Special Issue "MicroRNAs Applications in Cancer, Therapeutics and Related Toxicities"

A special issue of Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This special issue belongs to the section "RNA".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 October 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Enrique Fuentes-Mattei
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Immunotherapy-Radiation Oncology Strategic Initiatives, Radiation Oncology Clinical Research, Division of Radiation Oncology, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Knowledge about microRNAs (miRNAs) has dramatically expanded during the last decade, showing their important role in many diseases and cancer, as well as in the response to therapeutic approaches. Therefore, specific signatures of aberrantly expressed miRNAs harbor diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. Changes in miRNA expression occur in response to environmental stimuli and play an important role in the regulation of cancer development and aggressiveness, immune response, and specific treatment efficacy. Currently, there is a critical need to discover biomarkers for risk prediction and early diagnosis of cancer, to monitor progression and to predict clinical outcome, and miRNAs are strong candidates for all these.

This Special Issue intends to present original research and reviews in the field of miRNA application in cancer as targeted biomarkers for prognosis, therapeutic efficacy, and therapeutic related toxicities. It also will include the topic of miRNA application in cancer immunotherapy.

Dr. Enrique Fuentes-Mattei
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Genes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • noncoding RNAs
  • miRNAs
  • cancer
  • cancer therapeutics
  • radiation oncology
  • immunotherapy
  • biomarkers
  • immunotoxicology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Computational Identification of Sex-Biased Biomarker MicroRNAs and Genes Associated with Immune Infiltration in Breast Cancer
Genes 2021, 12(4), 570; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes12040570 - 14 Apr 2021
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Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) perform their functions through targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs). X chromosome-located (X-linked) miRNAs have a broad role in cell lineage determination, immune regulation, and oncogenesis. The regulating roles of miRNAs in cancer and immunity are often altered when aberrant expression happens. Sex-biased [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) perform their functions through targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs). X chromosome-located (X-linked) miRNAs have a broad role in cell lineage determination, immune regulation, and oncogenesis. The regulating roles of miRNAs in cancer and immunity are often altered when aberrant expression happens. Sex-biased genes could contribute to cancer sex bias in the context of their expression change due to targeting miRNAs. How biological roles and associations with immune cell abundance levels for sex-biased gene-miRNA pairs in gender-related cancer (e.g., breast cancer) change due to the alteration of their expression pattern to identify candidate therapeutic markers has not been investigated thoroughly. Upon analyzing anti-correlated genes and miRNAs within significant clusters of 12 The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cancer types and the list of sex-biased genes and miRNAs reported from previous studies, 125 sex-biased genes (11 male-biased and 114 female-biased) were identified in breast cancer (BC). Seventy-three sex-biased miRNAs (40 male-biased and 33 female-biased) were identified across 5 out of 12 cancers (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC), kidney chromophobe (KICH), kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP), and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD)). Correlation between the BC sex-biased genes and tumor infiltrating immune cell types was further evaluated. We found eight genes having high correlation with immune infiltration. Fifteen candidate female-biased BC genes targeted by 3 X-linked miRNAs (has-mir-18hashsa-mir-221, and hsa-mir-224) were pinpointed in this study. Our computational result indicates that many identified female-biased genes which have positive associations with immune cell abundance levels could serve as alternative therapeutic markers. Our analysis suggests that female-biased expression of BC candidate genes is likely influenced by their targeting miRNA(s). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs Applications in Cancer, Therapeutics and Related Toxicities)
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Article
Hsa-miR-375/RASD1 Signaling May Predict Local Control in Early Breast Cancer
Genes 2020, 11(12), 1404; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes11121404 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
Background: In order to characterize the various subtypes of breast cancer more precisely and improve patients selection for breast conserving therapy (BCT), molecular profiling has gained importance over the past two decades. MicroRNAs, which are small non-coding RNAs, can potentially regulate numerous downstream [...] Read more.
Background: In order to characterize the various subtypes of breast cancer more precisely and improve patients selection for breast conserving therapy (BCT), molecular profiling has gained importance over the past two decades. MicroRNAs, which are small non-coding RNAs, can potentially regulate numerous downstream target molecules and thereby interfere in carcinogenesis and treatment response via multiple pathways. The aim of the current two-phase study was to investigate whether hsa-miR-375-signaling through RASD1 could predict local control (LC) in early breast cancer. Results: The patient and treatment characteristics of 81 individuals were similarly distributed between relapse (n = 27) and control groups (n = 54). In the pilot phase, the primary tumors of 28 patients were analyzed with microarray technology. Of the more than 70,000 genes on the chip, 104 potential hsa-miR-375 target molecules were found to have a lower expression level in relapse patients compared to controls (p-value < 0.2). For RASD1, a hsa-miR-375 binding site was predicted by an in silico search in five mRNA-miRNA databases and mechanistically proven in previous pre-clinical studies. Its expression levels were markedly lower in relapse patients than in controls (p-value of 0.058). In a second phase, this finding could be validated in an independent set of 53 patients using ddPCR. Patients with enhanced levels of hsa-miR-375 compared to RASD1 had a higher probability of local relapse than those with the inverse expression pattern of the two markers (log-rank test, p-value = 0.069). Conclusion: This two-phase study demonstrates that hsa-miR-375/RASD1 signaling is able to predict local control in early breast cancer patients, which—to our knowledge—is the first clinical report on a miR combined with one of its downstream target proteins predicting LC in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs Applications in Cancer, Therapeutics and Related Toxicities)
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Review

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Review
Subcellular Localization of miRNAs and Implications in Cellular Homeostasis
Genes 2021, 12(6), 856; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes12060856 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are thought to act as post-transcriptional regulators in the cytoplasm by either dampening translation or stimulating degradation of target mRNAs. With the increasing resolution and scope of RNA mapping, recent studies have revealed novel insights into the subcellular localization of miRNAs. [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are thought to act as post-transcriptional regulators in the cytoplasm by either dampening translation or stimulating degradation of target mRNAs. With the increasing resolution and scope of RNA mapping, recent studies have revealed novel insights into the subcellular localization of miRNAs. Based on miRNA subcellular localization, unconventional functions and mechanisms at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels have been identified. This minireview provides an overview of the subcellular localization of miRNAs and the mechanisms by which they regulate transcription and cellular homeostasis in mammals, with a particular focus on the roles of phase-separated biomolecular condensates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs Applications in Cancer, Therapeutics and Related Toxicities)
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