Special Issue "Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair"

A special issue of Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Richard T. Pomerantz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Macromolecular processes along chromosomes, such as replication and transcription, unwind and destabilize DNA, which can lead to breaks and instability throughout the genome. Since genome instability is a hallmark of cancer cells and can promote tumorigenesis, it is important to reevaluate the major processes that can compromise genome structure and sequence. Replication stress has been viewed as a primary source of genome instability in cancer cells. However, transcription also contributes to genetic problems. Specifically, transcription has been linked to mutagenesis, hyper-recombination, double-strand break (DSB) formation, and DNA deletions and rearrangements. Recent research has highlighted co-transcriptional R-loops and replication-transcription collisions as sources of genome instability in both bacteria and eukaryotic cells. This research has identified new sources of replication and transcription associated genome instability, and future studies are likely to reveal specific DNA repair mechanisms that promote genetic plasticity during these processes. In a single issue of Genes in Spring of 2016, we will highlight the most recent advances in DNA repair and genome instability associated with replication and transcription by showcasing the best research from around the world. We welcome review and original articles in the areas of transcription and replication associated DNA repair and genome instability.

Dr. Richard T. Pomerantz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • replication
  • transcription
  • DNA repair
  • genome instability
  • replication-transcription collisions
  • R-loops
  • transcription-associated DNA repair
  • transcription-associated genome instability
  • replication stress

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Article
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius UDG Can Remove dU from the RNA Backbone: Insight into the Specific Recognition of Uracil Linked with Deoxyribose
Genes 2017, 8(1), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes8010038 - 18 Jan 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius encodes family 4 and 5 uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). Two recombinant S. acidocaldarius UDGs (SacUDG) were prepared and biochemically characterized using oligonucleotides carrying a deaminated base. Both SacUDGs can remove deoxyuracil (dU) base from both double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA. Interestingly, they [...] Read more.
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius encodes family 4 and 5 uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). Two recombinant S. acidocaldarius UDGs (SacUDG) were prepared and biochemically characterized using oligonucleotides carrying a deaminated base. Both SacUDGs can remove deoxyuracil (dU) base from both double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA. Interestingly, they can remove U linked with deoxyribose from single-stranded RNA backbone, suggesting that the riboses on the backbone have less effect on the recognition of dU and hydrolysis of the C-N glycosidic bond. However, the removal of rU from DNA backbone is inefficient, suggesting strong steric hindrance comes from the 2′ hydroxyl of ribose linked to uracil. Both SacUDGs cannot remove 2,2′-anhydro uridine, hypoxanthine, and 7-deazaxanthine from single-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA. Compared with the family 2 MUG, other family UDGs have an extra N-terminal structure consisting of about 50 residues. Removal of the 46 N-terminal residues of family 5 SacUDG resulted in only a 40% decrease in activity, indicating that the [4Fe-4S] cluster and truncated secondary structure are not the key elements in hydrolyzing the glycosidic bond. Combining our biochemical and structural results with those of other groups, we discussed the UDGs’ catalytic mechanism and the possible repair reactions of deaminated bases in prokaryotes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Article
Regulation of BLM Nucleolar Localization
Genes 2016, 7(9), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7090069 - 21 Sep 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3557
Abstract
Defects in coordinated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the nucleolus cause cellular and organismal growth deficiencies. Bloom’s syndrome, an autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutated recQ-like helicase BLM, presents with growth defects suggestive of underlying defects in rRNA transcription. Our previous studies [...] Read more.
Defects in coordinated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the nucleolus cause cellular and organismal growth deficiencies. Bloom’s syndrome, an autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutated recQ-like helicase BLM, presents with growth defects suggestive of underlying defects in rRNA transcription. Our previous studies showed that BLM facilitates rRNA transcription and interacts with RNA polymerase I and topoisomerase I (TOP1) in the nucleolus. The mechanisms regulating localization of BLM to the nucleolus are unknown. In this study, we identify the TOP1-interaction region of BLM by co-immunoprecipitation of in vitro transcribed and translated BLM segments and show that this region includes the highly conserved nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of BLM. Biochemical and nucleolar co-localization studies using site-specific mutants show that two serines within the NLS (S1342 and S1345) are critical for nucleolar localization of BLM but do not affect the functional interaction of BLM with TOP1. Mutagenesis of both serines to aspartic acid (phospho-mimetic), but not alanine (phospho-dead), results in approximately 80% reduction in nucleolar localization of BLM while retaining the biochemical functions and nuclear localization of BLM. Our studies suggest a role for this region in regulating nucleolar localization of BLM via modification of the two serines within the NLS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Article
The Balance between Recombination Enzymes and Accessory Replicative Helicases in Facilitating Genome Duplication
Genes 2016, 7(8), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7080042 - 29 Jul 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
Accessory replicative helicases aid the primary replicative helicase in duplicating protein-bound DNA, especially transcribed DNA. Recombination enzymes also aid genome duplication by facilitating the repair of DNA lesions via strand exchange and also processing of blocked fork DNA to generate structures onto which [...] Read more.
