Special Issue "Performance-Based Design in Structural Fire Engineering"

A special issue of Fire (ISSN 2571-6255).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 January 2022).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Maged A. Youssef
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
Interests: structural fire engineering; earthquake engineering; smart materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Performance-based design of structures in fire is gaining growing interest as a rational alternative to the traditionally adopted prescriptive code approach. This interest has led to its introduction in different codes and standards around the globe. Although engineers widely use performance-based methods to design structural components in earthquake engineering, adoption of such methods in fire engineering is still very limited. This Special Issue will address this shortcoming by providing engineers with the needed knowledge and recent research activities addressing performance-based design in structural fire engineering, including fire development, fire dynamics, heat transfer calculations, capacity of structural and non-structural elements, and fire-induced deformations. Although all submissions are welcome, studies that focus on structures within or near the wildland urban interface, structures of cultural importance, and outside structural fires (e.g. cladding fires) are of particular interest to the readership of Fire. I invite you to submit a paper to this Special Issue.

Prof. Maged A. Youssef
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fire is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fire dynamics
  • travelling fires
  • heat transfer
  • capacity
  • deformations
  • performance-based design

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Fire Resistance for Steel Structures of Ships and Offshore Platforms
Fire 2022, 5(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fire5010009 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 115
Abstract
The requirements for the fire resistance of steel structures of oil and gas facilities for transportation and production of hydrocarbons are considered (structures of tankers and offshore platforms). It is found that the requirements for the values of fire resistance of structures under [...] Read more.
The requirements for the fire resistance of steel structures of oil and gas facilities for transportation and production of hydrocarbons are considered (structures of tankers and offshore platforms). It is found that the requirements for the values of fire resistance of structures under hydrocarbon rather than standard fire conditions are given only for offshore stationary platforms. Experimental studies on the loss of integrity (E) and thermal insulating capacity (I) of steel bulkheads and deck with mineral wool under standard and hydrocarbon fire regimes are presented. Simulation of structure heating was performed, which showed a good correlation with the experimental results (convective heat transfer coefficients for bulkheads of class H: 50 W/m2·K; for bulkheads of class A: 25 W/m2·K). The consumption of mineral slabs and endothermic mat for the H-0 bulkhead is predicted. It is calculated that under a standard fire regime, mineral wool with a density of 80–100 kg/m2 and a thickness of 40 to 85 mm should be used; under a hydrocarbon fire regime, mineral wool with a density above 100 kg/m2 and a thickness of 60–150 mm is required. It is shown that to protect the structures of decks and bulkheads in a hydrocarbon fire regime, it is necessary to use 30–40% more thermal insulation and apply the highest density of fire-retardant material compared to the standard fire regime. Parameters of thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the applied flame retardant in the temperature range from 0 to 1000 °C were clarified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance-Based Design in Structural Fire Engineering)
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Article
Mechanical and Impact Properties of Engineered Cementitious Composites Reinforced with PP Fibers at Elevated Temperatures
Fire 2022, 5(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fire5010003 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 106
Abstract
The repeated impact performance of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) is not well explored yet, especially after exposure to severe conditions, such as accidental fires. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of strength and repeated impact capacity of ECCs reinforced with [...] Read more.
The repeated impact performance of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) is not well explored yet, especially after exposure to severe conditions, such as accidental fires. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of strength and repeated impact capacity of ECCs reinforced with Polypropylene fibers after high temperature exposure. Compressive strength and flexural strength were tested using cube and beam specimens, while disk specimens were used to conduct repeated impact tests according to the ACI 544-2R procedure. Reference specimens were tested at room temperature, while three other groups were tested after heating to 200 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C and naturally cooled to room temperature. The test results indicated that the reference ECC specimens exhibited a much higher failure impact resistance compared to normal concrete specimens, which was associated with a ductile failure showing a central surface fracture zone and fine surface multi-cracking under repeated impacts. This behavior was also recorded for specimens subjected to 200 °C, while the exposure to 400 °C and 600 °C significantly deteriorated the impact resistance and ductility of ECCs. The recorded failure impact numbers decreased from 259 before heating to 257, 24 and 10 after exposure to 200 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C, respectively. However, after exposure to all temperature levels, the failure impact records of ECCs kept at least four times higher than their corresponding normal concrete ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance-Based Design in Structural Fire Engineering)
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Article
Thermal–Mechanical Coupling Evaluation of the Panel Performance of a Prefabricated Cabin-Type Substation Based on Machine Learning
Fire 2021, 4(4), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fire4040093 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 458
Abstract
The panel performance of a prefabricated cabin-type substation under the impact of fires plays a vital role in the normal operation of the substation. However, current evaluations of the panel performance of substations under fire still focus on fire resistance tests, which seldom [...] Read more.
