Special Issue "Antibiotics Utilization in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Pediatrics"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Márió Gajdács
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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacodynamics and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Hungary
Interests: epidemiology; clinical microbiology; resistance trends; UTIs, antimicrobial stewardship; knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP); novel antimicrobials; drug design; anaerobes
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Shazia Jamshed
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu 22200, Malaysia
Interests: cosmetovigilance; pharmacovigilance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Isha Patel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, Marshall University, West Virginia, USA
Interests: Global health; medication adherence; pharmacy education

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in pediatric populations are among the general reasons for hospitalizations and are linked to significant morbidity and mortality. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, nearly two million children less than 5 years of age die annually due to lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Around 70%–80% of RTIs are caused by viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, adenovirus, and metapneumovirus) and encapsulated bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Some other causative organisms like fungi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and anaerobic bacteria have also been implicated. In the lower airways, it is rather cumbersome to identify the causative microorganisms. A constellation of symptoms in children make the diagnosis of upper or lower respiratory tract infection somewhat difficult, but cough and wheeze are attributed to lower respiratory tract infections. Regarding the management of RTIs, this depends upon the severity and frequency of symptoms as some may require respiratory support and therapies like intravenous antibiotics and fluid. The decision of giving antibiotics regarding “when to prescribe”, “what to prescribe”, or “not to prescribe” warrants careful attention given due consideration of the frequently emerging and progressing antibiotic resistance phenomenon. Likewise, following antibiotic guidelines (AGs) is a measure of providing quality care by using evidence when appropriate. Still, the gap is evident between the suggested treatment and clinical practice. The current Special Issue invites research which attempts to explore the antibiotic prescribing practices in LRTIs in the highly vulnerable population of pediatrics and research which analyzes the adherence of prescribers towards antibiotic guidelines (AGs). Original research, narrative reviews, systematic reviews, scoping reviews, and short communications are welcome.

Dr. Márió Gajdács
Dr. Shazia Jamshed
Dr. Isha Patel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Paediatrics
  • Lower respiratory tract infections
  • Antibiotic guidelines
  • Epidemiology

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Pediatricians’ Compliance to the Clinical Management Guidelines for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Young Children in Pakistan
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 701; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9060701 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 331
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is among the most commonly prevailing acute infections in children that may require hospitalization. Inconsistencies among suggested care and actual management practices are usually observed, which raises the need to assess local clinical practices. The current study was conducted to [...] Read more.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is among the most commonly prevailing acute infections in children that may require hospitalization. Inconsistencies among suggested care and actual management practices are usually observed, which raises the need to assess local clinical practices. The current study was conducted to evaluate pediatricians’ compliance with the standard clinical practice guidelines and their antibiotic-prescribing behavior for the management of CAP in children. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire; which was provided to pediatricians by the researchers. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 25 Statistics; χ2 tests (or Fisher-exact tests) with the p-value set at < 0.05 as the threshold for statistical significance. Results: The overall response rate was 59.2%. Male respondents were (n = 101; 42.6%), and the respondents (n = 163; 68.7%) were under 30 years of age. Amoxicillin (n = 122; 51.5%) was considered as the most commonly used first-line treatment for non-severe pneumonia, whereas a smaller proportion (n = 81; 34.2%) of respondents selected amoxicillin–clavulanate. Likewise, amoxicillin (n = 100; 42.2%) was the most popular choice for non-severe pneumonia in hospitalized children; however, if children had used antibiotics earlier to admission, respondents showed an inclination to prescribe a macrolide (n = 95; 40.0%) or second-generation cephalosporin (n = 90; 37.9%). More than 90% responded that children <6 months old with suspected bacterial CAP will probably receive better therapeutic care by hospitalization. Restricting exposure to the antibiotic as much as possible (n = 71; 29.9%), improving antibiotic prescribing (n = 59; 24.8%), and using the appropriate dose of antimicrobials (n = 29; 12.2%) were considered the major factors by the respondents to reduce antimicrobials resistance. Conclusions: The selection of antibiotics and diagnostic approach was as per the recommendations, but indication, duration of treatment, and hospitalization still can be further improved. Full article
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