Special Issue "Fiber-Reinforced Polymers and Fiber-Reinforced Cement Composites as Concrete Reinforcement"

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Constantin Chalioris
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Reinforced Concrete Lab., Department of Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering Division, Democritus University of Thrace, University Campus, Kimmeria, 67100 Xanthi, Greece
Interests: reinforced concrete (RC); testing; repair; strengthening; fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP); self-compacting concrete (SCC); steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC); damage detection; structural health monitoring (SHM); piezoelectric sensors
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reinforced concrete (RC) structural members have originally been designed using steel reinforcing bars and stirrups. In recent decades, innovative materials manufactured out of glass, carbon, aramid, or basalt continuous fibers in polymer matrix (fiber-reinforced polymers or FRPs) have been proposed as alternatives for the substitution of traditional steel reinforcement or for retrofitting applications in RC structures.

Further, the addition of discontinuous fibers in concrete has long been recognized as a non-conventional mass reinforcement that enhances the mechanical properties of concrete. Fiber-reinforced concrete with short randomly distributed fibers exhibits significant resistance to the formation and growth of cracks, increased post-cracking ductility and energy dissipation capacity.

FRPs and non-metallic fiber-reinforced cement-based composites are both recommended in cases where the possibility of corrosion in steel RC structures may cause serious safety and financial concerns in harsh environments. The lightweight, non-corrosive, and non-magnetic nature of these composite materials are some of the attractive characteristics that make them a promising reinforcement technique in new RC construction and rehabilitation/strengthening works of existing deficient RC structures.

This Special Issue brings together experimental and analytical studies aiming to further knowledge and provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advancements in FRPs and fiber-reinforced cement composites and their utilization as internal or externally applied reinforcing material. We are especially interested in studies addressing the following aspects (amongst others): mechanical properties, cracking performance, bond behavior, tension stiffening, rehabilitation, repair and strengthening techniques, structural shapes of the fiber composites such as bars, rods, ropes, sheets, laminates, short fibers, and numerical simulation under various loading conditions. Original research papers, case studies, communications, and authoritative review articles are all invited for this Special Issue.

Papers selected for this Special Issue will be subject to a rigorous peer-review procedure with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications.

Dr. Constantin Chalioris
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • concrete
  • reinforced concrete (RC)
  • fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs)
  • fiber-reinforced cement-based composites
  • geogrid reinforcement
  • tension stiffening
  • mechanical properties
  • bond behavior
  • numerical modeling
  • structural behavior
  • field applications
  • case studies
  • repair/strengthening