The panel performance of a prefabricated cabin-type substation under the impact of fires plays a vital role in the normal operation of the substation. However, current evaluations of the panel performance of substations under fire still focus on fire resistance tests, which seldom consider the relationship between fire behavior and the mechanical load of the panel under the impact of fires. Aiming at the complex and uncertain relationship between the thermal and mechanical performance of the substation panel under impact of fires, this paper proposes a machine learning method based on a BP neural network. First, the fire resistance test and the stress test of the panel is carried out, then a machine learning model is established based on the BP neural network. According to the collected data, the model parameters are obtained through a series of training and verification processes. Meanwhile, the correlation between the panel performance and fire resistance was obtained. Finally, related parameters are input into the thermal–mechanical coupling evaluation model for the substation panel performance to evaluate the fire resistance performance of the substation panel. To verify the correctness of the established model, numerical simulation of the fire test and stress test of the panel is conducted, and numerical simulation samples are predicted by the trained model. The results show that the prediction curve of neural network is closer to the real results compared with the numerical simulation, and the established model can accurately evaluate the thermal–mechanical coupling performance of the substation panel under fire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance-Based Design in Structural Fire Engineering)
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Article
Residual Stress-Strain Relationship of Scoria Aggregate Concrete with the Addition of PP Fiber after Fire Exposure
Fire 2021, 4(4), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fire4040091 - 05 Dec 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Scoria aggregate concrete (SAC) as new green material has been gradually used in some construction projects for its lightweight and high strength, which can reduce the environmental impact of construction materials. In this paper, the residual mechanical properties and intact compressive stress-strain relationships [...] Read more.
Scoria aggregate concrete (SAC) as new green material has been gradually used in some construction projects for its lightweight and high strength, which can reduce the environmental impact of construction materials. In this paper, the residual mechanical properties and intact compressive stress-strain relationships of polypropylene (PP) fiber-reinforced Scoria aggregate concrete after high-temperature exposure at 20, 200, 400, 600, and 800 °C were investigated. The failure modes of PP fiber-reinforced Scoria aggregate concrete specimens and the effect of high temperatures on the peak stress, secant modulus, and peak strain were obtained. The results showed that the residual compressive strength of heated concrete is significantly reduced when the temperature exceeds 400 °C. The residual strength and residual secant modulus of PP fiber-reinforced Scoria aggregate concrete are significantly higher than those of ordinary concrete. The Scoria aggregate concrete specimens with PP fibers exhibited fewer surface cracks and fewer edge bursts under high temperatures. The residual stress-strain equation of the Scoria aggregate concrete was established by regression analysis, which agreed well with the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance-Based Design in Structural Fire Engineering)
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Article
Nonlinear Analysis of a Steel Frame Structure Exposed to Post-Earthquake Fire
Fire 2021, 4(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fire4040073 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
The probability of extreme events such as an earthquake, fire or blast occurring during the lifetime of a structure is relatively low but these events can cause serious damage to the structure as well as to human life. Due to the significant consequences [...] Read more.
The probability of extreme events such as an earthquake, fire or blast occurring during the lifetime of a structure is relatively low but these events can cause serious damage to the structure as well as to human life. Due to the significant consequences for occupant and structural safety, an accurate analysis of the response of structures exposed to these events is required for their design. Some extreme events may occur as a consequence of another hazard, for example, a fire may occur due to the failure of the electrical system of a structure following an earthquake. In such circumstances, the structure is subjected to a multi-hazard loading scenario. A post-earthquake fire (PEF) is one of the major multi-hazard events that is reasonably likely to occur but has been the subject of relatively little research in the available literature. In most international design codes, structures exposed to multi-hazards scenarios such as earthquakes, which are then followed by fires are only analysed and designed for as separate events, even though structures subjected to an earthquake may experience partial damage resulting in a more severe response to a subsequent fire. Most available analysis procedures and design codes do not address the association of the two hazards. Thus, the design of structures based on existing standards may contribute to a significant risk of structural failure. Indeed, a suitable method of analysis is required to investigate the behaviour of structures when exposed to sequential hazards. In this paper, a multi-hazard analysis approach is developed, which considers the damage caused to structures during and after an earthquake through a subsequent thermal analysis. A methodology is developed and employed to study the nonlinear behaviour of a steel framed structure under post-earthquake fire conditions. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of an unprotected steel frame is developed and outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance-Based Design in Structural Fire Engineering)
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Article
Hotspot Analysis of Structure Fires in Urban Agglomeration: A Case of Nagpur City, India
Fire 2021, 4(3), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fire4030038 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Fire Service is the fundamental civic service to protect citizens from irrecoverable, heavy losses of lives and property. Hotspot analysis of structure fires is essential to estimate people and property at risk. Hotspot analysis for the peak period of last decade, using a [...] Read more.
Fire Service is the fundamental civic service to protect citizens from irrecoverable, heavy losses of lives and property. Hotspot analysis of structure fires is essential to estimate people and property at risk. Hotspot analysis for the peak period of last decade, using a GIS-based spatial analyst and statistical techniques through the Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) and Getis-Ord Gi* with Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation is performed, revealing fire risk zones at the city ward micro level. Using remote sensing, outputs of hotspot analysis are integrated with the built environment of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) to quantify the accurate built-up areas and population density of identified fire risk zones. KDE delineates 34 wards as hotspots, while Getis-Ord Gi* delineates 17 wards within the KDE hotspot, the central core areas having the highest built-up and population density. A temporal analysis reveals the maximum fires on Thursday during the hot afternoon hours from 12 noon to 5 p.m. The study outputs help decision makers for effective fire prevention and protection by deploying immediate resource allocations and proactive planning reassuring sustainable urban development. Furthermore, updating the requirement of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) to build urban resilient infrastructure in accord with the Smart City Mission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance-Based Design in Structural Fire Engineering)
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