Special Issue "Sport and Dental Traumatology"

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Enrico Spinas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
Interests: Sports Medicine; Pediatric Dentistry; Dental Trauma; Prosthodontic; Orthodontics and Forensic Dentistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

I believe that, in the wide field of dental research, an area not sufficiently and organically explored remains that of the oral and dental traumatology problems in sports activities.

This topic concerns at least 30% of the world’s young and adult population in its various aspects and causes many medical and social organization problems.

Particular attention should be paid to primary and secondary prevention, with particular focus on adolescents and young adult age groups and, also, to the finalization and development of clear and organic therapeutic protocols that can mitigate the serious functional and aesthetic consequences that a late or incomplete therapeutic approach often can causes.

With this Special Issue, we wish to collect the best current contributions in this wide field of study with particular attention to the treatment of injuries involving pulp and supporting tissues (avulsions and luxations) and in the selection and adoption of effective protective systems (mouth guard) to soften the consequences of such serious injuries at any age and condition of use (sport tipology). With these contributions, this Special Issue plans to clarify the state of research in the field of oral bacterial flora in athletes and its influence in response to the aforementioned traumatic events.

Prof. Dr. Enrico Spinas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental trauma
  • mouth guard
  • pulp injuries
  • luxation injuries
  • orthodontic splint

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Direct versus Indirect Techniques to Menage Uncomplicated Crown Fractures of Anterior Teeth Following Dentoalveolar Trauma
Dent. J. 2021, 9(2), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9020013 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Dental trauma are the most common reasons for dental fractures in the anterior area, they have an incidence of 5% in the population, and in permanent teeth, they are mainly caused by sports. The most involved teeth are the maxillary anterior teeth. Direct [...] Read more.
Dental trauma are the most common reasons for dental fractures in the anterior area, they have an incidence of 5% in the population, and in permanent teeth, they are mainly caused by sports. The most involved teeth are the maxillary anterior teeth. Direct composite restorations and indirect ceramic restorations are the therapy of choice for restoring anterior teeth after fracture when is not possible to reattach the tooth fragment. The treatment options in uncomplicated coronal fractures depend on various factors such as the amount of residual dentinal enamel tissue, the relationship with the gingival profiles, and the age of the patient. The purpose of this article is to discuss the option of using direct or indirect restorative techniques in the treatment of traumatically fractured anterior teeth and to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Article
Extrusive Luxation Injuries in Young Patients: A Retrospective Study with 5-Year Follow-Up
Dent. J. 2020, 8(4), 136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8040136 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the chosen diagnostic and therapeutic approach (repositioning and splinting methods) on the risk, frequency and timing of the onset of pulp canal obliteration and pulp necrosis following extrusive luxation in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the chosen diagnostic and therapeutic approach (repositioning and splinting methods) on the risk, frequency and timing of the onset of pulp canal obliteration and pulp necrosis following extrusive luxation in young patients with permanent dentition. (2) Methods: From an initial sample of 50 subjects affected by extrusive luxation, were selected the clinical data of 13 patients presenting extrusive luxation but no other type of injury to the dental hard tissue. All teeth were examined according to a standardized protocol. Follow-up examinations were performed at regular intervals for 5 years. Statistical associations between pulp consequences and several covariates were assessed using the Mann–Whitney test and Fisher’s exact test. (3) Results: Among the 13 studied teeth, only 1 healed completely, whereas 9 showed pulp obliteration and 3 developed pulp necrosis. No tooth with obliteration developed pulp necrosis. The average time to treatment was 11.9 h. The treatment approaches used were manual repositioning, orthodontic repositioning and stabilization splinting. “Time to treatment” was the only covariate that showed a weak statistical association with the onset of pulp consequences. (4) Conclusions: There is still uncertainty over the most appropriate therapeutic approach to adopt in young patients with extrusive luxation injuries, particularly for repositioning of the injured tooth. Extruded teeth should be treated as soon as possible after the traumatic event. This study highlighted the value of orthodontic repositioning of the extruded tooth, which does not seem to aggravate the conditions of the dental pulp. In addition, the study confirmed that prophylactic endodontic treatment is not appropriate for immature teeth affected by extrusive luxation injuries, given the extreme rarity of pulp necrosis in teeth already affected by pulp obliteration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Review

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Review
The Impact of Sport Training on Oral Health in Athletes
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050051 - 03 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
Athletes’ oral health appears to be poor in numerous sport activities and different diseases can limit athletic skills, both during training and during competitions. Sport activities can be considered a risk factor, among athletes from different sports, for the onset of oral diseases, [...] Read more.
Athletes’ oral health appears to be poor in numerous sport activities and different diseases can limit athletic skills, both during training and during competitions. Sport activities can be considered a risk factor, among athletes from different sports, for the onset of oral diseases, such as caries with an incidence between 15% and 70%, dental trauma 14–70%, dental erosion 36%, pericoronitis 5–39% and periodontal disease up to 15%. The numerous diseases are related to the variations that involve the ecological factors of the oral cavity such as salivary pH, flow rate, buffering capability, total bacterial count, cariogenic bacterial load and values of secretory Immunoglobulin A. The decrease in the production of S-IgA and the association with an important intraoral growth of pathogenic bacteria leads us to consider the training an “open window” for exposure to oral cavity diseases. Sports dentistry focuses attention on the prevention and treatment of oral pathologies and injuries. Oral health promotion strategies are needed in the sports environment. To prevent the onset of oral diseases, the sports dentist can recommend the use of a custom-made mouthguard, an oral device with a triple function that improves the health and performance of athletes. During training, the sports dentist must monitor the athletes and the sports examination protocol must be implemented with the inclusion of the clinical examination, quantitative and qualitative analysis of saliva and instructions on the use, cleansing and storage of the mouthguard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Review
Sport and Dental Traumatology: Surgical Solutions and Prevention
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030033 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Trauma is a worldwide cause of millions of deaths and severe injuries every year, all over the world. Despite the limited extension of the oral region compared to the whole body, dental and oral injuries account for a fairly high percentage of all [...] Read more.
Trauma is a worldwide cause of millions of deaths and severe injuries every year, all over the world. Despite the limited extension of the oral region compared to the whole body, dental and oral injuries account for a fairly high percentage of all body traumas. Among head and neck traumas, dental and facial injuries are highly correlated to sport activities, and their management can be a real challenge for practitioners of any specialty. In case of trauma directed to periodontal structures, restorative and endodontic solutions may not be sufficient to achieve a definitive and long-lasting treatment. This article aims to illustrate surgical options and appliances to prevent dental injuries that may be available to the clinicians treating dental trauma involving oral soft and hard tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Review
Use of Orthodontic Methods in the Treatment of Dental Luxations: A Scoping Review
Dent. J. 2021, 9(2), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9020018 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
(1) Background: Treating dental luxation injuries is challenging for the clinician. Dental luxations account for 18–33% of injuries to permanent teeth and can be addressed using different therapeutic approaches. The present work was conducted with two aims: (i) to evaluate, through a scoping [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Treating dental luxation injuries is challenging for the clinician. Dental luxations account for 18–33% of injuries to permanent teeth and can be addressed using different therapeutic approaches. The present work was conducted with two aims: (i) to evaluate, through a scoping review, current knowledge of the orthodontic methods (repositioning and stabilization splinting) that can be used at the time of the trauma, and (ii) to investigate the frequency and type of pulp consequences arising after these traumatic injuries. (2) Methods: The literature search was conducted in the period June 2020–December 2020 using the PubMed/MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. The research questions were formulated according to the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes) method and considered the following aspects: type of luxation injury and stage of root development; use of orthodontic repositioning and splinting techniques; frequency and type of pulp consequences; and compliance of treatments with international guidelines. (3) Results: The initial screening of the databases, using the selected search keywords, yielded a total of 587 articles, just 8 fully met the inclusion criteria. Closer analysis of these 8 publications revealed that they would not produce clear meta-analytical data. This made it necessary to limit the data collected to the following six items: number and type of injuries, initial therapeutic intervention, duration of follow-up, number, and type of different pulp consequences. (4) Conclusions: While orthodontic techniques are commonly used to treat dental intrusions, in the case of extrusive and lateral luxation injuries, they are less frequently used and the orthodontic approach is generally confined to the stabilization phase. Among the various possible pulp consequences, many authors consider only pulp canal obliteration (PCO) and pulp necrosis (PN), often tending to overlook physiological healing (pulp survival) and the possible development of PN after PCO. There is therefore a clear need for new, high-quality clinical studies of this topic based on systematic and standardized data collection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Other

