Topical Collection "Light and Laser Dentistry"

A topical collection in Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767). This collection belongs to the section "Lasers in Dentistry".

Editors

Prof. Dr. Samir Nammour
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Dental Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
Interests: oral surgery; laser dentistry; fluoride; dentinal adhesives; dentinal hypersensitivity; peri-implantitis; periodontitis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Aldo Brugnera Junior
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
European Master in Oral Laser Applications (EMDOLA), University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
Interests: photobiomodulation; laser dentistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to submit your studies, letters, case reports and any overviews related to the keywords of our sub-editorial board. Several studies are currently focusing on the materials and lights used daily in practices. Their interactions with oral tissues can induce, produce or provoke biological effects that can be appreciated or unwished. Knowledge of their process of interaction is necessary to improve the quality of treatments or products and to avoid side effects. Furthermore, several lights have been proposed for oral treatments in different fields. The understanding of their effects on biological material can improve or prohibit their applications (e.g., bio-activation, bio-modulation, magnetic properties, mechanical properties, chemical properties, tissue overheating, etc.). Thus, studies focused on light applications, matters used in oral treatments and fundamental studies can enlighten us the interaction process with biological oral tissues and improve the quality of oral treatments. In the oral environment, there are both hard (bone and teeth) and soft (gingival and mucosal tissues) tissues, providing complex functions and aesthetics. Treatment modalities including light energy should specifically target these tissues for the best biological responses and clinical outcomes. Thus, research and clinical studies focused on the application of light on the various oral tissues would enlighten the biological and interactive mechanisms that can eventually improve the quality of treatment for oral conditions and needs.

Prof. Dr. Samir Nammour
Prof. Aldo Brugnera Junior
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Light applications
  • Light interaction with biological oral tissues
  • Clinical applications using a new material
  • Interaction between materials and oral tissues
  • Case reports
  • Basic research including molecular biology
  • Properties of light-emitting sources including lasers for oral tissues
  • Bio-interactive mechanisms—wavelengths, parameters, indications
  • Clinical studies of such applications
  • New materials and advantages
  • Limitations and risks

Published Papers (7 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018

Review
Laser Treatment of Peri-Implantitis: A Systematic Review of Radiographic Outcomes
Dent. J. 2022, 10(2), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj10020020 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1874
Abstract
(1) Background: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of laser therapy on radiographic bone level (RBL) changes in peri-implantitis defects. (2) Methods: A literature search with defined inclusion criteria was performed. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of laser therapy on radiographic bone level (RBL) changes in peri-implantitis defects. (2) Methods: A literature search with defined inclusion criteria was performed. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched through September 2020. The evaluated primary outcomes were RBL changes. In studies that reported RBL data, corresponding secondary clinical outcomes were probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL). (3) Results: Thirteen articles were selected for data extraction and risk of bias assessment. Eight studies showed evidence of RBL gain in the laser groups compared to baseline, but did not report the statistical significance. Eight of these 13 studies reported comparisons to control. Five of the eight studies did not show RBL gain in the laser groups compared to control. In the laser groups compared to baseline, 11 of 13 reported reduced PD, and 6 of 13 reported significantly reduced BOP. Compared to the control, eight of the eight reported reduction of PD, and three of six reported significantly reduced BOP. Statistical significance was not consistently reported. (4) Conclusions: Within the limits of this systematic review, laser treatment may promote bone gain in peri-implantitis defects, may reduce BOP and PDs, and may be comparable to mechanical therapy. However, definitive conclusions can only be made with statistically significant data, which were found lacking in the currently available studies. This systematic review was registered with the National Institute for Health Research, international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42020207972. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022, 2020, 2019, 2018

