Special Issue "COVID-19 and Global Chronic Disease"

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721). This special issue belongs to the section "Comorbidity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ian James Martins
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Sarich Neuroscience Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Nedlands 6009, Australia
Interests: antiaging research; anti-aging genes; appetite; environment; nutrition; senescence
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The World Health Organization was informed by Chinese authorities of an outbreak of a novel strain of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. As of February 20, 2020, nearly 167,500 COVID-19 cases had been documented and the virus had killed over 6,600 people. The infected individuals may experience mild illness and recover while others can become seriously ill and die. Chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases are expected to increase in the next 30 years and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to reach between 30-40% of the global population. These chronic diseases are associated with an altered immune system that leads to severe illnesses after virus infections. In the developing world, the major concern with COVID-19 infection is that it may lead to multiple organ disease syndrome and the severity of COVID-19 in these individuals may be associated with gene inactivation and linked to programmed cell death. The role of diet, nutrition, and appetite control may be critical to stabilize the immune system and reverse the severity of the disease connected to the global chronic disease epidemic.

This Special Issue, titled “COVID-19 and Global Chronic Disease,” will aim to assess the increased concerns for COVID-19 infections in individuals within the global chronic disease epidemic. Diet and lifestyles are important to reduce COVID-19 infection and severity that may be linked to a defective immune system. We have published several articles related to the global chronic disease epidemic in 2018 and 2019 which have successfully obtained many citations. In 2021, we would like to publish various articles as indicated in the keywords below.

Dr. Ian James Martins
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gene inactivation
  • COVD-19
  • Global
  • Chronic disease
  • Diet
  • Immune system
  • Diabetes
  • NAFLD

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Neglected Needs of Family Caregivers during the COVID-19 Pandemic and What They Need Now: A Qualitative Study
Diseases 2021, 9(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9040070 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 169
Abstract
COVID-19 has had a negative impact on family caregivers, whether the care receivers lived with the caregiver, in a separate community home, in supportive living, or in long-term care. This qualitative study examines the points of view of family caregivers who care in [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has had a negative impact on family caregivers, whether the care receivers lived with the caregiver, in a separate community home, in supportive living, or in long-term care. This qualitative study examines the points of view of family caregivers who care in diverse settings. Family caregivers were asked to describe what could have been done to support them during the COVID-19 pandemic and to suggest supports they need in the future as the pandemic wanes. Thorne’s interpretive qualitative methodology was employed to examine current caregiver concerns. Thirty-two family caregivers participated. Family caregivers thought the under-resourced, continuing care system delayed pandemic planning, and that silos in health and community systems made caregiving more difficult. Family caregivers want their roles to be recognized in policy, and they cite the need for improvements in communication and navigation. The growth in demand for family caregivers and their contributions to the healthcare system make it critical that the family caregiver role be recognized in policy, funding, and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Global Chronic Disease)
Article
Cross-National Variations in COVID-19 Mortality: The Role of Diet, Obesity and Depression
Diseases 2021, 9(2), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9020036 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been characterized by wide variations in mortality across nations. Some of this variability may be explained by medical comorbidities such as obesity and depression, both of which are strongly correlated with dietary practices such as levels of sugar [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been characterized by wide variations in mortality across nations. Some of this variability may be explained by medical comorbidities such as obesity and depression, both of which are strongly correlated with dietary practices such as levels of sugar and seafood consumption. Methods: COVID-19 mortality indices for 156 countries were obtained from the Johns Hopkins University’s data aggregator. Correlations between these variables and (a) per capita consumption of sugar and seafood, and (b) country-wise prevalence of depression and obesity were examined. Results: Sugar consumption (r = 0.51, p < 0.001) and prevalence of obesity (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) and depression (r = 0.56, p < 0.001) were positively correlated with crude mortality rates, while seafood consumption was negatively correlated with the infection fatality rate (r = −0.28, p = 0.015). These effects were significant even after correcting for potential confounders. The associations with depression and obesity remained significant upon multivariate regression. Conclusions: Both obesity and depression, which are associated with inflammatory dysregulation, may be related to cross-national variations in COVID-19 mortality, while seafood consumption may be protective. These findings have implications in terms of protecting vulnerable individuals during the current pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Global Chronic Disease)
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Review