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Case Report
Root Fracture and Extrusive Luxation in Primary Teeth and Their Management: A Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(9), 107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9090107 - 11 Sep 2021
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Background: Extrusion, lateral luxation, and intrusion are among the most serious types of dental trauma. Only a few studies have specifically focused on extrusion; the present one was aimed at reporting a case of domestic traumatic dental injury to primary tooth and describing [...] Read more.
Background: Extrusion, lateral luxation, and intrusion are among the most serious types of dental trauma. Only a few studies have specifically focused on extrusion; the present one was aimed at reporting a case of domestic traumatic dental injury to primary tooth and describing the measures taken in managing the trauma in order to avoid future consequences to the underlying permanent tooth germ. Case report: A 3.5-year-old boy reported a dental injury with extrusion and root fracture of deciduous tooth 5.1. After intraoral and radiographic evaluation, the element was repositioned and stabilized by an orthodontic flexible splint attached to the adjacent teeth. Several follow-up checkups were made and showed good healing of the tissues and physiological exfoliation of the tooth, with a healthy and unaffected corresponding central permanent incisor. Conclusion: This case report strengthens the importance of well-timed diagnosis and treatment and of regular follow-up of traumatized teeth as they may affect both dentitions with a negative impact on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life. Conservative treatment should be taken into consideration when possible, being in some cases more appropriate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Case Report
External Root Resorption Management of an Avulsed and Reimplanted Central Incisor: A Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060072 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Background: Avulsion and reimplantation of permanent teeth represent a major challenge in terms of treatment and long-term prognosis. The present study reported clinical management of external root resorption of an avulsed and reimplanted maxillary central incisor. Case report: A 9-year-old boy [...] Read more.
Background: Avulsion and reimplantation of permanent teeth represent a major challenge in terms of treatment and long-term prognosis. The present study reported clinical management of external root resorption of an avulsed and reimplanted maxillary central incisor. Case report: A 9-year-old boy reported an uncomplicated crown fracture and avulsion of tooth 11 and complicated crown fracture of tooth 21 due to trauma. Reimplantation of element 11 was obtained within 30 min post-trauma and 3 days after both elements were diagnosed with necrotic pulp. In addition, tooth 11 showed early external root resorption. Both elements underwent endodontic treatment and root closure with apical plug using calcium-silicate-based cement. At 6-month follow-up root resorption appeared to be arrested. Twenty-four months after trauma the clinical results were stable, although signs and symptoms of ankylosis were observed. Conclusions: An immediate endodontic approach and use of calcium-silicate-based cement seemed to contrast the progression of root resorption of an avulsed and reimplanted central incisor after 24 months of follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Case Report
Conservative Non-Surgical Management of Horizontal Root-Fractured Maxillary Incisors in a Young Male with Angle Class II, Division 2, Malocclusion
Dent. J. 2021, 9(5), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9050055 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Horizontal root fractures are a rare emergency in a dental office. The injury involves periodontal ligament, cementum, dentine and pulp. The healing is influenced by the location of the root fracture, the displacement of the fragments and the status of the pulp. This [...] Read more.
Horizontal root fractures are a rare emergency in a dental office. The injury involves periodontal ligament, cementum, dentine and pulp. The healing is influenced by the location of the root fracture, the displacement of the fragments and the status of the pulp. This report presents a clinical case of horizontal fractures to both maxillary central incisors due to an act of violence. The type of occlusion has avoided a severe diastasis of the coronal parts with a subsequent damage to the pulp and periodontum. The fractures were treated with an orthodontic splint without any further therapy and hard tissue healing was observed. A careful diagnosis and well-timed treatment planning usually allow a cost-efficient and biologically-oriented therapy with a favorable outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Case Report
