analysis of Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Nondestructive Evaluation of Heritage Object Coatings with Four Hyperspectral Imaging Systems
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 244; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/coatings11020244 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Advanced imaging techniques can noninvasively characterise, monitor, and evaluate how conservation treatments affect cultural heritage objects. In this specific field, hyperspectral imaging allows nondestructive characterisation of materials by identifying and characterising colouring agents, binders, and protective coatings as components of an object’s original [...] Read more.
Advanced imaging techniques can noninvasively characterise, monitor, and evaluate how conservation treatments affect cultural heritage objects. In this specific field, hyperspectral imaging allows nondestructive characterisation of materials by identifying and characterising colouring agents, binders, and protective coatings as components of an object’s original construction or later historic additions. Furthermore, hyperspectral imaging can be used to monitor deterioration or changes caused by environmental conditions. This paper examines the potential of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for the evaluation of heritage objects. Four cameras operating in different spectral ranges were used to nondestructively scan a beehive panel painting that originated from the Slovene Ethnographic Museum collection. The specific objective of this research was to identify pigments and binders present in the samples and to spatially map the presence of these across the surface of the art piece. Merging the results with databases created in parallel using other reference methods allows for the identification of materials originally used by the artist on the panel. Later interventions to the original paintings can also be traced as part of past conservation campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Analysis of Cultural Heritage)
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Article
A Multi-Analytical Non-Invasive Approach to Aqueous Cleaning Systems in Treatments on Bowed String Musical Instruments
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/coatings11020150 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 901
Abstract
Restoration and conservation procedures for historical musical instruments involve several issues, also connected with their frequent being played. One of the most delicate procedures for their preservation is the cleaning of surfaces from soil and dirt which have accumulated over the years. In [...] Read more.
Restoration and conservation procedures for historical musical instruments involve several issues, also connected with their frequent being played. One of the most delicate procedures for their preservation is the cleaning of surfaces from soil and dirt which have accumulated over the years. In fact, when external particles reach the surface, a fraction of them can deposit on it. Moreover, the contact with the player can generate chemical-physical changes, rapidly warming and wetting the surfaces through sweat deposition. This work focused on the cleaning methods of surfaces of bowed string musical instruments by a systematic and analytical approach. The selective cleaning procedure of varnished surfaces from grime and soil needs to be performed without compromising the original matter. Therefore, a dirty surface was reproduced on a set of varnished mock-ups and different water-based cleaning systems—generally used by restorers—were tested. The procedures were monitored in each step with several analytical methods: multispectral imaging (near-infrared (NIR), IRFC, visible imaging (VIS), UV-induced visible fluorescence), stereomicroscopy, XRF and FTIR spectroscopies allowed us to non-invasively outline the cleaning system efficacy. The results highlighted different levels of cleaning and, in some cases, it was possible to identify the best selectivity for the different procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Analysis of Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Surface and Interface Treatments on Wooden Artefacts: Potentialities and Limits of a Non-Invasive Multi-Technique Study
Coatings 2021, 11(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/coatings11010029 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Wooden artefacts embrace wide-ranging types of objects, like paintings on panel, sculptures, musical instruments, and furniture. Generally, in the manufacturing process of an artwork, wood is firstly treated with organic and inorganic materials to make it nonporous and morphologically homogeneous, and, at last, [...] Read more.