Accessory replicative helicases aid the primary replicative helicase in duplicating protein-bound DNA, especially transcribed DNA. Recombination enzymes also aid genome duplication by facilitating the repair of DNA lesions via strand exchange and also processing of blocked fork DNA to generate structures onto which the replisome can be reloaded. There is significant interplay between accessory helicases and recombination enzymes in both bacteria and lower eukaryotes but how these replication repair systems interact to ensure efficient genome duplication remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA content defects of Escherichia coli cells lacking the strand exchange protein RecA are driven primarily by conflicts between replication and transcription, as is the case in cells lacking the accessory helicase Rep. However, in contrast to Rep, neither RecA nor RecBCD, the helicase/exonuclease that loads RecA onto dsDNA ends, is important for maintaining rapid chromosome duplication. Furthermore, RecA and RecBCD together can sustain viability in the absence of accessory replicative helicases but only when transcriptional barriers to replication are suppressed by an RNA polymerase mutation. Our data indicate that the minimisation of replisome pausing by accessory helicases has a more significant impact on successful completion of chromosome duplication than recombination-directed fork repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Article
Stationary-Phase Mutagenesis in Stressed Bacillus subtilis Cells Operates by Mfd-Dependent Mutagenic Pathways
Genes 2016, 7(7), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7070033 - 05 Jul 2016
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
In replication-limited cells of Bacillus subtilis, Mfd is mutagenic at highly transcribed regions, even in the absence of bulky DNA lesions. However, the mechanism leading to increased mutagenesis through Mfd remains currently unknown. Here, we report that Mfd may promote mutagenesis in [...] Read more.
In replication-limited cells of Bacillus subtilis, Mfd is mutagenic at highly transcribed regions, even in the absence of bulky DNA lesions. However, the mechanism leading to increased mutagenesis through Mfd remains currently unknown. Here, we report that Mfd may promote mutagenesis in nutritionally stressed B. subtilis cells by coordinating error-prone repair events mediated by UvrA, MutY and PolI. Using a point-mutated gene conferring leucine auxotrophy as a genetic marker, it was found that the absence of UvrA reduced the Leu+ revertants and that a second mutation in mfd reduced mutagenesis further. Moreover, the mfd and polA mutants presented low but similar reversion frequencies compared to the parental strain. These results suggest that Mfd promotes mutagenic events that required the participation of NER pathway and PolI. Remarkably, this Mfd-dependent mutagenic pathway was found to be epistatic onto MutY; however, whereas the MutY-dependent Leu+ reversions required Mfd, a direct interaction between these proteins was not apparent. In summary, our results support the concept that Mfd promotes mutagenesis in starved B. subtilis cells by coordinating both known and previously unknown Mfd-associated repair pathways. These mutagenic processes bias the production of genetic diversity towards highly transcribed regions in the genome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Review

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Review
Effects of Replication and Transcription on DNA Structure-Related Genetic Instability
Genes 2017, 8(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes8010017 - 05 Jan 2017
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5071
Abstract
Many repetitive sequences in the human genome can adopt conformations that differ from the canonical B-DNA double helix (i.e., non-B DNA), and can impact important biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, recombination, telomere maintenance, viral integration, transposome activation, DNA damage and repair. [...] Read more.
Many repetitive sequences in the human genome can adopt conformations that differ from the canonical B-DNA double helix (i.e., non-B DNA), and can impact important biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, recombination, telomere maintenance, viral integration, transposome activation, DNA damage and repair. Thus, non-B DNA-forming sequences have been implicated in genetic instability and disease development. In this article, we discuss the interactions of non-B DNA with the replication and/or transcription machinery, particularly in disease states (e.g., tumors) that can lead to an abnormal cellular environment, and how such interactions may alter DNA replication and transcription, leading to potential conflicts at non-B DNA regions, and eventually result in genetic stability and human disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Review
DNA Polymerase θ: A Unique Multifunctional End-Joining Machine
Genes 2016, 7(9), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7090067 - 21 Sep 2016
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 5338
Abstract
The gene encoding DNA polymerase θ (Polθ) was discovered over ten years ago as having a role in suppressing genome instability in mammalian cells. Studies have now clearly documented an essential function for this unique A-family polymerase in the double-strand break (DSB) repair [...] Read more.
