Special Issue "Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Diseases"

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Maurizio Battino
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Odontostomatologic and Specialized Clinical Sciences, Sez-Biochimica, Faculty of Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 65, 60100 Ancona, Italy
2. International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
Interests: nutrition; periodontal diseases/periodontitis; oxidative stress; nutrition; aging; mitochondrial function and diseases; berries (strawberry, blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, etc.); olive oil (dietary fats); honey, polyphenols; flavonoids; antioxidants, apoptosis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Diseases is dedicated to recent advances in human diseases research areas and comprises a diverse selection of exclusive papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of all Diseases Editorial Board Members. It focuses on highlighting recent interesting investigations conducted in the laboratories of our section’s EBMs and represents our young section as an attractive open-access publishing platform for human diseases research data.

Prof. Dr. Maurizio Battino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diseases is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Short-Term Effect of a New Oral Sodium Hyaluronate Formulation on Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Diseases 2020, 8(3), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases8030026 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Objective: the aim of this pilot study was to test the short-term effect of oral supplementation with a sodium hyaluronate with a large spectrum of molecular weights (FS-HA®) on the symptoms and functionality of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: 60 subjects affected [...] Read more.
Objective: the aim of this pilot study was to test the short-term effect of oral supplementation with a sodium hyaluronate with a large spectrum of molecular weights (FS-HA®) on the symptoms and functionality of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: 60 subjects affected by clinical and/or radiological diagnosis of symptomatic knee OA were consecutively enrolled in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. At randomization visit, at day 28 (visit 2), and day 56 (visit 3), the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Lequesne Functional Index (LFI) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain (VAS-p) were administered to the enrolled patients. Then, patients were asked how many times they used rescue medications (non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs–NSAIDs and/or anti-pain drugs) during the previous 4 weeks. Finally, the range of knee joint motion (ROM) was also instrumentally measured. Results: In FS-HA® treated subjects, VAS-p, pain and total WOMAC score, LFI and ROM significantly improved compared to the baseline values (p < 0.05). At 60 days, the VAS-p and the pain WOMAC score were significantly lower after FS-HA® treatment when compared with placebo as well (p < 0.05). The FS-HA® treated subjects significantly reduced the weekly use of NSAIDs and/or antipain drugs when compared to the placebo-treated ones (p < 0.05). Conclusion: the oral supplementation with a FS-HA® characterized by a large spectrum of molecular weight was associated with a short-term improvement in symptomatology and functionality of osteoarthritis-affected knees, and associated with a reduction in the use of NSAIDS and anti-pain drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Diseases)
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Review