Wooden artefacts embrace wide-ranging types of objects, like paintings on panel, sculptures, musical instruments, and furniture. Generally, in the manufacturing process of an artwork, wood is firstly treated with organic and inorganic materials to make it nonporous and morphologically homogeneous, and, at last, the surface treatment consists of varnishes or coatings applied with the aims of conferring aesthetic properties and protecting wood from biological growth and external degradation agents, as well as mechanical damage. In this work, different wooden mock-ups were prepared by varying some parameters: concentration of filler and pigment, respectively, in the ground and paint layers, thickness of the protective varnish coat, and sequence of the layers. The mock-ups were subsequently exposed to time-varying artificial aging processes. The multi-analytical non-invasive approach involved spectroscopic (reflection FT-IR, Raman, and X-ray fluorescence), tomographic (optical coherence tomography) and colorimetric techniques. Data were interpreted using both univariate and multivariate methods. The aim was to evaluate potential and limits of each non-invasive technique into the study of different stratigraphies of wooden artworks. This approach was supported by microscopic observations of cross-sections obtained from selected mock-ups. The methodological approach proposed here would add valuable technical know-how and information about the non-invasive techniques applied to the study of wooden artworks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Analysis of Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Investigation of Ancient Architectural Painting from the Taidong Tomb in the Western Qing Tombs, Hebei, China
Coatings 2020, 10(7), 688; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/coatings10070688 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
The Taidong Tomb in the imperial tombs of the Qing dynasties has great aesthetic value and a rich history. In this study, we conducted the first investigation ever performed on the raw materials used in the paintings in the Taidong Tomb. Energy dispersive [...] Read more.
The Taidong Tomb in the imperial tombs of the Qing dynasties has great aesthetic value and a rich history. In this study, we conducted the first investigation ever performed on the raw materials used in the paintings in the Taidong Tomb. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), polarized light microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy (m-RS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) were used to comprehensively analyze the painting of Long’en Hall, Xipei Hall and the ceiling of Minglou. In the conclusion of the study, the paintings were found to contain natural mineral and synthetic pigments, including atacamite (Cu2Cl(OH)3), azurite (2CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), vermilion (HgS), carbon black (C), anglesite (PbSO4), white lead (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2), synthetic emerald green (Cu(CH3COO)2·3Cu(AsO2)2) and ultramarine ((Na,Ca)8(AlSiO4)6(SO4,S,Cl)2). This allows us to conclude that some of the architectural paintings were repainted in the mid-to-late 19th century. The mortar layer may consist of brick ash (albite, gismondine), lime water, tung oil and flour. The fiber layer material may be ramie. Researching the raw materials of the paintings in the Taidong Tomb is of great value because it provides scientific data for the future preservation of the paintings in the tomb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Analysis of Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Non-Invasive On-Site Raman Study of Pigments and Glassy Matrix of 17th–18th Century Painted Enamelled Chinese Metal Wares: Comparison with French Enamelling Technology
Coatings 2020, 10(5), 471; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/coatings10050471 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
A selection of 10 Chinese enamelled metal wares dating from the 17th–18th centuries (Qing Dynasty) was analysed on-site by mobile Raman microspectroscopy. These wares display cloisonné and/or painted enamels and belong to the collections of Musée du Louvre in Paris and Musée Chinois [...] Read more.
A selection of 10 Chinese enamelled metal wares dating from the 17th–18th centuries (Qing Dynasty) was analysed on-site by mobile Raman microspectroscopy. These wares display cloisonné and/or painted enamels and belong to the collections of Musée du Louvre in Paris and Musée Chinois at the Fontainebleau Castle in France. Pigments (Naples yellow lead pyrochlore, hematite, manganese oxide etc.), opacifiers (fluorite, lead arsenates) and corresponding lead-based glassy matrices were identified. One artefact was also analysed by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (pXRF) in order to confirm the Raman data. In some of these metal wares, it is suggested that cassiterite was unpredictably used as an opacifier in some parts of the decor. The results are compared to previous data obtained on Chinese cloisonné and Limoges enamels as well as recent data recorded on painted enamelled porcelains of the Qing Dynasty. Lead arsenate apatite detected in some of the 17th–18th century blue enamelled decors is related to the use of arsenic-rich European cobalt ores, as also characterized in French soft-paste porcelain and glass decors and high-quality Limoges enamels for the same period. However, lead arsenate could then also have been deliberately used for white opacification. The specific Raman signature displaying the shape of the Raman scattering background indicates the presence of colloidal gold (Au° nanoparticles) in red to violet enamelled and cloisonné areas. At least three types of Naples yellow lead pyrochlore pigments identified with Sb-rich, Sn-rich and mixed Sb–Sn–(Zn, Fe?) compositions prove the use of European pigments/recipes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Analysis of Cultural Heritage)
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