Case Report
Uncovering and Autonomous Eruption of Palatally Impacted Canines—A Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(6), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9060066 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
The impaction of permanent maxillary canine is a common clinical occurrence, and it is observed in 2% of patients who require orthodontic treatment. This case report describes a new orthodontic-surgical approach through the use of CO2 laser, for the exposure of the [...] Read more.
The impaction of permanent maxillary canine is a common clinical occurrence, and it is observed in 2% of patients who require orthodontic treatment. This case report describes a new orthodontic-surgical approach through the use of CO2 laser, for the exposure of the palatally impacted canines. A 13-year-old female referred to our observation to make an orthodontic examination because of the maxillary primary canines’ persistence in upper arch. Orthopanoramic X-ray showed impaction of both permanent maxillary canines. The family history revealed that the patient’s mother had the same orthodontic problem. Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT) was requested to plan the surgical-orthodontic treatment. Surgical exposure of the impacted canines was performed using a CO2 laser and subsequent periodontal pack application. No orthodontic devices were applied for impacted teeth traction on dental arch. Canines’ movement was monitored at 1, 8 and 16 weeks post-surgery with photo and intraoral scanner CS3500 (CS3500®, Carestream Health, Atlanta, GA, USA). When canine crowns were completely erupted on palatal side, the alignment in the arch with indirect bonding technique was performed. Complete disimpaction of canine crowns was obtained in only four months. As reported in the literature, this case confirms that impacted canines’ exposure to CO2 laser has advantages if compared with traditional surgery: no bleeding during and after the procedure, decontaminant effect on the surgical area, no suture, and a fast spontaneous eruption. Conclusions: The pre-orthodontic uncovering and autonomous eruption of palatally impacted maxillary canines provides simplified, predictable, and more aesthetic outcomes. Furthermore, a significant positive factor is that there is no need to carry out the orthodontic traction of the impacted element, undoubtedly better compliance by the patient during the next alignment phase with the fix orthodontic appliance. Full article
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Article
Novel Femto Laser Patterning of High Translucent Zirconia as an Alternative to Conventional Particle Abrasion
Dent. J. 2021, 9(2), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9020020 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Background: currently applied surface treatments for zirconia bonding may create undesired microcracks and surface flaws. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of alternative surface treatments on the shear bond strength of high translucency zirconia to 10-Methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate [...] Read more.
Background: currently applied surface treatments for zirconia bonding may create undesired microcracks and surface flaws. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of alternative surface treatments on the shear bond strength of high translucency zirconia to 10-Methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-containing resin-based cement. Methods: fifty disk-shaped specimens (10 mm × 5 mm) were fabricated from a commercial yttria-stabilized zirconia with 5 mole% yttrium oxide tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (5Y-TZP), and underwent air-abrasion with alumina particles (50 μm-AL50 and 90 μm-AL90), glass beads (GB 10–60 μm), and ablation with femtosecond laser (FEMTO). Shear bond strength was evaluated with a universal testing machine under a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Fracture type was evaluated with an optical stereomicroscope. Differences among groups were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni pairwise comparison tests (p < 0.05). Results: the highest shear bond strength values were presented by the laser treated group (23.97 ± 3.7 MPa). No statistically significant differences were found among the Cl, Al50, Al90 and FEMTO groups. The lowest mean value was presented by the glass-beads treated group (11.93 ± 2.88 MPa) which was significantly lower compared to all other groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: under the limitations of this in vitro study, femtosecond laser treatment of High-translucent monolithic zirconia (HTZ) ceramics is a promising alternative method for the mechanical retention of resin cements. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2019, 2018

