Special Issue "Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

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Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Antonio Morata
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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, Spain
Interests: food technology; enology; wine microbiology; yeast metabolomics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

From the beginning of this century, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have taken increased relevance in wine processing. Several biotechnological companies now produce non-Saccharomyces yeasts at an industrial level to improve aroma or flavor, stabilize wine, produce biological acidification, or conversely metabolize malic acid. Species like Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kloeckera apiculata, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and several others are common due to the technological applications they have in sensory quality but also in wine ageing and stabilization. Moreover, spoilage non-Saccharomyces yeasts like Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Zygosacharomyces bailii are becoming important because of the alterations they are able to produce in high-quality wines. New strategies to control these defective yeasts have been developed to control them without affecting sensory quality. The knowledge of the physiology, ecology, biochemistry, and metabolomics of these yeasts can help to better use them in controlling traditional problems such as low fermentative power, excessive volatile acidity, low implantation under enological conditions, and sensibility to antimicrobial compounds like sulfites traditionally used in wine processing. This Special Issue intends to compile current research and revised information on non-Saccharomyces yeasts with enological applications to facilitate the use and the understanding of this biotechnological tool.

The success of the first SI with more than 22k download and 62 citations until now! This is the webpage of first SI:

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Prof. Dr. Antonio Morata
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • non-Saccharomyces yeasts
  • wine biotechnology
  • sensory quality
  • color stabilization
  • spoilage yeasts

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0
Fermentation 2020, 6(4), 110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6040110 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 690
Abstract
Non-Saccharomyces yeast species are currently a biotechnology trend in enology and broadly used to improve the sensory profile of wines because they affect aroma, color, and mouthfeel. They have become a powerful biotool to modulate the influence of global warming on grape [...] Read more.
Non-Saccharomyces yeast species are currently a biotechnology trend in enology and broadly used to improve the sensory profile of wines because they affect aroma, color, and mouthfeel. They have become a powerful biotool to modulate the influence of global warming on grape varieties, helping to maintain the acidity, decrease the alcoholic degree, stabilize wine color, and increase freshness. In cool climates, some non-Saccharomyces can promote demalication or color stability by the formation of stable derived pigments. Additionally, non-Saccharomyces yeasts open new possibilities in biocontrol for removing spoilage yeast and bacteria or molds that can produce and release mycotoxins, and therefore, can help in reducing SO2 levels. The promising species Hanseniaspora vineae is analyzed in depth in this Special Issue in two articles, one concerning the glycolytic and fermentative metabolisms and its positive role and sensory impact by the production of aromatic esters and lysis products during fermentation are also assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)