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Review
Abnormal Liver Biochemistry Tests and Acute Liver Injury in COVID-19 Patients: Current Evidence and Potential Pathogenesis
Diseases 2021, 9(3), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9030050 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Globally, millions of persons have contracted the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) over the past several months, resulting in significant mortality. Health care systems are negatively impacted including the care of individuals with cancers and other chronic diseases such as chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis [...] Read more.
Globally, millions of persons have contracted the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) over the past several months, resulting in significant mortality. Health care systems are negatively impacted including the care of individuals with cancers and other chronic diseases such as chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are various probable pathogenic mechanisms that have been presented to account for liver injury in COVID-19 patients such as hepatotoxicity cause by therapeutic drugs, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of the bile duct cells and hepatocytes, hypoxia and systemic inflammatory response. Liver biochemistry tests such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are deranged in COVID-19 patients with liver injury. Hepatocellular damage results in the elevation of serum AST and ALT levels in early onset disease while a cholestatic pattern that develops as the disease progress causes higher levels of ALP, GGT, direct and total bilirubin. These liver biochemistry tests are prognostic markers of disease severity and should be carefully monitored in COVID-19 patients. We conducted a systematic review of abnormal liver biochemistry tests in COVID-19 and the possible pathogenesis involved. Significant findings regarding the severity, hepatocellular pattern, incidence and related clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Global Chronic Disease)
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Review
COVID-19-Associated Cardiovascular Complications
Diseases 2021, 9(3), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9030047 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to cause cardiovascular complications such as myocardial injury, thromboembolic events, arrhythmia, and heart failure. Multiple mechanisms—some overlapping, notably the role of inflammation and IL-6—potentially underlie these complications. The reported cardiac injury may be a result of [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to cause cardiovascular complications such as myocardial injury, thromboembolic events, arrhythmia, and heart failure. Multiple mechanisms—some overlapping, notably the role of inflammation and IL-6—potentially underlie these complications. The reported cardiac injury may be a result of direct viral invasion of cardiomyocytes with consequent unopposed effects of angiotensin II, increased metabolic demand, immune activation, or microvascular dysfunction. Thromboembolic events have been widely reported in both the venous and arterial systems that have attracted intense interest in the underlying mechanisms. These could potentially be due to endothelial dysfunction secondary to direct viral invasion or inflammation. Additionally, thromboembolic events may also be a consequence of an attempt by the immune system to contain the infection through immunothrombosis and neutrophil extracellular traps. Cardiac arrhythmias have also been reported with a wide range of implicated contributory factors, ranging from direct viral myocardial injury, as well as other factors, including at-risk individuals with underlying inherited arrhythmia syndromes. Heart failure may also occur as a progression from cardiac injury, precipitation secondary to the initiation or withdrawal of certain drugs, or the accumulation of des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK) with excessive induction of pro-inflammatory G protein coupled receptor B1 (BK1). The presenting cardiovascular symptoms include chest pain, dyspnoea, and palpitations. There is currently intense interest in vaccine-induced thrombosis and in the treatment of Long COVID since many patients who have survived COVID-19 describe persisting health problems. This review will summarise the proposed physiological mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cardiovascular complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Global Chronic Disease)
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Review
Saliva Exhibits High Sensitivity and Specificity for the Detection of SARS-COV-2
Diseases 2021, 9(2), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9020038 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to assess the application of a multitude of effective diagnostic specimens for conducting mass testing, for accurate diagnosis and to formulate strategies for its prevention and control. As one of the most versatile [...] Read more.
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to assess the application of a multitude of effective diagnostic specimens for conducting mass testing, for accurate diagnosis and to formulate strategies for its prevention and control. As one of the most versatile and amenable specimen options, saliva offers great advantages for widespread screening strategies due to its non-invasive properties, cost-effectiveness, excellent stability and minimal risk of cross-infection. This review attempts to outline the scientific rationale for detection of SARS-COV-2 in saliva specimens. By combining the data obtained from ten chosen published clinical studies, we calculated the pooled sensitivity and specificity using an online calculator. Through evidence, we established that SARS-COV-2 is detectable in saliva with a high degree of diagnostic sensitivity (87%) and specificity (98%). We also presented a review of emerging technologies approved by the FDA for detection of SARS-COV-2 in oral fluids (saliva and sputum) using polymerase chain reaction methods. Given the challenges involved in obtaining invasive specimens from the naso- and oropharynx, saliva can serve as an easy to collect diagnostic specimen for screening in the work environment, schools and for home testing. Furthermore, saliva offers the opportunity to screen early cases that can be missed by invasive sampling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Global Chronic Disease)
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Review
SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Risk Management in Multiple Sclerosis
Diseases 2021, 9(2), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9020032 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1435
Abstract
The novel coronavirus can cause a severe respiratory disease with impact on the central nervous system, as has been reported by several medical health services. In the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 neurotrophic virus, neurologists have focused their attention on the early [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus can cause a severe respiratory disease with impact on the central nervous system, as has been reported by several medical health services. In the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 neurotrophic virus, neurologists have focused their attention on the early identification of suggestive manifestations of the neurological impact of the disease. In this context, they are exploring related chronic disease and the possibility of achieving a more effective understanding of symptoms derived from COVID-19 infection and those derived from the course of preexisting neurological disease. The present review summarizes evidence from the infection with SARS-CoV-2 and the management of the risks of multiple sclerosis and how it is related to the risks of general comorbidities associated with COVID-19. In addition, we reviewed other factors characteristic of MS, such as relapses, and the maximum tolerated dose of treatment medications from clinical and experimental evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Global Chronic Disease)
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