Article
Comparison between Shear Bond Strength of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG Lasers-Assisted Dentinal Adhesion of Self-Adhering Resin Composite: An Ex Vivo Study
Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8030066 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
(1) Background: Bonding composite to tooth structure is still evolving with a substitute for phosphoric acid being the main challenge. Lately, a self-adhering composite (SAC) was developed, promising to simplify bonding to tooth structure. Unfortunately, retention especially to dentin, was not as good [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Bonding composite to tooth structure is still evolving with a substitute for phosphoric acid being the main challenge. Lately, a self-adhering composite (SAC) was developed, promising to simplify bonding to tooth structure. Unfortunately, retention especially to dentin, was not as good as the gold standard three steps bonding system. During the last 2 decades, lasers were used to enhance shear bond strength of composite to tooth structure. However, the literature provided limited information regarding laser efficiency in the immediate, as well as the long term, adhesion success of SACs to dentin. The purpose of our study was to define the optimal irradiation conditions to improve the adhesion of self-adhering flowable resin composite to dentin exposed to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. (2) Methods: Seventy-two freshly extracted human third molars, prepared to have flat dentinal surfaces, were randomly divided into three groups (n = 24) including a control group (Group 1) in which dentin was left without laser irradiation. The other two groups (Group 2 and 3) received standardized irradiation at a speed of 1 mm/second with Er:YAG (60 mJ; SSP mode = 50 μs; 10 Hz; fluency of 9.4 J/cm2; beam diameter: 0.9 mm; air 6 mL/min; and water 4 mL/min), and Er,Cr:YSGG: 1.5 W; fluency of 17.8 J/cm2; turbo handpiece with MX5 short insert; 20 Hz under air/water spray (65% air, 55% water). Self-adhering flowable resin was applied to dentin in all groups. Half of the specimens were stored in water for 24 h while the other half underwent 3000 thermal cycles. Later, all specimens received a shear bond strength test. Fracture observation was done first under a stereomicroscope then by using a scanning electron microscope. (3) Results: The mean values of shear bond strength for both laser-treated dentin groups (Er:YAG laser: 13.10 ± 1.291, and Er,Cr:YSGG: 14.04 ± 5.233) were higher than in the control group 1 (8.355 ± 2.297) before thermocycling. After thermocycling, shear bond strength decreased in all groups as follows: 10.03 ± 1.503, 10.53 ± 2.631, and 02.75 ± 1.583 for Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG, and nonirradiated dentin, respectively. Shear bond strength values showed a significant difference between the control group (Group 1) and both lasers groups (Group 2 and 3). Statistical analysis of stereomicroscope observation revealed no significant difference between laser irradiation and failure mode (p < 0.136). SEM observation of the dentin surface in both laser-irradiated groups showed opened tubules, absence of smear layer as well as an increase of resin infiltration into dentinal tubules. (4) Conclusion: Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers enhance self-adhering flowable resin shear bond strength values and improve its longevity by eliminating the smear layer, opening dentinal tubules and increasing resin infiltration into the microstructure. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Enamel Topography after Debonding Orthodontic Ceramic Brackets by Different Er,Cr:YSGG and Er:YAG Lasers Settings
Dent. J. 2020, 8(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj8010006 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
In the last decade, the success of lasers in simplifying many dental procedures has heightened the need for research in the orthodontic field, in order to evaluate the benefits of laser-assisted ceramic brackets debonding. Conventional ceramic brackets removal delivers a high shear bond [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the success of lasers in simplifying many dental procedures has heightened the need for research in the orthodontic field, in order to evaluate the benefits of laser-assisted ceramic brackets debonding. Conventional ceramic brackets removal delivers a high shear bond strength (SBS), which might lead to enamel damage. Nowadays, debonding ceramic brackets by Er:YAG laser seems a viable alternative technique; however, there is no data on the use of Er,Cr:YSGG in the literature. We aimed to evaluate the difference in enamel topography derived from different erbium laser settings used during debonding. One hundred and eighty bovine incisors teeth were randomly divided into fifteen experimental groups, according to different erbium laser settings using scanning methods. SBS testing was performed after debonding; stereomicroscopic and SEM analyses were done after cleaning the remaining adhesive so as to assess the incidence of enamel microcracks formation and enamel loss. There were no statistically significant differences between the proportions of teeth with normal enamel topography within the control group when compared with any of the Er:YAG groups. However, the proportion of teeth with a normal enamel topography in Er,Cr:YSGG was 4 W/20 Hz (83.3%) and in Er:YAG was 5 W/20 Hz (91.7%), which was statistically significantly higher than the control group (41.7%). The selection of erbium lasers’ optimal parameters during debonding influences the enamel topography. When considering the evaluation of both microscopic and statistical analyses, irradiation by Er:YAG (120 mJ/40 Hz) displayed a significant reduction in microcracks compared with conventional debonding, even though some microstructural changes in the enamel could be noted. Er,Cr:YSGG (4 W/20 Hz) respected the enamel topography the most out of the studied groups. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018