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Seismic Performance of RC Beam–Column Joints Designed According to Older and Modern Codes: An Attempt to Reduce Conventional Reinforcement Using Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Fibers 2021, 9(7), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib9070045 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
An analytical and experimental investigation was conducted herein to examine the cyclic load behavior of beam–column joint subassemblages, typical of both the modern reinforced concrete (RC) structures and of the pre-1960s–1970s existing ones. Seven exterior RC beam–column joint subassemblages were constructed and subjected [...] Read more.
An analytical and experimental investigation was conducted herein to examine the cyclic load behavior of beam–column joint subassemblages, typical of both the modern reinforced concrete (RC) structures and of the pre-1960s–1970s existing ones. Seven exterior RC beam–column joint subassemblages were constructed and subjected to earthquake-type loading. Three specimens were designed according to the requirements of the Eurocode (EC) for ductility class medium (DCM), while the other three specimens possessed poor seismic details, conforming to past building codes. The hysteresis behavior of the subassemblages was evaluated. An analytical model was used to calculate the ultimate shear capacity of the beam–column joint area, while also predicting accurately the failure mode of the specimens. It was clearly demonstrated experimentally and analytically that it is possible for excessive seismic damage of the beam–column joint region to occur when designing according to the current European building codes. In addition, the proposed analytical model was found to be very satisfactory in accurately predicting seismic behavior and in preventing the premature brittle shear failure of the joints. The seventh subassemblage, constructed with steel fiber RC and significantly less transverse reinforcement than that required according to the EC, exhibited satisfactory ductile seismic performance, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed design solution. Full article
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Article
Application of X-Shaped CFRP Ropes for Structural Upgrading of Reinforced Concrete Beam–Column Joints under Cyclic Loading–Experimental Study
Fibers 2021, 9(7), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib9070042 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
The effectiveness of externally applied fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) ropes made of carbon fibers in X-shape formation and in both sides of the joint area of reinforced concrete (RC) beam–column connections is experimentally investigated. Six full-scale exterior RC beam–column joint specimens are tested under [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of externally applied fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) ropes made of carbon fibers in X-shape formation and in both sides of the joint area of reinforced concrete (RC) beam–column connections is experimentally investigated. Six full-scale exterior RC beam–column joint specimens are tested under reverse cyclic deformation. Three of them have been strengthened using carbon FRP (CFRP) ropes that have been placed diagonally in the joint as additional, near surface-mounted reinforcements against shear. Full hysteretic curves, maximum applied load capacity, damage modes, stiffness and energy dissipation values per each loading step are presented and compared. Test results indicated that joint sub assemblages with X-shaped CFRP ropes exhibited improved hysteretic behavior and ameliorated performance with respect to the reference specimens. The effectiveness and the easy-to-apply character of the presented strengthening technique is also discussed. Full article
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Article
Development of a Robot-Based Multi-Directional Dynamic Fiber Winding Process for Additive Manufacturing Using Shotcrete 3D Printing
Fibers 2021, 9(6), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib9060039 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 932
Abstract
The research described in this paper is dedicated to the use of continuous fibers as reinforcement for additive manufacturing, particularly using Shotcrete. Composites and in particular fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) are increasingly present in concrete reinforcement. Their corrosion resistance, high tensile strength, low [...] Read more.
The research described in this paper is dedicated to the use of continuous fibers as reinforcement for additive manufacturing, particularly using Shotcrete. Composites and in particular fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) are increasingly present in concrete reinforcement. Their corrosion resistance, high tensile strength, low weight, and high flexibility offer an interesting alternative to conventional steel reinforcement, especially with respect to their use in Concrete 3D Printing. This paper presents an initial development of a dynamic robot-based manufacturing process for FRP concrete reinforcement as an innovative way to increase shape freedom and efficiency in concrete construction. The focus here is on prefabricated fiber reinforcement, which is concreted in a subsequent additive process to produce load-bearing components. After the presentation of the fabrication concept for the integration of FRP reinforcement and the state of the art, a requirements analysis regarding the mechanical bonding behavior in concrete is carried out. This is followed by a description of the development of a dynamic fiber winding process and its integration into an automated production system for individualized fiber reinforcement. Next, initial tests for the automated application of concrete by means of Shotcrete 3D Printing are carried out. In addition, an outlook describes further technical development steps and provides an outline of advanced manufacturing concepts for additive concrete manufacturing with integrated fiber reinforcement. Full article
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Article
Seismic Performance Enhancement of RC Columns Using Thin High-Strength RC Jackets and CFRP Jackets
Fibers 2021, 9(5), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib9050029 - 03 May 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
The existing non-ductile RC structures built prior to the 1960s–1970s were mainly conceived to carry only vertical loads. As a result, the columns of these structures demonstrate poor overall hysteresis behavior during strong earthquakes, dominated by brittle shear or/and premature excessive slipping of [...] Read more.
The existing non-ductile RC structures built prior to the 1960s–1970s were mainly conceived to carry only vertical loads. As a result, the columns of these structures demonstrate poor overall hysteresis behavior during strong earthquakes, dominated by brittle shear or/and premature excessive slipping of the inadequately lap-spliced reinforcement. In the present study, the effectiveness of two different strengthening systems (including either the wrapping of the columns by carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer textile or the use of thin high-strength reinforced concrete jackets), was experimentally and analytically investigated. The main variables examined were the strengthening material, the length of the lap splices and the amount of confinement provided by the jackets. Three cantilever column specimens were constructed without incorporating modern design code requirements for preserving seismic safety and structural integrity. Subsequently, the specimens were strengthened and subjected to earthquake-type loading. Their hysteresis performances were compared, while also evaluated with respect to the response of two similar original specimens and the behavior of a control one with continuous reinforcement, tested in a previous study. The predictions of the proposed analytical formulation for the hysteresis behavior of the strengthened specimens were satisfactorily verified by the experimental results. Full article
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Article
A New Fabric Reinforced Geopolymer Mortar (FRGM) with Mechanical and Energy Benefits
Fibers 2020, 8(8), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib8080049 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
A large part of the European building Heritage is dated back over centuries. Consequently, its structural and thermal performances are often inadequate. Commonly, different interventions are proposed for solving these issues separately. However, reasonable drawbacks arise when the structural retrofitting requires a direct [...] Read more.
A large part of the European building Heritage is dated back over centuries. Consequently, its structural and thermal performances are often inadequate. Commonly, different interventions are proposed for solving these issues separately. However, reasonable drawbacks arise when the structural retrofitting requires a direct contact with the target-member while the insulation layer is potentially interposed in between. In this scenario, the present research proposes a novel and unique system able to guarantee both the energetic and the structural retrofitting. Inorganic Matrix Composites (IMCs) are a promising solution in this sense. Among them, the Fabric Reinforced Cementitous Matrix (FRCM) is one of the most used; or rather a composite made of a fabric (open grid or mesh) within an inorganic matrix (lime or cement based). Even if the inorganic matrix has a relevant thickness (if compared with the one of the fabric), its thermal resistance is insufficient. The novelty of this work consists in assessing a new geo-polymeric FRCM-system by combining fly-ash binder (reused material) and expanded glass aggregate (recycled material). Direct tensile tests, for measuring the tensile strength, ultimate strain and elastic modulus, were performed in addition to thermal conductivity tests. The results were compared with those of traditional FRCM (commercially available). The potentiality of the proposal for structural and energy retrofitting is discussed and examples of its possible application are also reported. Full article
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Article
Flexural Behavior of High Strength Self-Compacted Concrete Slabs Containing Treated and Untreated Geogrid Reinforcement
Fibers 2020, 8(4), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fib8040023 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
Geogrid is as one of the component materials classified under the geosynthetics used for soil stabilizing and reinforcement. Due to its higher strength-to-weight ratio, ease of handling, and comparatively low costs, geogrid has been gradually explored for possible use in concrete reinforcement. This [...] Read more.
Geogrid is as one of the component materials classified under the geosynthetics used for soil stabilizing and reinforcement. Due to its higher strength-to-weight ratio, ease of handling, and comparatively low costs, geogrid has been gradually explored for possible use in concrete reinforcement. This research aims to assess the feasibility of using geogrids as a possible reinforcement for high-strength self-compacted concrete slabs to provide additional tensile strength and ductility. To enhance the bond between geogrid layers and the cement matrix, two types of geogrid surface modification methods are introduced. Gluing sand to the geogrid surface as a physical surface modification method and immersion in polycarboxylate as a chemical surface modification method are investigated. The effect of geogrid type (uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial) and the number of layers is also introduced. The test results show that the chemical treatment increased the ultimate flexural loading capacity of the tested slab by about 8.5% for one geogrid layer and 13% for two geogrid layers compared to untreated specimens. This work was extended to add two geogrid layers in addition to the slab’s steel reinforcement. The results show that adding geogrid decreased the ultimate flexural loading capacity but significantly increased the slab ductility. Full article
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