Combined Management of Apical Root Fracture and Avulsion of Two Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors: A Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040039 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
As a result of a skiing accident, a ten-year-old girl suffered combined injuries to both maxillary central incisor teeth (#1.1 and #2.1). The injuries were uncomplicated crown fractures, apical horizontal root fractures, and a severe extrusive luxation of the coronal segments of the [...] Read more.
As a result of a skiing accident, a ten-year-old girl suffered combined injuries to both maxillary central incisor teeth (#1.1 and #2.1). The injuries were uncomplicated crown fractures, apical horizontal root fractures, and a severe extrusive luxation of the coronal segments of the teeth. Her mother repositioned the teeth immediately, resulting in good initial healing. Nine months later, the patient was referred to a specialist to manage the endodontic consequences of the trauma. The apexification treatment of the fractured roots, using a preformed apical barrier technique with bioactive cement, was the treatment of choice, administered to both the avulsed roots at two separate recall visits. The best option for managing the fractured apical segments was to continue with the follow-up, which was conducted to assess the overall case at 30 months. The fractured apexes remained normally positioned inside the socket and were asymptomatic (as they presumably maintained a physiological vascular-nerve supply and, consequently, their vitality), while the apexification treatment led to the healing of the periodontal tissues and to hard tissue formation in the area of the interrupted roots in the avulsed portion of the teeth. The management of traumatic injuries in teeth often requires multiple treatment approaches, because these injuries rarely represent one single type of trauma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Case Report
Management of the Sequelae of a Sport-Related Traumatic Dental Injury Using Ultrasound Examination in the Diagnosis and Follow-Up
Dent. J. 2021, 9(3), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9030027 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 725
Abstract
About a quarter of all oral pathologies involving the oral cavity and dental apparatus are traumatic injuries, and a substantial number of these cases are the result of sports injuries affecting adolescents and young adults. Here, we report the case of a 25-year-old [...] Read more.
About a quarter of all oral pathologies involving the oral cavity and dental apparatus are traumatic injuries, and a substantial number of these cases are the result of sports injuries affecting adolescents and young adults. Here, we report the case of a 25-year-old healthy female referred to the department of Endodontics for the evaluation and management of teeth 1.2 and 1.1 because of a chronic apical abscess in an area involved in a sport-related dental trauma in the past. A multi-modular diagnostic assessment, comprising conventional periapical radiographs, CBCT imaging, ultrasound, and histopathologic examination, led to a final diagnosis of an apical granulomatous lesion connected to both teeth, and an associated sinus tract. During the follow-up period of three years, the patient was reviewed twice a year and showed progressive healing of the bone and absence of the sinus tract. The present report shows the challenges of diagnosing complications arising from past dental trauma. Furthermore, it is the first documented traumatic case where ultrasound examination was fruitfully used. Emphasis should be put on introducing diagnostic ultrasound for the management of both apical periodontitis and the related sinus tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Case Report
Complex Implant-Prosthetic Rehabilitation Following Sports Trauma with 14 Years of Follow-Up: Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9010006 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Tooth loss after traumatic dental injuries (TDI) often requires rehabilitation with a multidisciplinary treatment plan. In growing patients, the therapeutic approach may be different than in adults; the scientific literature offers alternative solutions even if they involve long, complex and uncomfortable treatments. Among [...] Read more.
Tooth loss after traumatic dental injuries (TDI) often requires rehabilitation with a multidisciplinary treatment plan. In growing patients, the therapeutic approach may be different than in adults; the scientific literature offers alternative solutions even if they involve long, complex and uncomfortable treatments. Among the possible therapeutic options, implant-prosthetic treatment through the use of mini-implants is presented in this complex case report with a 14-year follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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