Article
Dentinal Hypersensitivity Treatment Using Diode Laser 980 nm: In Vivo Study
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj7010005 - 09 Jan 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3570
Abstract
The discomfort of patients due to dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is one of the main challenges that dentists face in daily practice. Difficulties in DH treatment gave rise to many protocols which are currently used. The aim of this clinical study is to evaluate [...] Read more.
The discomfort of patients due to dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is one of the main challenges that dentists face in daily practice. Difficulties in DH treatment gave rise to many protocols which are currently used. The aim of this clinical study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new protocol on the reduction of dentinal hypersensitivity with diode laser 980 nm and the application of a graphite paste. 184 patients enrolled in the study, the degree of pain was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), graphite paste was applied on the exposed dentine before irradiation, the application of diode laser 980 nm with continuous mode, backward motion, tangential incidence of the beam in non-contact mode and a delivery output of 1 W. Fiber’s diameter was 320 μm and total exposure time depended on the time necessary to remove the graphite paste from the teeth. Statistical analyses were performed with Prism 5® software. Pain in post-operative significantly decreased immediately after the treatment. Mean values stayed stable until a 6-month follow-up. The application is considered to be safe with long-term effectiveness. Full article
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2018

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019

Article
Decontamination of Dental Implant Surfaces by the Er:YAG Laser Beam: A Comparative in Vitro Study of Various Protocols
Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj6040066 - 01 Dec 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Oral rehabilitation with dental implants has revolutionized the field of dentistry and has been proven to be an effective procedure. However, the incidence of peri-implantitis has become an emerging concern. The efficacy of the decontamination of the implant surface, by means of lasers, [...] Read more.
Oral rehabilitation with dental implants has revolutionized the field of dentistry and has been proven to be an effective procedure. However, the incidence of peri-implantitis has become an emerging concern. The efficacy of the decontamination of the implant surface, by means of lasers, is still controversial. Previous studies have revealed a reduction in osteoblast adhesion to carbon-contaminated implant surfaces. This in-vitro study aimed to evaluate the decontamination of failed implants by assessing the carbon proportion, after irradiation by low-energy erbium yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (Er:YAG) (Fotona; 2940 nm, Ljubljana, Slovenia) for a single and for multiple passages, until getting a surface, free of organic matters; to find the appropriate procedure for dental-implant surface-decontamination. Ninety implants were used. Thirty sterile implants were kept as a negative control. Thirty failed implants were irradiated by the Er:YAG laser, for a single passage, and the other thirty, for multiple passages. The parameters used in our experiments were an irradiation energy of 50 mJ, frequency of 30 Hz, and an energy density of 3.76 J/cm2. A sapphire tip, with a length of 8 mm, was used with concomitant water spray irrigation, under air 6 and water spray 4. Super short pulse mode (SSP) was of 50 μs; irradiation speed being 2 mm/s. We used energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to evaluate the carbon proportion on the surfaces of the sterile implants, the contaminated, and the lased implants, with one (LX1) and with three passages (LX3). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Results showed mean difference between the three groups (contaminated, LX1, and LX3) with p < 0.0001, as between LX1 and Group A (p < 0.0001), while the difference between LX3 and the control group was not statistically significant. The decontamination of the implant surfaces with a low-energy Er:YAG laser with three passages, appeared to be an encouraging approach. Full article
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