Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 2nd International Online Conference on Crystals"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Reshef Tenne
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Interests: nanoparticles synthesis; solid state chemistry; characterization of nanoparticles
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Zoran Radić
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Interests: Enzyme kinetics, catalytic mechanisms, protein structure, cholinesterase structure/activity, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, cholinesterase inhibition, cholinesterase reactivation, antidotes against organophosphate intoxication, structure-based antidote design
Dr. Anna Moliterni
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Institute of Crystallography (IC), CNR (National Research Council), 700185 Roma, Italy
Interests: Ab-initio structure determination by powder diffraction data; computational crystallography; qualitative phase analysis; quantitative phase analysis; Rietveld refinement; structure determination and refinement by single crystal diffraction data; data collection and processing
Prof. Dr. Robert F. Klie
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Interests: transmission electron microscopy; scanning transmission electron microscopy; electron energy-loss spectroscopy; correlated oxides; molecular beam epitaxy; electron beam diffraction; magnetism
Dr. Rocco Caliandro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Crystallography, CNR, Bari, Italy
Interests: protein crystallography; phasing algorithms; molecular dynamics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Dritan Siliqi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Crystallography- CNR, Via G. Amendola, 122/O 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: protein crystallography; small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS); BioSAXS; biological molecules; rare diseases; phasing algorithm; nano- and bio-materials; X-ray imaging
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises selected papers from the Proceedings of the 2nd International Online Conference on Crystals (Crystals 2020), 10–20 November, 2020, held on sciforum.net, an online platform for hosting scholarly e-conferences and discussion groups.

After the 1st Electronic Conference on Crystals, held in 2018, which offered the opportunity for researchers engaged in the study of crystalline materials to present their research and exchange ideas with their colleagues by taking full advantage of the Internet, removing the need to travel and participation expenses, we found it appropriate to renew the experience to gather contributions from more significant advances made in the last two years. These stems from advances in experimental (both diffractometric and spectroscopic) and computational techniques for research in many different areas, from pharmaceutical, to materials and biomolecular science. The second conference will be organized around the following topics and related themes.

  • Liquid Crystals
  • Crystalline Materials
  • Crystal Engineering
  • Biomolecular Crystals
  • Crystalline Minerals and Biominerals
  • Phase Transformations in Crystalline Materials
  • Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering Applied to Nano- and Biomaterials
  • Software/Tools to Deal with Crystal and Crystallographic Issues & Teaching Crystallography
  • Structure of Cholinesterases

Selected papers that attract the most interest on the web or that provide a particularly innovative contribution will be selected for publication. These papers will be subjected to peer review and published with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications. We hope this Conference Series will continue to grow in acceptance and recognition by potential participants, contributors, experts who want to disseminate their latest findings, and readers who seek for information on relevant water science topics.