Research

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Article
Comparison of the Glycolytic and Alcoholic Fermentation Pathways of Hanseniaspora vineae with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeasts
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6030078 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Hanseniaspora species can be isolated from grapes and grape musts, but after the initiation of spontaneous fermentation, they are displaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hanseniaspora vineae is particularly valuable since this species improves the flavour of wines and has an increased capacity to [...] Read more.
Hanseniaspora species can be isolated from grapes and grape musts, but after the initiation of spontaneous fermentation, they are displaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hanseniaspora vineae is particularly valuable since this species improves the flavour of wines and has an increased capacity to ferment relative to other apiculate yeasts. Genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic studies in H. vineae have enhanced our understanding of its potential utility within the wine industry. Here, we compared gene sequences of 12 glycolytic and fermentation pathway enzymes from five sequenced Hanseniaspora species and S. cerevisiae with the corresponding enzymes encoded within the two sequenced H. vineae genomes. Increased levels of protein similarity were observed for enzymes of H. vineae and S. cerevisiae, relative to the remaining Hanseniaspora species. Key differences between H. vineae and H. uvarum pyruvate kinase enzymes might explain observed differences in fermentative capacity. Further, the presence of eight putative alcohol dehydrogenases, invertase activity, and sulfite tolerance are distinctive characteristics of H. vineae, compared to other Hanseniaspora species. The definition of two clear technological groups within the Hanseniaspora genus is discussed within the slow and fast evolution concept framework previously discovered in these apiculate yeasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)
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Article
Impact of Hanseniaspora Vineae in Alcoholic Fermentation and Ageing on Lees of High-Quality White Wine
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6030066 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
Hanseniaspora vineae is an apiculate yeast that plays a significant role at the beginning of fermentation, and it has been studied for its application in the improvement of the aromatic profile of commercial wines. This work evaluates the use of H. vineae in [...] Read more.
Hanseniaspora vineae is an apiculate yeast that plays a significant role at the beginning of fermentation, and it has been studied for its application in the improvement of the aromatic profile of commercial wines. This work evaluates the use of H. vineae in alcoholic fermentation compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in ageing on the lees process (AOL) compared to Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The results indicated that there were not significant differences in basic oenological parameters. H. vineae completed the fermentation until 11.9% v/v of ethanol and with a residual sugars content of less than 2 g/L. Different aroma profiles were obtained in the wines, with esters concentration around 90 mg/L in H. vineae wines. Regarding the AOL assay, the hydroalcoholic solutions aged with H. vineae lees showed significantly higher absorbance values at 260 (nucleic acids) and 280 nm (proteins) compared to the other strains. However, non-significant differences were found in the polysaccharide content at the end of the ageing process were found compared to the other yeast species, with the exception of Schizosaccharomyces pombe that released around 23.5 mg/L of polysaccharides in hydroalcoholic solution. The use of H. vineae by the wineries may be a viable method in fermentation and AOL to improve the quality of white wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)
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Article
Effect of Candida intermedia LAMAP1790 Antimicrobial Peptides against Wine-Spoilage Yeasts Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Pichia guilliermondii
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6030065 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
Wine spoilage yeasts are one of the main issues in the winemaking industry, and the control of the Brettanomyces and Pichia genus is an important goal to reduce economic loses from undesired aromatic profiles. Previous studies have demonstrated that Candida intermedia LAMAP1790 produces [...] Read more.
Wine spoilage yeasts are one of the main issues in the winemaking industry, and the control of the Brettanomyces and Pichia genus is an important goal to reduce economic loses from undesired aromatic profiles. Previous studies have demonstrated that Candida intermedia LAMAP1790 produces antimicrobial peptides of molecular mass under 10 kDa with fungicide activity against Brettanomyces bruxellensis, without affecting the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. So far, it has not been determined whether these peptides show biocontroller effect in this yeast or other spoilage yeasts, such as Pichia guilliermondii. In this work, we determined that the exposure of B. bruxellensis to the low-mass peptides contained in the culture supernatant of C. intermedia LAMAP1790 produces a continuous rise of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this yeast, without presenting a significant effect on membrane damage. These observations can give an approach to the antifungal mechanism. In addition, we described a fungicide activity of these peptides fraction against two strains of P. guilliermondii in a laboratory medium. However, carrying out assays on synthetic must, peptides must show an effect on the growth of B. bruxellensis. Moreover, these results can be considered as a start to develop new strategies for the biocontrol of spoilage yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)
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Article
Pilot Scale Fermentations of Sangiovese: An Overview on the Impact of Saccharomyces and Non-Saccharomyces Wine Yeasts
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6030063 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
The production of wines with peculiar analytical and sensorial profiles, together with the microbiological control of the winemaking process, has always been one of the main objectives of the wine industry. In this perspective, the use of oenological starters containing non-Saccharomyces yeasts [...] Read more.
The production of wines with peculiar analytical and sensorial profiles, together with the microbiological control of the winemaking process, has always been one of the main objectives of the wine industry. In this perspective, the use of oenological starters containing non-Saccharomyces yeasts can represent a valid tool for achieving these objectives. Here we present the results of seven pilot scale fermentations, each of which was inoculated with a different non-Saccharomyces yeast strain and after three days with a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter. The fermentations were carried out in double on 70 L of Sangiovese grape must, the most widely planted red grape variety in Italy and particularly in Tuscany, where it is utilized for the production of more than 80% of red wines. Fermentations were monitored by assessing both the development of the microbial population and the consumption of sugars at the different sampling times. The impact of the different starters was assessed after stabilization through the evaluation of the standard analytical composition of the resulting wines, also taking into account polysaccharides and volatile compounds. Moreover, quantitative descriptive sensory analyses were carried out. Compared to the control wines obtained by inoculating the S. cerevisiae starter strain, those inoculated with non-Saccharomyces/Saccharomyces mixed starters presented a significant differentiation in the chemical-analytical composition. Moreover, sensory analysis revealed differences among wines mainly for intensity of color, astringency, and dryness mouthfeel perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)
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Article
Alterations in Yeast Species Composition of Uninoculated Wine Ferments by the Addition of Sulphur Dioxide
Fermentation 2020, 6(2), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6020062 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Uninoculated wine fermentations are conducted by a consortium of wine yeast and bacteria that establish themselves either from the grape surface or from the winery environment. Of the additives that are commonly used by winemakers, sulphur dioxide (SO2) represents the main [...] Read more.
Uninoculated wine fermentations are conducted by a consortium of wine yeast and bacteria that establish themselves either from the grape surface or from the winery environment. Of the additives that are commonly used by winemakers, sulphur dioxide (SO2) represents the main antimicrobial preservative and its use can have drastic effects on the microbial composition of the fermentation. To investigate the effect of SO2 on the resident yeast community of uninoculated ferments, Chardonnay grape juice from 2018 and 2019 was treated with a variety of SO2 concentrations ranging up to 100 mg/L and was then allowed to undergo fermentation, with the yeast community structure being assessed via high-throughput meta-barcoding (phylotyping). While the addition of SO2 was shown to select against the presence of many species of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, there was a clear and increasing selection for the species Hanseniaspora osmophila as concentrations of SO2 rose above 40 mg/L in fermentations from both vintages. Chemical analysis of the wines resulting from these treatments showed significant increases in acetate esters, and specifically the desirable aroma compound 2-phenylethyl acetate, that accompanied the increase in abundance of H. osmophila. The ability to modulate the yeast community structure of an uninoculated ferment and the resulting chemical composition of the final wine, as demonstrated in this study, represents an important tool for winemakers to begin to be able to influence the organoleptic profile of uninoculated wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)
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Article
Sequential Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentations to Reduce the Alcohol Content in Wine
Fermentation 2020, 6(2), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6020060 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Over the last decades, the average alcohol content of wine has increased due to climate change and consumer preferences for particular wine styles that resulted in increased grape sugar levels at harvest. Therefore, alcohol reduction is a current challenge in the winemaking industry. [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, the average alcohol content of wine has increased due to climate change and consumer preferences for particular wine styles that resulted in increased grape sugar levels at harvest. Therefore, alcohol reduction is a current challenge in the winemaking industry. Among several strategies under study, the use of non-conventional yeasts in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an important role for lowering ethanol production in wines nowadays. In the present work, 33 native non-Saccharomyces strains were assayed in sequential culture with a S. cerevisiae wine strain to determine their potential for reducing the alcohol content in Malvar white wines. Four of the non-Saccharomyces strains (Wickerhamomyces anomalus 21A-5C, Meyerozyma guilliermondii CLI 1217, and two Metschnikowia pulcherrima (CLI 68 and CLI 460)) studied in sequential combination with S. cerevisiae CLI 889 were best able to produce dry wines with decreased alcohol proportion in comparison with one that was inoculated only with S. cerevisiae. These sequential fermentations produced wines with between 0.8% (v/v) and 1.3% (v/v) lower ethanol concentrations in Malvar wines, showing significant differences compared with the control. In addition, these combinations provided favorable oenological characteristics to wines such as high glycerol proportion, volatile higher alcohols, and esters with fruity and sweet character. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)
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Article
Do Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts Work Equally with Three Different Red Grape Varieties?
Fermentation 2020, 6(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6010003 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the oenological changes induced by non-Saccharomyces yeasts in three red grape varieties from the Rioja Qualified Designation of Origin. Pilot plants fermentation of three different varieties, were conducted following early inoculations with Metschnikowia pulcherrima and with [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate the oenological changes induced by non-Saccharomyces yeasts in three red grape varieties from the Rioja Qualified Designation of Origin. Pilot plants fermentation of three different varieties, were conducted following early inoculations with Metschnikowia pulcherrima and with mixed inoculum of Lachancea thermotolerans-Torulaspora delbrueckii from La Rioja and compared to a wine inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of vinifications were analysed. Results showed that most of the variations due to inoculation strategies were observed in Tempranillo just after the alcoholic fermentation, probably because of the better adaptation of the inocula to the must’s oenological properties. Finally, after the malolactic fermentation the inoculation with the mix of Lachancea thermotolerans and Torulaspora delbrueckii caused more changes in Tempranillo and Grenache wines while the early inoculation with Metschnikowia pulcherrima had more effects on Grenache wines. Therefore, the study was aimed to identify the fermentation effects of each inoculation strategy by using different non-Saccharomyces yeasts and different grape varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)
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Review

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Review
The Effect of Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces Non-Cerevisiae Yeasts on Ethanol and Glycerol Levels in Wine
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6030077 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces non-cerevisiae studies have increased in recent years due to an interest in uninoculated fermentations, consumer preferences, wine technology, and the effect of climate change on the chemical composition of grapes, juice, and wine. The use of these yeasts [...] Read more.
Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces non-cerevisiae studies have increased in recent years due to an interest in uninoculated fermentations, consumer preferences, wine technology, and the effect of climate change on the chemical composition of grapes, juice, and wine. The use of these yeasts to reduce alcohol levels in wines has garnered the attention of researchers and winemakers alike. This review critically analyses recent studies concerning the impact of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces non-cerevisiae on two important parameters in wine: ethanol and glycerol. The influence they have in sequential, co-fermentations, and solo fermentations on ethanol and glycerol content is examined. This review highlights the need for further studies concerning inoculum rates, aeration techniques (amount and flow rate), and the length of time before Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequential inoculation occurs. Challenges include the application of such sequential inoculations in commercial wineries during harvest time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)
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Review
Non-Saccharomyces in Winemaking: Source of Mannoproteins, Nitrogen, Enzymes, and Antimicrobial Compounds
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6030076 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Traditionally, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have been considered contaminants because of their high production of metabolites with negative connotations in wine. This aspect has been changing in recent years due to an increased interest in the use of these yeasts in the winemaking process. [...] Read more.
Traditionally, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have been considered contaminants because of their high production of metabolites with negative connotations in wine. This aspect has been changing in recent years due to an increased interest in the use of these yeasts in the winemaking process. The majority of these yeasts have a low fermentation power, being used in mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae due to their ability to produce metabolites of enological interest, such as glycerol, fatty acids, organic acids, esters, higher alcohols, stable pigments, among others. Additionally, existing literature reports various compounds derived from the cellular structure of non-Saccharomyces yeasts with benefits in the winemaking process, such as polysaccharides, proteins, enzymes, peptides, amino acids, or antimicrobial compounds, some of which, besides contributing to improving the quality of the wine, can be used as a source of nitrogen for the fermentation yeasts. These compounds can be produced exogenously, and later incorporated into the winemaking process, or be uptake directly by S. cerevisiae from the fermentation medium after their release via lysis of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in sequential fermentations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)
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Review
Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts and Organic Wines Fermentation: Implications on Human Health
Fermentation 2020, 6(2), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fermentation6020054 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
A relevant trend in winemaking is to reduce the use of chemical compounds in both the vineyard and winery. In organic productions, synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and genetically modified organisms must be avoided, aiming to achieve the production of a “safer wine”. Safety [...] Read more.
A relevant trend in winemaking is to reduce the use of chemical compounds in both the vineyard and winery. In organic productions, synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and genetically modified organisms must be avoided, aiming to achieve the production of a “safer wine”. Safety represents a big threat all over the world, being one of the most important goals to be achieved in both Western society and developing countries. An occurrence in wine safety results in the recovery of a broad variety of harmful compounds for human health such as amines, carbamate, and mycotoxins. The perceived increase in sensory complexity and superiority of successful uninoculated wine fermentations, as well as a thrust from consumers looking for a more “natural” or “organic” wine, produced with fewer additives, and perceived health attributes has led to more investigations into the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking, namely in organic wines. However, the use of copper and sulfur-based molecules as an alternative to chemical pesticides, in organic vineyards, seems to affect the composition of grape microbiota; high copper residues can be present in grape must and wine. This review aims to provide an overview of organic wine safety, when using indigenous and/or non-Saccharomyces yeasts to perform fermentation, with a special focus on some metabolites of microbial origin, namely, ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, biogenic amines (BAs), and ethyl carbamate (EC). These health hazards present an increased awareness of the effects on health and well-being by wine consumers, who also enjoy wines where terroir is perceived and is a characteristic of a given geographical area. In this regard, vineyard yeast biota, namely non-Saccharomyces wine-yeasts, can strongly contribute to the uniqueness of the wines derived from each specific region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-Saccharomyces Species 2.0)
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