Special Issue "Marine Nearshore Biodiversity"

A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Diversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2022) | Viewed by 2310

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Trott
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Maine Coastal Program, Department of Marine Resources, West Boothbay Harbor, ME 04575, USA
Interests: biodiversity; conservation biology; marine biology; biogeography; nearshore ecology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nearshore ecosystems contain most of the ocean’s highly productive waters and varied habitats that support a range of phyla more diverse than terrestrial ecosystems hold. This band of water ringing continents and islands extends seaward from the intertidal zone out through the subtidal to 90 meters depth and envelopes most of the marine biodiversity hotspots. The valuable services provided by nearshore ecosystems are as diverse as its plant and animal inhabitants. Among marine ecosystems, nearshore biodiversity has the deepest history of exploration, exploitation, and benefits to society. Yet, as coastal sea water temperatures, sea levels, sea water chemistries, and coastal currents change, populations of the nearshore benthos are reduced, restructured, and replaced. These consequences are understood through the altered phenology of life histories, changed abundance and genetic diversity, species range shifts, and modified ecosystem functions.

This Special Issue will spotlight recent advances in research on nearshore biodiversity, as varied as its relationship with biogeography, coastal oceanographic processes, ecosystem functions, species introductions and range shifts, community ecology and genetics. Research concerned with the interactions of commercial harvesting, aquaculture and pollution with nearshore biodiversity is also invited. In summary, this collection aims to present, in a broad sense, a global comparison of nearshore biodiversity and the drivers of change.

Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Trott
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biogeography
  • oceanography
  • range shifts
  • coastal
  • distributions
  • community ecology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Gene Transfer Agent g5 Gene Reveals Bipolar and Endemic Distribution of Roseobacter Clade Members in Polar Coastal Seawater
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 392; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d14050392 - 14 May 2022
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Abstract
The Roseobacter clade represents one of the most abundant groups of marine bacteria and plays important biogeochemical roles in marine environments. Roseobacter genomes commonly contain a conserved gene transfer agent (GTA) gene cluster. A major capsid protein-encoding GTA (g5) has been [...] Read more.
The Roseobacter clade represents one of the most abundant groups of marine bacteria and plays important biogeochemical roles in marine environments. Roseobacter genomes commonly contain a conserved gene transfer agent (GTA) gene cluster. A major capsid protein-encoding GTA (g5) has been used as a genetic marker to estimate the diversity of marine roseobacters. Here, the diversity of roseobacters in the coastal seawater of Arctic Kongsfjorden and Antarctic Maxwell Bay was investigated based on g5 gene clone library analysis. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from microbial assemblages representing Arctic and Antarctic regions. The genus Phaeobacter was exclusively detected in Arctic seawater, whereas the genera Jannaschia, Litoreibacter and Pacificibacter were only observed in Antarctic seawater. More diverse genera within the Roseobacter clade were observed in Antarctic clones than in Arctic clones. The genera Sulfitobacter, Loktanella and Yoonia were dominant (higher than 10% of total clones) in both Arctic and Antarctic samples, implying their roles in polar marine environments. The results not only indicated a bipolar or even global distribution of roseobacters in marine environments but also showed their endemic distribution either in the Arctic or Antarctic. Endemic phylotypes were more frequently observed in polar regions than cosmopolitan phylotypes. In addition, endemic phylotypes were more abundant in Arctic samples (84.8% of Arctic sequences) than in Antarctic samples (54.3% of Antarctic sequences). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Nearshore Biodiversity)
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Article
Over, Under, Sideways and Down: Patterns of Marine Species Richness in Nearshore Habitats off Santa Catalina Island, California
Diversity 2022, 14(5), 366; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d14050366 - 05 May 2022
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Abstract
Santa Catalina Island, located off the southern California coast, is home to the Blue Cavern Onshore State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA), which is recognized as a marine protected area. Here, we provide an updated species inventory of nearshore macroalgae, seagrasses, bony and cartilaginous [...] Read more.
Santa Catalina Island, located off the southern California coast, is home to the Blue Cavern Onshore State Marine Conservation Area (SMCA), which is recognized as a marine protected area. Here, we provide an updated species inventory of nearshore macroalgae, seagrasses, bony and cartilaginous fishes and invertebrates documented inside the Blue Cavern Onshore SMCA. Species richness data were compiled using scuba-based visual surveys conducted in the field, references from the primary and gray literature, museum records, unpublished species lists and online resources. The current checklist consists of 1091 marine species from 18 different taxonomic groups, which represents an ~43% increase in species diversity compared to the value reported previously. These data are indicative of the high biodiversity known from the Southern California Bight (SCB) region. The total number of intertidal and subtidal taxa reported represent approximately 85% and 45% of the documented macroalgae and plants, 41% and 24% invertebrates, and 62% and 20% of fishes from Catalina Island and the SCB, respectively. Among the marine taxa documented, 39 species either have undergone a geographic range shift or were introduced as the result of human activities, while another 4 species are listed as threatened, endangered or critically endangered. Research findings presented here offer an important baseline of species richness in the California Channel Islands and will help improve the efforts by resource managers and policy makers to conserve and manage similar habitats in the coastal waters off southern California. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Nearshore Biodiversity)
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Article
Diversity of Shallow-Water Species in Prawn Trawling: A Case Study of Malindi–Ungwana Bay, Kenya
Diversity 2022, 14(3), 199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d14030199 - 09 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Bottom trawling is a common fishing method that targets bottom-dwelling fisheries resources. It is non-selective and large amounts of by-catch are discarded, raising serious sustainability and ecosystem conservation concerns. In this study, a shallow-water bottom-trawl fishery was evaluated using logbook catch data between [...] Read more.
Bottom trawling is a common fishing method that targets bottom-dwelling fisheries resources. It is non-selective and large amounts of by-catch are discarded, raising serious sustainability and ecosystem conservation concerns. In this study, a shallow-water bottom-trawl fishery was evaluated using logbook catch data between 2011 and 2019 and the species composition data collected by fisheries observers between 2016 and 2019. The logbook data showed a twenty-fold increase in the annual catches with a ten-fold increase in fishing effort and an increase in the proportion of retained catch from 2011 to 2019. The observer data showed that for prawn, the by-catch ratio ranged from 1:3 to 1:9 during the four years. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the compositions of retained and discarded catches mainly attributed to Pellona ditchela, Nematopalaemontenuipes, and Secutor insidiator. There was no significant decline in species diversity and the trophic level of the catches over the 4-year observer period indicating no marked impact of trawling on the stock at the current level of fishing effort. This study provides baseline information on the prawn trawl fishery against which the performance of the management regulations may be evaluated towards the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Nearshore Biodiversity)
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