The gene encoding DNA polymerase θ (Polθ) was discovered over ten years ago as having a role in suppressing genome instability in mammalian cells. Studies have now clearly documented an essential function for this unique A-family polymerase in the double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway alternative end-joining (alt-EJ), also known as microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), in metazoans. Biochemical and cellular studies show that Polθ exhibits a unique ability to perform alt-EJ and during this process the polymerase generates insertion mutations due to its robust terminal transferase activity which involves template-dependent and independent modes of DNA synthesis. Intriguingly, the POLQ gene also encodes for a conserved superfamily 2 Hel308-type ATP-dependent helicase domain which likely assists in alt-EJ and was reported to suppress homologous recombination (HR) via its anti-recombinase activity. Here, we review our current knowledge of Polθ-mediated end-joining, the specific activities of the polymerase and helicase domains, and put into perspective how this multifunctional enzyme promotes alt-EJ repair of DSBs formed during S and G2 cell cycle phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Review
Reappearance from Obscurity: Mammalian Rad52 in Homologous Recombination
Genes 2016, 7(9), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7090063 - 14 Sep 2016
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 5724
Abstract
Homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. It is responsible for repair of the most harmful DNA lesions, DNA double-strand breaks and inter-strand DNA cross-links. HR function is also essential for proper segregation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis, maintenance [...] Read more.
Homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. It is responsible for repair of the most harmful DNA lesions, DNA double-strand breaks and inter-strand DNA cross-links. HR function is also essential for proper segregation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis, maintenance of telomeres, and resolving stalled replication forks. Defects in HR often lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Rad52 is one of the key HR proteins, which is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. In yeast, Rad52 is important for most HR events; Rad52 mutations disrupt repair of DNA double-strand breaks and targeted DNA integration. Surprisingly, in mammals, Rad52 knockouts showed no significant DNA repair or recombination phenotype. However, recent work demonstrated that mutations in human RAD52 are synthetically lethal with mutations in several other HR proteins including BRCA1 and BRCA2. These new findings indicate an important backup role for Rad52, which complements the main HR mechanism in mammals. In this review, we focus on the Rad52 activities and functions in HR and the possibility of using human RAD52 as therapeutic target in BRCA1 and BRCA2-deficient familial breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Review
DNA Polymerases λ and β: The Double-Edged Swords of DNA Repair
Genes 2016, 7(9), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7090057 - 31 Aug 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
DNA is constantly exposed to both endogenous and exogenous damages. More than 10,000 DNA modifications are induced every day in each cell’s genome. Maintenance of the integrity of the genome is accomplished by several DNA repair systems. The core enzymes for these pathways [...] Read more.
DNA is constantly exposed to both endogenous and exogenous damages. More than 10,000 DNA modifications are induced every day in each cell’s genome. Maintenance of the integrity of the genome is accomplished by several DNA repair systems. The core enzymes for these pathways are the DNA polymerases. Out of 17 DNA polymerases present in a mammalian cell, at least 13 are specifically devoted to DNA repair and are often acting in different pathways. DNA polymerases β and λ are involved in base excision repair of modified DNA bases and translesion synthesis past DNA lesions. Polymerase λ also participates in non-homologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks. However, recent data have revealed that, depending on their relative levels, the cell cycle phase, the ratio between deoxy- and ribo-nucleotide pools and the interaction with particular auxiliary proteins, the repair reactions carried out by these enzymes can be an important source of genetic instability, owing to repair mistakes. This review summarizes the most recent results on the ambivalent properties of these enzymes in limiting or promoting genetic instability in mammalian cells, as well as their potential use as targets for anticancer chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Review
Remodeling and Control of Homologous Recombination by DNA Helicases and Translocases that Target Recombinases and Synapsis
Genes 2016, 7(8), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7080052 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3800
Abstract
Recombinase enzymes catalyse invasion of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) into homologous duplex DNA forming “Displacement loops” (D-loops), a process called synapsis. This triggers homologous recombination (HR), which can follow several possible paths to underpin DNA repair and restart of blocked and collapsed DNA replication [...] Read more.