Prof. Dr. Reshef Tenne
Prof. Zoran Radić
Dr. Anna Moliterni
Prof. Dr. Robert Klie
Dr. Rocco Caliandro
Dr. Dritan Siliqi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Optofluidic Platform Based on Liquid Crystals in X-Cut Lithium Niobate: Thresholdless All-Optical Response
Crystals 2021, 11(8), 908; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryst11080908 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
In this study, we present a new configuration of the recently reported optofluidic platform exploiting liquid crystals reorientation in lithium niobate channels. In order to avoid the threshold behaviour observed in the optical control of the device, we propose microchannels realized in a [...] Read more.
In this study, we present a new configuration of the recently reported optofluidic platform exploiting liquid crystals reorientation in lithium niobate channels. In order to avoid the threshold behaviour observed in the optical control of the device, we propose microchannels realized in a x-cut crystal closed by a z-cut crystal on the top. In this way, the light-induced photovoltaic field is not uniform inside the liquid crystal layer and therefore the conditions for a thresholdless reorientation are realized. We performed simulations of the photovoltaic effect based on the well assessed model for Lithium Niobate, showing that not uniform orientation and value of the field should be expected inside the microchannel. In agreement with the re-orientational properties of nematic liquid crystals, experimental data confirm the expected thresholdless behaviour. The observed liquid crystal response exhibits two different regimes and the response time shows an unusual dependence on light intensity, both features indicating the presence of additional photo-induced fields appearing above a light intensity of 107 W/m2. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Int3D: A Data Reduction Software for Single Crystal Neutron Diffraction
Crystals 2021, 11(8), 897; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryst11080897 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 552
Abstract
We describe a new software package for the data reduction of single crystal neutron diffraction using large 2D detectors. The software consists of a graphical user interface from which the user can visualize, interact with and process the data. The data reduction is [...] Read more.
We describe a new software package for the data reduction of single crystal neutron diffraction using large 2D detectors. The software consists of a graphical user interface from which the user can visualize, interact with and process the data. The data reduction is achieved by sequentially executing a series of programs designed for performing the following tasks: peak detection, indexing, refinement of the orientation matrix and motor offsets, and integration. The graphical tools of the software allow visualization of and interaction with the data in two and three dimensions, both in direct and reciprocal spaces. They make it easy to validate the different steps of the data reduction and will be of great help in the treatment of complex problems involving incommensurate structures, twins or diffuse scattering. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dynamic and Photonic Properties of Field-Induced Gratings in Flexoelectric LC Layers
Crystals 2021, 11(8), 894; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryst11080894 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
For LCs with a non-zero flexoelectric coefficient difference (e1e3) and low dielectric anisotropy, electric fields exceeding certain threshold values result in transitions from the homogeneous planarly aligned state to the spatially periodic one. Field-induced grating is characterized [...] Read more.
For LCs with a non-zero flexoelectric coefficient difference (e1e3) and low dielectric anisotropy, electric fields exceeding certain threshold values result in transitions from the homogeneous planarly aligned state to the spatially periodic one. Field-induced grating is characterized by rotation of the LC director about the alignment axis with the wavevector of the grating oriented perpendicular to the initial alignment direction. The rotation sign is defined by both the electric field vector and the sign of the (e1e3) difference. The wavenumber characterizing the field-induced periodicity is increased linearly with the applied voltage starting from a threshold value of about π/d, where d is the thickness of the layer. Two sets of properties of the field-induced gratings are studied in this paper using numerical simulations: (i) the dynamics of the grating appearance and relaxation; (ii) the transmittance and reflectance spectra, showing photonic stop bands in the waveguide mode. It is shown that under ideal conditions, the characteristic time of formation for a spatially limited grating is determined by the amplitude of the electric voltage and the size of the grating itself in the direction of the wave vector. For large gratings, this time can be drastically reduced via spatial modulation of the LC anchoring on one of the alignment surfaces. In the last case, the time is defined not by the grating size, but the period of the spatial modulation of the anchoring. The spectral structure of the field-induced stop bands and their use in LC photonics are also discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Phase Stability and Transport Properties of (ZrO2)0.91−x(Sc2O3)0.09(Yb2O3)x Crystals (x = 0–0.01)
Crystals 2021, 11(2), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryst11020083 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Phase stability and transport properties of (ZrO2)0.91−x(Sc2O3)0.09(Yb2O3)x crystals (x = 0–0.01) have been studied before and after air annealing at 1000 °C for 400 h. The crystals have [...] Read more.
Phase stability and transport properties of (ZrO2)0.91−x(Sc2O3)0.09(Yb2O3)x crystals (x = 0–0.01) have been studied before and after air annealing at 1000 °C for 400 h. The crystals have been grown by radio frequency (RF) heating in a cold crucible. The microstructure, phase composition, and electrical conductivity of the crystals have been studied using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. Phase stability and degradation of ionic conductivity of the crystals upon long-term high-temperature heat treatment have been discussed. We show that the stabilization of ZrO2 co-doped with 9 mol.% Sc2O3 and 1 mol.% Yb2O3 provides transparent uniform crystals with the pseudocubic t″ phase structure having high phase stability. Crystals of this composition had the highest conductivity in the entire temperature range. Long-term high-temperature annealing of these crystals did not lead to conductivity degradation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Interplay of Nanoparticle Properties during Endocytosis
Crystals 2021, 11(7), 728; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryst11070728 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 511
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied as drug carriers in drug delivery, due to their unique physical and structural properties. To achieve the drug delivery purpose, receptor-mediated endocytosis is a primary explored mechanism to internalize NPs into tumor cells. During the endocytosis process, [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied as drug carriers in drug delivery, due to their unique physical and structural properties. To achieve the drug delivery purpose, receptor-mediated endocytosis is a primary explored mechanism to internalize NPs into tumor cells. During the endocytosis process, properties of NPs, including size, shape, and surface functionality, play an important role in determining the final drug delivery efficacy. Many of these NP properties have been extensively explored individually. However, the multiple NP properties naturally interplay with each other in the endocytosis process to determine the internalization efficiency together. Therefore, it is significantly important to understand the interplay of different NP properties to improve the NP’s final delivery efficacy. In this review, we focus on the interplay of NPs properties on the endocytosis process to summarize the relevant experimental observations and physical mechanisms. Particularly, three different aspects are discussed in detail, including the interplay between size and shape; size and elasticity; shape and elasticity. We have summarized the most recent works and highlighted that building up systematic understandings for the complex interplay between NP properties can greatly help a better design of NP platforms for drug delivery. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Patterned Photoalignment in Thin Films: Physics and Applications
Crystals 2021, 11(2), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cryst11020084 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
Photoalignment of liquid crystals by using azo dye molecules is a commonly proposed alternative to traditional rubbing alignment methods. Photoalignment mechanism can be well described in terms of rotational diffusion of azo dye molecules exposed by ultraviolet polarized light. A specific feature of [...] Read more.
Photoalignment of liquid crystals by using azo dye molecules is a commonly proposed alternative to traditional rubbing alignment methods. Photoalignment mechanism can be well described in terms of rotational diffusion of azo dye molecules exposed by ultraviolet polarized light. A specific feature of the irradiated light is the intensity dependent change of azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals. While there are various mechanisms of azo dye photoalignment, photo-reorientation occurs when dye molecules orient themselves perpendicular to the polarization of incident light. In this review, we describe both recent achievements in applications of photoaligned liquid crystal cells and its simulation. A variety of display and photonic devices with azo dye aligned nematic and ferroelectric liquid crystals are presented: q-plates, optically rewritable flexible e-paper (monochromatic and color), and Dammann gratings. Some theoretical aspects of the alignment process and display simulation are also considered. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop