Special Issue "Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecology and Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2019) | Viewed by 30612

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Enrico Marchi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, University of Florence, Via S. Bonaventura 13, 50145 Firenze, Italy
Interests: forest operations; forest engineering; logging; harvesting; ergonomics; safety and health in forest operations; environmental impacts of forest operation; sustainability of forest operation; human factors; productivity; LCA
Dr. Francesco Neri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, University of Florence, Via S. Bonaventura 13, 50145 Firenze, Italy
Interests: ergonomics; forest operation and road planning
Prof. Dr. Andrea Laschi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry (SAAF), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, ed. 4, 90128 Palermo PA, Italy
Interests: forest operation planning; forest road planning; optimization of forest operations; environmental impacts related to forest operations; health and safety of forest workers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since prehistory, wood has been a fundamental raw material. In recent years, wood demand has increased worldwide, and it is expected that it will continue to increase in the future, considering its role as a renewable material and taking into account the increasing world population. Sustainable management of forest resources is mandatory in order to maintain forests and their multiple functions for Society. In this context, wood harvesting and forest operations are very delicate issues to be studied and analyzed in order to reduce their potential and effective negative effects, maximizing productions and reducing the environmental impacts of forest operations. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide new information on different aspects related to innovation, sustainability and planning forest operations, such as the following: i) optimization of productivity in terms of both quantity and quality; ii) innovative planning of forest operations, including remote-sensing and ICT; iii) innovations in mechanization aimed at increasing the efficiency and/or safety of operations; iv) innovative approaches in reducing environmental impacts related with forest operations; v) forest road planning.

Prof. Dr. Enrico Marchi
Dr. Francesco Neri
Dr. Andrea Laschi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wood request
  • Productivity
  • Sustainable harvesting
  • Environmental impacts
  • Quality optimization
  • Forest roads
  • Health and safety
  • Mechanization

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
Optimization of Skid Trails and Log Yards on the Amazon Forest
Forests 2019, 10(3), 252; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f10030252 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
Research highlights: We used Dijkstra Algorithm (DA) to define optimal allocation of yards in order to minimize total skid-trail’s distance in the Amazon Forest. DA minimized trails’ distances and associated transportation costs, leading to an even smaller value when the current planning was [...] Read more.
Research highlights: We used Dijkstra Algorithm (DA) to define optimal allocation of yards in order to minimize total skid-trail’s distance in the Amazon Forest. DA minimized trails’ distances and associated transportation costs, leading to an even smaller value when the current planning was disregarded and suggesting the reduction of deleterious environmental externalities. Background and objectives: We sought to answer if it is possible to optimize distances and intrinsic costs in the management of Amazonian forests using DA. The objective was to minimize skid trails distances by best allocating yards using DA and to compare four scenarios of forest harvest planning in the Brazilian Amazon. Materials and methods: Tree census data from Gênesis-Salém Farm, state of Pará, Brazil, were used. The yards and roads located by Grupo Arboris (scenario 1) were compared to three alternative scenarios in terms of total skid distance, trails and road densities, and skidding costs for three successive harvests, seeking to minimize total skid-trails’ distance. Alternative scenarios were to keep the number of yards within work units (WU) and place them in the edge of existing roads (scenario 2); keep the number of yards within each WU (scenario 3); and place 23 yards, disregarding the current planning (scenario 4). Results: Total skid-trail’s distance, number of trees above optimal extraction distance and densities of skid trails and roads were smaller in scenarios 2, 3, and 4, compared to the current yard allocation (scenario 1). Scenario 4, with fewer restrictions, reduced skid-trails’ distances by 23%. Harvest costs decreased from scenario 1 to 4 in all three harvest cycles. Conclusions: DA allowed optimized distribution of yards and skid trails and generated efficient results for harvest planning. This reinforces the importance of optimized planning, which establishes satisfactory results in the effort to reduce costs and environmental impact keeping high efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Which Selective Logging Intensity is Most Suitable for the Maintenance of Soil Properties and the Promotion of Natural Regeneration in Highly Continental Scots Pine Forests?–Results 19 Years after Harvest Operations in Mongolia
Forests 2019, 10(2), 141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f10020141 - 09 Feb 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests are one of the main vegetation types in the Asian forest-steppe zone. However, over-harvesting currently threatens the natural regeneration and sustainability of these forests. In this study, we examine the long-term effects of different logging intensities [...] Read more.