Recombinase enzymes catalyse invasion of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) into homologous duplex DNA forming “Displacement loops” (D-loops), a process called synapsis. This triggers homologous recombination (HR), which can follow several possible paths to underpin DNA repair and restart of blocked and collapsed DNA replication forks. Therefore, synapsis can be a checkpoint for controlling whether or not, how far, and by which pathway, HR proceeds to overcome an obstacle or break in a replication fork. Synapsis can be antagonized by limiting access of a recombinase to ssDNA and by dissociation of D-loops or heteroduplex formed by synapsis. Antagonists include DNA helicases and translocases that are identifiable in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and which target synaptic and pre-synaptic DNA structures thereby controlling HR at early stages. Here we survey these events with emphasis on enabling DNA replication to be resumed from sites of blockage or collapse. We also note how knowledge of anti-recombination activities could be useful to improve efficiency of CRISPR-based genome editing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Review
Targeting DNA Replication Stress for Cancer Therapy
Genes 2016, 7(8), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7080051 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 6558
Abstract
The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR) mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular [...] Read more.
The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR) mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular apoptosis/senescence, therefore maintaining overall genomic integrity. Cancer cells, however, due to constitutive growth signaling and defective DDR, may exhibit “replication stress” —a phenomenon unique to cancer cells that is described as the perturbation of error-free DNA replication and slow-down of DNA synthesis. Although replication stress has been proven to induce genomic instability and tumorigenesis, recent studies have counterintuitively shown that enhancing replicative stress through further loosening of the remaining checkpoints in cancer cells to induce their catastrophic failure of proliferation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the rationale to enhance replicative stress in cancer cells, past approaches using traditional radiation and chemotherapy, and emerging approaches targeting the signaling cascades induced by DNA damage. We also summarize current clinical trials exploring these strategies and propose future research directions including the use of combination therapies, and the identification of potential new targets and biomarkers to track and predict treatment responses to targeting DNA replication stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Review
Replication-Associated Recombinational Repair: Lessons from Budding Yeast
Genes 2016, 7(8), 48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7080048 - 17 Aug 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2775
Abstract
Recombinational repair processes multiple types of DNA lesions. Though best understood in the repair of DNA breaks, recombinational repair is intimately linked to other situations encountered during replication. As DNA strands are decorated with many types of blocks that impede the replication machinery, [...] Read more.
Recombinational repair processes multiple types of DNA lesions. Though best understood in the repair of DNA breaks, recombinational repair is intimately linked to other situations encountered during replication. As DNA strands are decorated with many types of blocks that impede the replication machinery, a great number of genomic regions cannot be duplicated without the help of recombinational repair. This replication-associated recombinational repair employs both the core recombination proteins used for DNA break repair and the specialized factors that couple replication with repair. Studies from multiple organisms have provided insights into the roles of these specialized factors, with the findings in budding yeast being advanced through use of powerful genetics and methods for detecting DNA replication and repair intermediates. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in this organism, ranging from our understanding of the classical template switch mechanisms to gap filling and replication fork regression pathways. As many of the protein factors and biological principles uncovered in budding yeast are conserved in higher eukaryotes, these findings are crucial for stimulating studies in more complex organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Review
Replication Termination: Containing Fork Fusion-Mediated Pathologies in Escherichia coli
Genes 2016, 7(8), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7080040 - 25 Jul 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4172
Abstract
Duplication of bacterial chromosomes is initiated via the assembly of two replication forks at a single defined origin. Forks proceed bi-directionally until they fuse in a specialised termination area opposite the origin. This area is flanked by polar replication fork pause sites that [...] Read more.
Duplication of bacterial chromosomes is initiated via the assembly of two replication forks at a single defined origin. Forks proceed bi-directionally until they fuse in a specialised termination area opposite the origin. This area is flanked by polar replication fork pause sites that allow forks to enter but not to leave. The precise function of this replication fork trap has remained enigmatic, as no obvious phenotypes have been associated with its inactivation. However, the fork trap becomes a serious problem to cells if the second fork is stalled at an impediment, as replication cannot be completed, suggesting that a significant evolutionary advantage for maintaining this chromosomal arrangement must exist. Recently, we demonstrated that head-on fusion of replication forks can trigger over-replication of the chromosome. This over-replication is normally prevented by a number of proteins including RecG helicase and 3’ exonucleases. However, even in the absence of these proteins it can be safely contained within the replication fork trap, highlighting that multiple systems might be involved in coordinating replication fork fusions. Here, we discuss whether considering the problems associated with head-on replication fork fusion events helps us to better understand the important role of the replication fork trap in cellular metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Review
Collision of Trapped Topoisomerase 2 with Transcription and Replication: Generation and Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks with 5′ Adducts
Genes 2016, 7(7), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7070032 - 01 Jul 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4275
Abstract
Topoisomerase 2 (Top2) is an essential enzyme responsible for manipulating DNA topology during replication, transcription, chromosome organization and chromosome segregation. It acts by nicking both strands of DNA and then passes another DNA molecule through the break. The 5′ end of each nick [...] Read more.
