Special Issue "Bioactive Lipids: Advances in Green Extraction Technologies and Bioassays"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Analytical Methods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ana P. Carvalho
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF - Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
Interests: green extraction processes; functional ingredients; bioactive lipids; marine byproducts valorisation; omega-3 fatty acids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Clara Grosso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
REQUIMTE–LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
Interests: seaweeds; medicinal plants; secondary metabolites; bioactivities; green extraction processes; nanotechnology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive lipids, such as regulatory molecules, are of utmost importance in human health. Although they can be naturally present in some foods, their inclusion as specific functional ingredients is a valuable way to increase the nutritional and commercial value of food products.

Due to the heterogeneity of compounds and the multiplicity of molecular species, lipid extraction has always been a challenge. Gravimetric solvent extraction methodologies do not obey the principles of Green Chemistry, focused on the reduction of solvents, aiming to minimize environmental impacts without compromising extraction efficiency and costs. In this context, interest in the use of emerging technologies in the selective extraction of bioactive lipids has evolved over the past few decades, moving towards techniques that take advantage of waves or pressure, among others, thus prioritizing the Principles of Green Chemistry.

After extraction, molecules’ bioactivities are screened based on established in vitro bioassays, in which the most promising molecules continue toward more advanced cell-based and animal assays. Unfortunately, many of these bioassays have been designed for hydrophilic molecules, and their adaptation to lipophilic ones does not always produce reliable and trustable results. Therefore, strategies to adapt and standardize the currently used bioassays to avoid interferences, artifacts, and false positives are urgently needed.

This Special Issue intends to revisit the current research done on the obtention of bioactive lipid extracts, from conventional or alternative sources (e.g., byproducts), and validation of their functional properties. Topics within its scope include (i) advances in green extraction processes and (ii) critical analysis on the adaptation of bioassays (initially developed for hydrophilic substances) to evaluation of lipid extracts.

As Guest Editors of this Special Issue, we cordially invite researchers to submit original research articles and reviews on their current research, addressing recent advances in analytical methodologies for green extraction of bioactive lipids and bioassay standardization.

Dr. Ana P. Carvalho
Dr. Clara Grosso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Green extraction processes
  • Emerging technologies
  • Functional lipids
  • Omega-3 PUFAs
  • Phospholipids
  • Sterols and stanols
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Lipid byproducts
  • Bioassays

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Green Solvent to Substitute Hexane for Bioactive Lipids Extraction from Black Cumin and Basil Seeds
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1493; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10071493 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
A comparative study of bioactive lipids extraction from black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds using conventional petroleum-based solvent and green solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) was performed. MeTHF extraction allowed obtaining the highest oil yield in black cumin [...] Read more.
A comparative study of bioactive lipids extraction from black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds using conventional petroleum-based solvent and green solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) was performed. MeTHF extraction allowed obtaining the highest oil yield in black cumin (34%). Regarding fatty acids composition, linoleic acid (61%) and α-linolenic (78%) were relevant in black cumin and basil green and conventionally extracted oils, respectively. Besides, MeTHF allowed obtaining higher tocopherols and total phenolics contents in black cumin (400 mg/kg of oil and 12 mg EGA/g oil) and basil (317 mg/kg oil and 5 mg EGA/g oil) compared to hexane-extracted ones. The content of major phenolic compounds in the two seed oils, trans-hydroxycinnamic acid, rosmarinic acid, and thymol was enhanced by MeTHF extraction. Furthermore, MeTHF-extracted oils possess stronger antioxidant activities (radical scavenging, total antioxidant, and β-carotene bleaching activities) and high and similar anti-inflammatory capacity to hexane-extracted oils. In conclusion, the results revealed that MeTHF is efficient to replace hazardous solvents to extract oil from black cumin and basil seeds rich in compounds relevant to the human diet, including essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3), tocopherols, and phenolic compounds with improved biological activities. Full article
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Article
Bioactive Lipids of Seaweeds from the Portuguese North Coast: Health Benefits versus Potential Contamination
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1366; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10061366 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
The total lipid content and lipidic profile of seaweeds harvested in the North Coast and purchased in Portugal were determined in this paper. The amount of total lipids in the different species of seaweeds varied between 0.7 ± 0.1% (Chondrus crispus) [...] Read more.
The total lipid content and lipidic profile of seaweeds harvested in the North Coast and purchased in Portugal were determined in this paper. The amount of total lipids in the different species of seaweeds varied between 0.7 ± 0.1% (Chondrus crispus) and 3.8 ± 0.6% (Ulva spp.). Regarding the fatty acid content, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ranged between 0–35%, with Ulva spp. presenting the highest amount; monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) varied between 19 and 67%; and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were predominant in C. crispus (45–78%) and Gracilaria spp. (36–79%). Concerning the nutritional indices, the atherogenicity index (AI) was between 0.4–3.2, the thrombogenicity index (TI) ranged from 0.04 to 1.95, except for Gracilaria spp., which had a TI of 7.6, and the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio (HH) values ranged between 0.88–4.21, except for Gracilaria spp., which exhibited values between 0.22–9.26. The n6/n3 ratio was below 1 for most of the species evaluated, except for Ascophyllum nodosum, which presented a higher value, although below 2. Considering the PUFA/SFA ratio, seaweeds presented values between 0.11–1.02. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) contamination of seaweeds under study was also quantified, the values found being much lower than the maximum levels recommended for foodstuff. Full article
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Article
Polar Lipids of Commercial Ulva spp. of Different Origins: Profiling and Relevance for Seaweed Valorization
Foods 2021, 10(5), 914; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10050914 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
Macroalgae of the genus Ulva have long been used as human food. Local environmental conditions, among other factors, can have an impact on their nutrient and phytochemical composition, as well as on the value of the seaweed for food and non-food applications. This [...] Read more.
Macroalgae of the genus Ulva have long been used as human food. Local environmental conditions, among other factors, can have an impact on their nutrient and phytochemical composition, as well as on the value of the seaweed for food and non-food applications. This study is the first to initiate a comparison between commercial Ulva spp. from different European origins, France (FR, wild-harvested Ulva spp.), and Portugal (PT, farm-raised Ulva rigida), in terms of proximate composition, esterified fatty acids (FA), and polar lipids. The ash content was higher in PT samples, while FR samples had higher levels of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates and other compounds. The profile of esterified FA, as well as FA-containing polar lipids at the class and species levels were also significantly different. The FR samples showed about three-fold higher amount of n-3 polyunsaturated FA, while PT samples showed two-fold higher content of monounsaturated FA. Quantification of glycolipids and phospholipids revealed, respectively, two-fold and three-fold higher levels in PT samples. Despite the differences found, the polar lipids identified in both batches included some lipid species with recognized bioactivity, valuing Ulva biomass with functional properties, increasing their added value, and promoting new applications, namely in nutraceutical and food markets. Full article
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