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests are one of the main vegetation types in the Asian forest-steppe zone. However, over-harvesting currently threatens the natural regeneration and sustainability of these forests. In this study, we examine the long-term effects of different logging intensities on soil properties and natural regeneration in a natural Scots pine forest in the West Khentii Mountains (Mongolia), 19 years after selective logging. Our experimental design included five treatments: clear cut (CC), treatments with high (HI), medium (MI), low (LI) intensities, and a reference parcel with no logging impact at all (RE). We described and quantified the harvest events and applied ANOVA and LMM modeling to analyze and explain the long-term impacts of the logging intensities on soil properties and natural regeneration. We found that logging has a significant negative influence on the physical and chemical properties of the soil because it increases soil compaction and reduces soil nutrients. The most critical impacts of logging were on soil bulk density, total porosity, organic matter, and total nitrogen and phosphorus. The LMM modeling showed that organic matter (OgM), total nitrogen (TN), available K (AK) and pH values are especially impacted by logging. Our study revealed that the values for all of these variables show a linear decrease with increasing selective logging intensity and have a level of significance of p < 0.05. Another finding of this study is that selective logging with low and medium intensities can promote natural regeneration of Scots pine to numbers above those of the reference site (RE). High intensity logging and clear-cuts, however, limit the regeneration of Scots pine, reduce overall seedling numbers (p < 0.05), and create conditions that are suitable only for the regeneration of deciduous tree species. This underlines the risk of Scots pine forest degradation, either by replacement by broad-leaf trees or by conversion into non-forest ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Impact Assessment of Skidding Extraction: Effects on Physical and Chemical Properties of Forest Soils and on Maple Seedling Growing along the Skid Trail
Forests 2019, 10(2), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f10020134 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Several studies investigated soil disturbances caused on skid trails by forest logging. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the severity and the distance of disturbances along both sides from the trails. The aims of this study were: i) to investigate [...] Read more.
Several studies investigated soil disturbances caused on skid trails by forest logging. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the severity and the distance of disturbances along both sides from the trails. The aims of this study were: i) to investigate the changes in physical and chemical properties of soil along the sides of skidding trails; ii) to measure the effects of soil compaction on of maple seedlings growth. Two levels of trail gradient (<20% and >20%), four levels of traffic frequency (3, 8, 15, and 30 passes) and four distance buffer strip zones (0.5 m intervals from 0 to 2 m in distance) on both sides of skid trail edges were analyzed. Each treatment included three replicate plots. In order to investigate the effect of compaction on seedlings emergence and growth, maple seeds were sown after logging. The results highlighted significant changes in physical and chemical properties of soil for each traffic frequency in the closest buffer strip (from 0 to 0.5 m from the skid trail edges). The largest changes in soil properties were identified at 0.5 m distance zones for a slope gradient >20% after 3, 8, 15, and 30 skidding cycles. The highest changes were recorded on slope category >20%. The higher the soil compaction the lower the germination rate, root length, and stem height of seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Ground-Based Extraction on Salvage Logging in Two High Forests: A Productivity and Cost Analysis
Forests 2018, 9(12), 729; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9120729 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
Working time studies, work productivity, and cost assessments of forest logging are of interest to forest managers and planners. These aspects are particularly important in salvage logging, because of difficulties due to irregularly positioned fallen trees in forest areas, and due to particular [...] Read more.
Working time studies, work productivity, and cost assessments of forest logging are of interest to forest managers and planners. These aspects are particularly important in salvage logging, because of difficulties due to irregularly positioned fallen trees in forest areas, and due to particular aspects related to the absence of work planning. In this research, system productivity and the cost of salvage logging are analyzed for two mountain forests managed with close-to nature-silviculture: the Hyrcanian forest, using extraction by a skidder, and the Camaldoli forest, using extraction by tractors. The system productivity of salvage logging by skidders and tractors was calculated as 1.54 and 0.81 m3·h−1, respectively. In contrast to common logging, system productivity was about 6- to 15-fold lower in salvage logging. The effective cost consumptions for the skidder and tractor were calculated as $72.57 and $118.62 USD·m−3, respectively. For both yards, winching time increased due to increasing winching distance and winching load volume. The same result was determined for skidding time in relation to load volume and distance. The possible cost decreases for the skidder and tractor were calculated as 2.6% and 4.3%, respectively. The results revealed that operational costs for extracting wind-fallen trees are higher than for traditional standing-trees extraction for both situations studied. In both cases, the harvesting costs were higher than the timber price by 10% to 30%. Therefore, extraction of wind-fallen trees has no economic justification in these forests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Discrete-Event Simulation of Ground-Based Timber Harvesting Operations
Forests 2018, 9(11), 683; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9110683 - 31 Oct 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
Operational studies are necessary to support production and management decisions of forest industries. A time study (TS) approach is widely used in timber harvesting operations to understand the performance of individual harvesting machines as well as the entire system. However, several limitations of [...] Read more.
Operational studies are necessary to support production and management decisions of forest industries. A time study (TS) approach is widely used in timber harvesting operations to understand the performance of individual harvesting machines as well as the entire system. However, several limitations of the TS approach include the use of generalized utilization rates, incapability of capturing interactions among equipment, and model extrapolation in sensitivity analysis. In this study, we demonstrated the use of discrete event simulation (DES) techniques in modeling a ground-based timber harvesting system, and compared the DES results with those of the TS model developed with the same observed data. Although both TS and DES models provided similar estimation results for individual machine cycle times and productivities, the estimated machine utilization rates were somewhat different due to the difference in synthesizing machine processes in each approach. Our sensitivity analysis and model expansion to simulate a hypothetical harvesting system suggest that the DES approach may become an appropriate method for analyzing complex systems especially where interactions among different machine processes are unknown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Resource Allocation, Pit Quality, and Early Survival of Seedlings Following Two Motor-Manual Pit-Drilling Options
Forests 2018, 9(11), 665; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9110665 - 24 Oct 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Afforestation and reforestation operations constitute an important part of the forest management, being crucial for the sustainability of forests. In such operations, there are three options to prepare the planting holes: manual, partly mechanized, and fully mechanized. Given the high cost of mechanized [...] Read more.
Afforestation and reforestation operations constitute an important part of the forest management, being crucial for the sustainability of forests. In such operations, there are three options to prepare the planting holes: manual, partly mechanized, and fully mechanized. Given the high cost of mechanized planting and the ergonomic issues of manual planting, one option which is worth exploring is using of augers, because they have the potential to mitigate and/or eliminate intense physical effort and aspects of some of the ergonomic problems. This study examines the early survival of seedlings following the use of augers to prepare the planting pits. Working time, fuel consumption and physical quality of the pits were evaluated on nine sites for two drill types differentiated by their diameter (150 vs. 200 mm). Time consumption was systematically higher when using the larger drill, while fuel consumption was not found to be statistically different. The larger drill systematically produced pits characterized by less physical quality in terms of resistance to penetration and shear strength, but the early survival of seedlings was higher when using this drill size. Survival probability modeled by means of logistic regression showed that pit size was among the factors that may affect the early survival of seedlings. The study concludes that the larger drill would be more appropriate to plant seedlings, but further studies should be arranged to see if long-term survival would be affected in this case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Instantaneous Cutting Force Variability in Chainsaws
Forests 2018, 9(10), 660; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9100660 - 22 Oct 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Chainsaws with chipper-type chains are widely used in timber harvesting. While existing research on such saws assumes a continuous cutting process, the objectives of the present study were to determine whether or not that is true, as well as to measure instantaneous cutting [...] Read more.
Chainsaws with chipper-type chains are widely used in timber harvesting. While existing research on such saws assumes a continuous cutting process, the objectives of the present study were to determine whether or not that is true, as well as to measure instantaneous cutting forces and active cutting time (the time during which the chainsaw cutters are actually engaged with the wood sample). Tests were conducted on a special experimental stand enabling cutting force measurement with a frequency of 60 kHz. The test material was air-dry pine wood. The feed force range was 51–118 N. The chain was tensioned. The study revealed considerable variability in instantaneous cutting force, which was correlated with the rotational speed of the chainsaw engine, as indicated by frequency analysis. Furthermore, the process of cutting with chainsaws was shown to be discontinuous, and a cutter engagement time ratio was defined as the proportion of active cutting time to the overall time of chainsaw operation when making the cut. It was also found that active cutting time was directly proportionate to the applied feed force and inversely proportionate to the rotational speed of the chainsaw engine. The results may be practically applied to establish an optimum range of rotational speed that should be maintained by the operator to maximize cutting efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Productivity, Costs, and Selected Environmental Impacts of Remote-Controlled Mini Forestry Crawlers
Forests 2018, 9(10), 591; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9100591 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
An effective way to reduce off-road traffic in forests is to implement greater distances between skid trails. However, this implies that trees beyond the boom reach of the harvester need to be felled motor manually before being winched to the skid trail, for [...] Read more.
An effective way to reduce off-road traffic in forests is to implement greater distances between skid trails. However, this implies that trees beyond the boom reach of the harvester need to be felled motor manually before being winched to the skid trail, for example using a remote-controlled mini forestry crawler (MFC). They are only a few local studies which have evaluated the performance of such MFCs. The use of MFCs for wood extraction operations in mixed soft- and hardwood stands is presented in this study conducted in Southwestern Germany. The aim of this study was to analyze the productivity, costs, and selected environmental impacts of mini forestry crawlers during winching operations through a time study. Using statistical regression, time consumption was analyzed in order to determine significant explanatory variables. Environmental impacts were evaluated using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology with Umberto software. The mean net cycle time was 4.82 min and the net productivity rate was 7.77 m3 by productive machine hour (PMH0). Explanatory variables which significantly affected the net cycle time were the winched volume, the number of trees per load, and winching distance. Environmental analysis showed that inputs of fossil energy were mostly due to diesel and lubricant consumption. Raw materials for machine manufacture and maintenance showed the highest impact in human toxicity potential category. The MFCs showed good environmental performances, but the harvesting system should become more productive in order to be more cost effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Determining Noise and Vibration Exposure in Conifer Cross-Cutting Operations by Using Li-Ion Batteries and Electric Chainsaws
Forests 2018, 9(8), 501; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9080501 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
In many activities, chainsaw users are exposed to the risk of injuries and several other hazard factors that may cause health problems. In fact, environmental and working conditions when using chainsaws result in workers’ exposure to hazards such as noise, vibration, exhaust gases, [...] Read more.
In many activities, chainsaw users are exposed to the risk of injuries and several other hazard factors that may cause health problems. In fact, environmental and working conditions when using chainsaws result in workers’ exposure to hazards such as noise, vibration, exhaust gases, and wood dust. Repeated or continuous exposure to these unfavourable conditions can lead to occupational diseases that become apparent after a certain period of time has elapsed. Since the use of electric tools is increasing in forestry, the present research aims to evaluate the noise and vibration exposure caused by four models of electric chainsaws (Stihl MSA160T, Stihl MSA200C Li-Ion battery powered and Stihl MSE180C, Stihl MSE220C wired) during cross-cutting. Values measured on the Stihl MSA160T chainsaw (Li-Ion battery) showed similar vibration levels on both right and left handles (0.9–1.0 m s−2, respectively) and so did the other battery-powered chainsaw, the Stihl MSA200C (2.2–2.3 m s−2 for right and left handles, respectively). Results showed a range of noise included between 81 and 90 dB(A) for the analysed chainsaws. In conclusion, the vibrations and noise were lower for the battery chainsaws than the wired ones, but, in general, all the values were lower than those measured in previous studies of endothermic chainsaws. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Workload, Exposure to Noise, and Risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Case Study of Motor-Manual Tree Feeling and Processing in Poplar Clear Cuts
Forests 2018, 9(6), 300; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9060300 - 27 May 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3086
Abstract
Motor-manual tree felling and processing (MMTFP) is among the most used options in timber harvesting operations and it is formally known to be a heavy job exposing the workers to safety hazards and harmful factors. Nevertheless, both workload and exposure depend on many [...] Read more.
Motor-manual tree felling and processing (MMTFP) is among the most used options in timber harvesting operations and it is formally known to be a heavy job exposing the workers to safety hazards and harmful factors. Nevertheless, both workload and exposure depend on many operational, organizational, and worker-related parameters. Few studies have evaluated the ergonomics of such operations and fewer have been carried out using an integrated approach able to collect and interpret data for more than one ergonomic parameter. This study evaluated the ergonomic conditions of task-based MMTFP operations in flatland poplar forests by the means of workload, exposure to noise, and risk of musculoskeletal disorders. A fully-automatic approach was used to collect and pair the heart rate and noise exposure data that was complemented by video recording to collect postural data. Workload experienced by the worker was evaluated in terms of heart rate reserve (%HRR), indicating a heavy load during the productive time (%HRR = 46%); exposure to noise was calculated at the task and study level, exceeding (LAeq = 97.15 dB(A); LEX,8h = 96.18 dB(A)) the acceptable limits; and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders was evaluated using the concepts and procedures of the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System, indicating a high postural risk index (PRI = 275), which can cause musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). For more conclusive results, the research should be extended to cover the relevant variability factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
The Application of Two Approaches Using GIS Technology Implementation in Forest Road Network Planning in an Italian Mountain Setting
Forests 2018, 9(5), 277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9050277 - 19 May 2018
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3901
Abstract
A well-planned forest road network is essential for meeting the goal of sustainable forest management. Forest roads play a key role in commercial purposes, fire prevention, and recreational activities. The aim of this work was to apply precision forestry in the analysis of [...] Read more.
A well-planned forest road network is essential for meeting the goal of sustainable forest management. Forest roads play a key role in commercial purposes, fire prevention, and recreational activities. The aim of this work was to apply precision forestry in the analysis of the forest network of two forest ownerships in Tuscany. A proposal was formulated based on the information obtained regarding future forest road construction. This proposal takes into consideration technical effectiveness and environmental sustainability, with particular attention paid to low-impact logging. Two systems were tested so as to gain a better comprehension of different technical approaches. One system was reported by other researchers and the other was developed by the authors of this paper. The aim was to provide a valid instrument and possible alternative for forest managers involved in decision making. This study highlights the importance of precision forestry, even on a small-scale technical application level in forest road planning, thus helping managers and owners during the decision-making process in forestry operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Delimbing and Cross-cutting of Coniferous Trees–Time Consumption, Work Productivity and Performance
Forests 2018, 9(4), 206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9040206 - 15 Apr 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
This research established the time consumption, work time structure, and productivity for primary processing in felling areas of coniferous trees felled with a chainsaw. Delimbing and partial cross-cutting were taken into consideration. The research was conducted in a mixed spruce and fir tree [...] Read more.