Topoisomerase 2 (Top2) is an essential enzyme responsible for manipulating DNA topology during replication, transcription, chromosome organization and chromosome segregation. It acts by nicking both strands of DNA and then passes another DNA molecule through the break. The 5′ end of each nick is covalently linked to the tyrosine in the active center of each of the two subunits of Top2 (Top2cc). In this configuration, the two sides of the nicked DNA are held together by the strong protein-protein interactions between the two subunits of Top2, allowing the nicks to be faithfully resealed in situ. Top2ccs are normally transient, but can be trapped by cancer drugs, such as etoposide, and subsequently processed into DSBs in cells. If not properly repaired, these DSBs would lead to genome instability and cell death. Here, I review the current understanding of the mechanisms by which DSBs are induced by etoposide, the unique features of such DSBs and how they are repaired. Implications for the improvement of cancer therapy will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Review
Getting Ready for the Dance: FANCJ Irons Out DNA Wrinkles
Genes 2016, 7(7), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes7070031 - 01 Jul 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2734
Abstract
Mounting evidence indicates that alternate DNA structures, which deviate from normal double helical DNA, form in vivo and influence cellular processes such as replication and transcription. However, our understanding of how the cellular machinery deals with unusual DNA structures such as G-quadruplexes (G4), [...] Read more.
Mounting evidence indicates that alternate DNA structures, which deviate from normal double helical DNA, form in vivo and influence cellular processes such as replication and transcription. However, our understanding of how the cellular machinery deals with unusual DNA structures such as G-quadruplexes (G4), triplexes, or hairpins is only beginning to emerge. New advances in the field implicate a direct role of the Fanconi Anemia Group J (FANCJ) helicase, which is linked to a hereditary chromosomal instability disorder and important for cancer suppression, in replication past unusual DNA obstacles. This work sets the stage for significant progress in dissecting the molecular mechanisms whereby replication perturbation by abnormal DNA structures leads to genomic instability. In this review, we focus on FANCJ and its role to enable efficient DNA replication when the fork encounters vastly abundant naturally occurring DNA obstacles, which may have implications for targeting rapidly dividing cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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Other

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Commentary
Pre-Replicative Repair of Oxidized Bases Maintains Fidelity in Mammalian Genomes: The Cowcatcher Role of NEIL1 DNA Glycosylase
Genes 2017, 8(7), 175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes8070175 - 30 Jun 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2731
Abstract
Genomic fidelity in the humans is continuously challenged by genotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated both endogenously during metabolic processes, and by exogenous agents. Mispairing of most ROS-induced oxidized base lesions during DNA replication induces mutations. Although bulky base adducts induced by ultraviolet [...] Read more.
Genomic fidelity in the humans is continuously challenged by genotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated both endogenously during metabolic processes, and by exogenous agents. Mispairing of most ROS-induced oxidized base lesions during DNA replication induces mutations. Although bulky base adducts induced by ultraviolet light and other environmental mutagens block replicative DNA polymerases, most oxidized base lesions do not block DNA synthesis. In 8-oxo-G:A mispairs generated by the incorporation of A opposite unrepaired 8-oxo-G, A is removed by MutYH (MYH) for post-replicative repair, and other oxidized base lesions must be repaired prior to replication in order to prevent mutation fixation. Our earlier studies documented S phase-specific overexpression of endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) DNA glycosylase (DG), one of five oxidized base excision repair (BER)-initiating enzymes in mammalian cells, and its high affinity for replication fork-mimicking single-stranded (ss)DNA substrates. We recently provided experimental evidence for the role of NEIL1 in replicating-strand repair, and proposed the “cowcatcher” model of pre-replicative BER, where NEIL1’s nonproductive binding to the lesion base in ssDNA template blocks DNA chain elongation, causing fork regression. Repair of the lesion in the then re-annealed duplex is carried out by NEIL1 in association with the DNA replication proteins. In this commentary, we highlight the critical role of pre-replicative BER in preventing mutagenesis, and discuss the distinction between pre-replicative vs. post-replicative BER. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication and Transcription Associated DNA Repair)
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