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Review
Primary Biliary Cholangitis and Bile Acid Farnesoid X Receptor Agonists
Diseases 2020, 8(2), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases8020020 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Currently, the first line drug for PBC is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) characterized by anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and protective actions on cholangiocytes. Despite its recognized [...] Read more.
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Currently, the first line drug for PBC is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) characterized by anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and protective actions on cholangiocytes. Despite its recognized therapeutic action, 30–40% of PBC patients only partially benefit from UDCA therapy. This has led to the identification of the role of the farnesoid x receptor (FXR) in cholestatic liver diseases and, consequently, to the development of obeticholic acid (OCA), a steroid FXR agonist that has been recently approved for the treatment of PBC. OCA though is not effective in all patients and can cause itch, which eventually induces treatment drop out. Therefore, the search for new therapeutic strategies for PBC has begun. This review, in addition to summarizing the current treatments for PBC, provides overview of the chemical characteristics of new steroid FXR agonist candidates that could represent a future perspective for the treatment of PBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Diseases)
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Review
SGLT2 Inhibitors: The Star in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes?
Diseases 2020, 8(2), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases8020014 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2565
Abstract
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents which increase urinary glucose excretion by suppressing glucose reabsorption at the proximal tubule in the kidney. SGLT2 inhibitors lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by 0.6–0.8% (6–8 mmol/mol) without increasing the risk [...] Read more.
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents which increase urinary glucose excretion by suppressing glucose reabsorption at the proximal tubule in the kidney. SGLT2 inhibitors lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by 0.6–0.8% (6–8 mmol/mol) without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia and induce weight loss and improve various metabolic parameters including blood pressure, lipid profile and hyperuricemia. Recent cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials have shown the improvement of CV and renal outcomes by treatment with the SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin, canagliflozin, and dapagliflozin. The mechanisms by which SGLT2 inhibitors improve CV outcome appear not to be glucose-lowering or anti-atherosclerotic effects, but rather hemodynamic effects through osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Generally, SGLT2 inhibitors are well-tolerated, but their adverse effects include genitourinary tract infection and dehydration. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is a rare but severe adverse event for which patients under SGLT2 inhibitor treatment should be carefully monitored. The possibility of an increase in risk of lower-extremity amputation and bone fracture has also been reported with canagliflozin. Clinical trials and real-world data have suggested that SGLT2 inhibitors improve CV and renal outcomes and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), especially in those with prior CV events, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease. Results of recent trials including individuals without diabetes may change the positioning of this drug as ″a drug for cardiorenal protection″. This review summarizes the potential of SGLT2 inhibitors and discusses their role in the treatment of T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Diseases)
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Review
Mechanical Plantar Foot Stimulation in Parkinson′s Disease: A Scoping Review
Diseases 2020, 8(2), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases8020012 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Background: Parkinson′s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in older individuals. Neurorehabilitation-based interventions such as those improving gait are crucial for a holistic approach and to limit falls. Several studies have recently shown that mechanical plantar foot stimulation is a [...] Read more.
Background: Parkinson′s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in older individuals. Neurorehabilitation-based interventions such as those improving gait are crucial for a holistic approach and to limit falls. Several studies have recently shown that mechanical plantar foot stimulation is a beneficial intervention for improving gait impairment in PD patients. The objective of this scoping review is to evaluate the beneficial effects of this stimulation on gait parameters, and to analyse protocols of foot stimulation and other effects in non-motor symptoms. Relevant articles were searched in the Medline database using Pubmed and Scopus, using the primary search terms ‘foot stimulation’ OR ‘plantar stimulation’ AND ‘Parkinson’s disease*’. Several protocols have been used for mechanical plantar foot stimulation (ranging from medical devices to textured insoles). The gait parameters that have been shown to be improved are stride length and walking speed. The beneficial effects are achieved after both acute and repeated plantar foot stimulation. Beneficial effects are observed in other organs and systems, such as muscle activation, brain connectivity, cardiovascular control in the central nervous system, and the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol in blood added evidence about this intervention’s impact on brain function. Mechanical plantar foot stimulation is a safe and effective add-on treatment able for improving gait impairments in PD patients during the L-dopa off state. Randomized and controlled clinical trials to study its eventual potentiating effect with different pharmacotherapy regimens are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Diseases)

Other

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Brief Report
Lifetime Weight Cycling and Central Fat Distribution in Females With Obesity: A Brief Report
Diseases 2020, 8(2), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases8020008 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
Weight cycling (WC) is a common phenomenon in patients with obesity, however, its consequence on body composition has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether multiple WC can negatively affect the latter, especially in terms of body fat distribution [...] Read more.
Weight cycling (WC) is a common phenomenon in patients with obesity, however, its consequence on body composition has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether multiple WC can negatively affect the latter, especially in terms of body fat distribution in female adults seeking treatment that are overweight or obese. Body composition was obtained using a segmental body composition analyser (MC-780MA, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan) in 125 adult females who had been referred to the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics at the Beirut Arab University (Lebanon). WC was defined as intentional weight loss of ≥3 kg followed by involuntary weight regain of ≥3 kg, and participants were categorized as WC if they had experienced ≥2 cycles. Ninety of the 125 participants met the criteria for WC and displayed a higher total and trunk fat mass than those without WC. This was confirmed through linear regression analysis, showing that multiple WC were associated with increased fat mass (FM) by nearly 4.2 kg (β = 4.23, 95%CI: 0.81–7.65, p = 0.016)–2.4 kg in the trunk region (β = 2.35, 95%CI: 0.786–3.917, p = 0.004) when compared to the non-WC group, after adjusting for age and fat-free mass. In conclusion, multiple WC is associated with increased body fat, especially in the central region. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of this fat distribution on health outcomes in this phenotype of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Diseases)
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