This research established the time consumption, work time structure, and productivity for primary processing in felling areas of coniferous trees felled with a chainsaw. Delimbing and partial cross-cutting were taken into consideration. The research was conducted in a mixed spruce and fir tree stand situated in the Carpathian Mountains. The team of workers consisted of a chainsaw operator and assistant with over 10 years of experience. The results indicated a total time of 536.32 s·m−3 (1145.26 s·tree−1), work performance (including delays) of 6.716 m3·h−1 (3.14 tree·h−1), and work productivity (without delays) of 35.459 m3·h−1 (16.58 tree·h−1). The chainsaw productivity during tree cross-cutting was 82.29 cm2·s−1. Delimbing accounted for 96.18% of the real work time, while cross-cutting accounted for 3.82%. The time consumption for delimbing and cross-cutting, as well as the work productivity and performance in the primary processing of coniferous trees in the felling area, were influenced by the breast height diameter, stem length, and tree volume, while the chainsaw productivity was influenced by the diameter of the cross-cut sections. The relationships between the aforementioned dependent and independent variables were determined by simple and linear multiple regression equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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Article
Comparative Time Study of Conventional Cut-To-Length and an Integrated Harvesting Method—A Case Study
Forests 2018, 9(4), 194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9040194 - 09 Apr 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1734
Abstract
Logging residues offer a significant contribution to the economical profitability and sustainability of forest-based resources. It is always desirable to optimise the harvesting and extraction method to improve the economy of the process along with ensuring sustainability from an environmental point of view. [...] Read more.
Logging residues offer a significant contribution to the economical profitability and sustainability of forest-based resources. It is always desirable to optimise the harvesting and extraction method to improve the economy of the process along with ensuring sustainability from an environmental point of view. This study compares two harvesting methods, i.e., conventional cut-to-length (CTL) followed by harvesting residue extraction for energy and an integrated harvesting method combining CTL with harvesting residue pre-piling by the harvester followed by the extraction of both timber and logging residues for energy. The study was carried out in spruce stands (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in South Moravia (Czech Republic) at Pozořice and Kuničky. Two methods utilized by harvesters and forwarders were compared. The first case was a conventional CTL method when trees are felled, delimbed, and cross-cut by the harvester. The resulting logs are pre-piled and then transported by the forwarder. In this case, the harvesting residues remain in the stand. The method does not involve utilizing harvesting residues such as brash mat on striproads but rather extracting them in an independent step as an energy source. In the second case, the resulting harvesting residues are piled up by the harvester to be later extracted by the forwarder. Such extracted harvesting residues are stored at the roadside for seasoning and future comminution. The aim was to obtain input data for internal analysis of a private entity contracting in a logging operation. The client demanded that the increase in time needed for the production of one timber unit with simultaneous harvesting residue preparation be measured. By our estimates, the integrated harvesting method required 33% more (harvester) and 16% less (forwarder) time compared to the alternate method for the extraction of harvesting residues, which in turn results in approximately 8% longer total operational time for the complete operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)

Review

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Review
Annotated Bibliography of the Global Literature on the Secondary Transportation of Raw and Comminuted Forest Products (2000–2015)
Forests 2018, 9(7), 415; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/f9070415 - 10 Jul 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2067
Abstract
Secondary transportation of raw and comminuted forest products is a major component in forest harvesting operations in terms of economics, public perception, and safety. Consequently, there is a substantial amount of literature on this topic. The existing literature has dealt with many of [...] Read more.
Secondary transportation of raw and comminuted forest products is a major component in forest harvesting operations in terms of economics, public perception, and safety. Consequently, there is a substantial amount of literature on this topic. The existing literature has dealt with many of the technical aspects of transportation with a majority of them focusing on improving supply chain issues; however, there are only few specific to secondary transportation issues in general. This annotated bibliography will help practitioners, researchers, and stakeholders gain a better understanding of the existing literature from 2000 to 2015. To this end, we began by classifying the selected literature into six themes: cost, roads and routes, trucking, efficiency and safety, other modes of transportation, and supply chain and optimization. Woody biomass for bioenergy production was the most researched forest product with respect to transportation. About one-third of the articles were presented in the context of supply chain modeling and optimization. More than half of the studies originated from Europe while the United States had the most publications for any given country. Most articles (16) were published in 2013. Biomass and Bioenergy published the highest number of articles (29) during the timeframe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations: Planning, Innovation and Sustainability)
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