Special Issue "Flavour Volatiles of Foods"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Angel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department Agro-food Technology, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Alicante, Spain
Interests: sensory analysis of foods; food quality; food safety; evaluation of volatile compounds of fruits; vegetables and derived products; functionality of fruits and vegetables as affected by different agricultural practices and processing; dehydration of fruits; vegetables; aromatic herbs
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

All researchers working on flavor volatiles of foods know how difficult this topic is; these compounds are so fragile and delicate that will change their isomerization, or will even degrade to new compounds, as soon as no optimal conditions are used for their evaluation. Therefore, extremely controlled and sophisticated methods need to be used to properly determine the real and true profiles of flavor volatile compounds. These methods include: (i) extraction of the volatile compounds from the food matrix; (ii) separation of each individual compound; (iii) identification; and, finally, (iv) quantification. There are several analytical methods for each one of these steps:

  • The extraction can be done using hydro-distillation (Deryng or Clevenger apparatus), simultaneous steam-distillation extraction (SDE, Likens-Nickerson), solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), or using different solvents.
  • For the separation, there is a universal method, gas chromatography (GC).
  • For the next step, identification, the best option is to couple the GC to a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS). Very new and potent databases are available and help the researcher to properly identify the volatile compounds.
  • Finally, for the quantification of these compounds other detectors should be couple to GC, such as FID (flame ionization) or others.

The complexity of the analytical methods behind these compounds is an indicative fact of how important they are for the quality of foods. For instance, when we have a bad cold, our sense of smell does not work properly. Then, we cannot distinguish the flavor volatiles and we are not able to enjoy our food. We only know whether it is sweet, bitter, etc., but we do not really know what we are eating. Therefore, flavor volatiles of foods are essential to recognize and fully enjoy our daily food. This is why this Special Issue of the new journal Foods is so special. We are all looking forward to your contribution.

Prof. Dr. Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Odor active compounds
  • Thresholds
  • Odor, aroma and flavor
  • Chemical families (aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, etc.)
  • Gas chromatography
  • GC-MS

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique
Foods 2017, 6(2), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods6020010 - 08 Feb 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3515
Abstract
The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with [...] Read more.
The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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Article
Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice
Foods 2016, 5(4), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods5040081 - 30 Nov 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3013
Abstract
In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups [...] Read more.
In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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Article
Antibacterial Activity of Fructus forsythia Essential Oil and the Application of EO-Loaded Nanoparticles to Food-Borne Pathogens
Foods 2016, 5(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods5040073 - 29 Oct 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3767
Abstract
Fructus forsythia essential oil (FEO) with excellent antibacterial activity was rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and the antibacterial mechanism of FEO against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus [...] Read more.
Fructus forsythia essential oil (FEO) with excellent antibacterial activity was rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and the antibacterial mechanism of FEO against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in vitro. When treated FEO, the zones of inhibition (ZOI) of E. coli (20.5 ± 0.25 mm) and S. aureus (24.3 ± 0.21 mm) were much larger than control (p < 0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of FEO were 3.13 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The antibacterial mechanism of FEO against E. coil was due to the changes in permeability and integrity of cell membrane leading to the leakage of nucleic acids and proteins. With the superior antibacterial activity of FEO, the nano-encapsulation method has been applied in FEO. When compared to FEO and blank chitosan nanoparticles, FEO-loaded nanoparticles (chitosan to FEO of 1:1) can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coil above 90% at room temperature. It is necessary to consider that FEO and FEO-loaded nanoparticles will become promising antibacterial additives for food preservative, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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Article
Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations
Foods 2016, 5(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods5040070 - 27 Oct 2016
Cited by 74 | Viewed by 5629
Abstract
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as [...] Read more.
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%); the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%); the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%); and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%). A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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Article
Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil
Foods 2016, 5(3), 46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods5030046 - 24 Jun 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3699
Abstract
Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile [...] Read more.
Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
Article
Volatile Composition of Essential Oils from Different Aromatic Herbs Grown in Mediterranean Regions of Spain
Foods 2016, 5(2), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods5020041 - 25 May 2016
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 3827
Abstract
Volatile composition of essential oils from dill, parsley, coriander, and mint were investigated at different harvest dates to determine the most suitable harvest time for each these herbs. Hydrodistillation (HD), using a Deryng system, was used for isolating the essential oils. Isolation and [...] Read more.
Volatile composition of essential oils from dill, parsley, coriander, and mint were investigated at different harvest dates to determine the most suitable harvest time for each these herbs. Hydrodistillation (HD), using a Deryng system, was used for isolating the essential oils. Isolation and identification of the volatile compounds were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument. The results of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis (quantification) showed that the main components in the essential oil of dill shoots were α-phellandrene, dill ether, and β-phellandrene, and the optimal harvest date was D2 (second harvest, fourth week of February 2015). For parsley shoots, the main compounds were 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, β-phellandrene, and P1 (first harvest, third week of November 2014) was the sample with the highest essential oil. For coriander, the main compounds were E-2-dodecenal, dodecanal, and octane and the highest contents were found at C2 (second harvest, 5 February 2015); while, the main two components of mint essential oil were carvone and limonene, and the highest contents were found at M1 (first harvest, second week of December 2014). The present study was the first one reporting data on descriptive sensory analysis of aromatic herbs at this optimal harvest date according to the content of volatile compounds of their essential oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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Article
Effects of Matrix Composition on Detection Threshold Estimates for Methyl Anthranilate and 2-Aminoacetophenone
Foods 2016, 5(2), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods5020035 - 17 May 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3229
Abstract
Conceptually, a detection threshold represents the lowest concentration at which an individual or a group of individuals can reliably perceive a given stimulus, with a commonly used operational definition of 50% performance above chance. Estimated detection thresholds (DTs), however, are often reported in [...] Read more.
Conceptually, a detection threshold represents the lowest concentration at which an individual or a group of individuals can reliably perceive a given stimulus, with a commonly used operational definition of 50% performance above chance. Estimated detection thresholds (DTs), however, are often reported in the literature with little attention given to the matrix in which the stimuli were evaluated. Here, we highlight the influence of matrix effects on DTs for two odor-active compounds commonly found in Vitis Labrusca wines. Differences in orthonasal DTs for methyl anthranilate (MA) and 2-aminoacetophenone (2AAP) in water, a model wine system, and wine were demonstrated using a within-subject design and forced choice (i.e., criterion free) psychophysical methods. Six sample triads, each containing two blanks and one spiked sample, were presented to participants with the instructions to choose the “different” sample, and this was repeated in different matrices (water, model wine, and wine). The estimated DTs for both compounds were significantly lower in water versus the model wine system and wine. This finding recapitulates the strong need to carefully consider the nature of the delivery matrix when determining and comparing threshold estimates across studies. Additionally, data from prior reports have suggested DTs for MA and 2AAP may differ by two orders of magnitude in spite of their structural similarity. We failed to confirm this difference here: although 2AAP thresholds were somewhat lower than MA thresholds, differences were much smaller than what had been suggested previously. This, again, emphasizes the need to make comparisons within the same individuals, using appropriate methods with sufficient numbers of participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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Article
Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of “Valencia” Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons
Foods 2016, 5(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods5010004 - 04 Jan 2016
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 5676
Abstract
Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major [...] Read more.
Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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