Special Issue "Sport and Exercise Medicine"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Factors and Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 12 July 2023.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Filipe Manuel Clemente
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, School of Sport and Leisure, 4960-320 Melgaço, Portugal
Interests: football; soccer; match analysis; performance analysis; network analysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Practicing sports and exercise is one of the most effective non-pharmacological approaches for improving physical and mental health. Additionally, there is consistent evidence about the beneficial effect of sports and exercise on the clinical population which may meaningfully benefit from regular practice, contributing toward regulating the progression of specific diseases or even reducing drug need. Due to the importance of sports and exercise, it is essential to improve the clinical practice that may include this non-pharmacological strategy as part of a multidisciplinary approach. Interactions with drugs, nutrition, or other strategies also need to be further researched for a great overview of the impact of all of them, acting together to benefit health.

Therefore, this Special Issue’s focus is to open a window of opportunity to publish articles that reveal the effects of using sports and exercises as a single or combined approach for healthcare in clinical and non-clinical populations. Considering that more research should be conducted and published about such important topics, the aim of the Special Issue “Sport and Exercise Medicine” is to publish original, high-quality investigations and narrative and systematic reviews in the field of health care, sports, and exercise. We look forward to receiving contributions related (but not limited) to the following topics: (i) experimental studies and interventions using sports and exercise in healthy or clinical populations; (ii) observational analytic studies identifying the effects of practicing sport and exercise on health and quality of life; (iii) systematic reviews and meta-analyses that may summarize the evidence about the effects of sport and exercise on healthy and clinical populations.

Dr. Filipe Manuel Clemente
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Sports medicine
  • Clinical Exercise
  • Recreational sport
  • Preventive health
  • Health care

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Article
Effect of Four Weeks of Home-Based Balance Training on the Performance in Individuals with Functional Ankle Instability: A Remote Online Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(11), 1428; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9111428 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 223
Abstract
The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks of home-based balance training (HBBT) on the performance of individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI) in daily activities and sports. Thirty college students diagnosed with FAI and with a [...] Read more.
The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks of home-based balance training (HBBT) on the performance of individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI) in daily activities and sports. Thirty college students diagnosed with FAI and with a mean weight of 79.8 ± 3.4 kg, height of 182.5 ± 5.1 cm, age of 23.5 ± 1.2 years, and instability score of 20 ± 2.3 were selected to participate in this study and were randomly divided by computer-generated methods into two groups: the HBBT group and the control group (CG), each consisting of 15 subjects. The HBBT group performed the program at home for 4 weeks, while the CG was non-exercise. Before and after the 4 weeks of exercise program, a form containing the foot and ankle ability measure for daily activities and sports was completed by the individuals. For data analysis, intra- and inter-group comparisons were performed using paired and independent sample t-tests, respectively, at a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. The results showed that 4 weeks of progressive HBBT were sufficient to significantly improve the measurement of the ability of ankle and foot function in individuals with FAI, even with a total volume of only 60 min per week. Accordingly, it is suggested that individuals with FAI can benefit from short-term HBBT programs, which are simple yet powerful enough to promote improvements in daily activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Effect of Incorporating Short-Foot Exercises in the Balance Rehabilitation of Flat Foot: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1358; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9101358 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Effective balance rehabilitation is essential to address flat foot (pes planus) which is closely associated with reduced postural stability. Although sensorimotor training (SMT) and short-foot exercise (SFE) have been effective for improving postural stability, the combined effects of SMT with SFE have not [...] Read more.
Effective balance rehabilitation is essential to address flat foot (pes planus) which is closely associated with reduced postural stability. Although sensorimotor training (SMT) and short-foot exercise (SFE) have been effective for improving postural stability, the combined effects of SMT with SFE have not been evaluated in previous studies. The aim of this study was to compare the lone versus combined effects of SMT with SFE on postural stability among participants with flat foot. This was a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A total of 32 flat-footed participants were included in the study (14 males and 18 females) and assigned to the SMT combined with SFE group and SMT alone group. All participants underwent 18 sessions of the SMT program three times a week for six weeks. Static balance, dynamic balance, and the Hmax/Mmax ratio were compared before and after the interventions. Static and dynamic balance significantly increased in the SMT combined with SFE group compared with the SMT alone group. However, the Hmax/Mmax ratio was not significantly different between the two groups. Therefore, this study confirms that the combination of SMT and SFE is superior to SMT alone to improve postural balance control in flat-footed patients in clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
The Influence of Nordic Walking on Spinal Posture, Physical Function, and Back Pain in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Pilot Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1303; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9101303 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Nordic walking is an increasingly popular form of exercise among the elderly. Using poles is thought to facilitate a more upright posture; however, previous studies primarily investigated the effects of Nordic walking on respiratory function and physical fitness. The aims of this study [...] Read more.
Nordic walking is an increasingly popular form of exercise among the elderly. Using poles is thought to facilitate a more upright posture; however, previous studies primarily investigated the effects of Nordic walking on respiratory function and physical fitness. The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of Nordic walking on spinal posture, physical functions, and back pain in community-dwelling older adults. Thirty-one community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 60 years participated in a twice weekly Nordic walking training program for 12 weeks. The outcome measures, including spinal posture, physical functions, back pain, and the strength and endurance of back extensor muscles were assessed before and after a 12-week program. After training, spinal posture, back pain, and the strength and endurance of back extensor muscles did not show any statistically significant changes. Among the seven clinical tests of physical function, only the 30 s arm curl test, the 30 s chair stand test, and the single leg stance test showed significant improvements. Nordic walking has limited influence on age-related hyperkyphosis and back pain, but may be effective for physical function. The results of this study can provide useful information for people involved in the prevention and treatment of physical dysfunction in community-dwelling older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
When Much Is Too Much—Compared to Light Exercisers, Heavy Exercisers Report More Mental Health Issues and Stress, but Less Sleep Complaints
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9101289 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Background: Physical inactivity has become a global somatic and mental health issue. To counterbalance, promoting regular physical activity appears plausible, above all among adults, where physical inactivity is particularly high. However, some, but sparse, research also indicates that excessive exercising might be associated [...] Read more.
Background: Physical inactivity has become a global somatic and mental health issue. To counterbalance, promoting regular physical activity appears plausible, above all among adults, where physical inactivity is particularly high. However, some, but sparse, research also indicates that excessive exercising might be associated with unfavorable mental health dimensions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that excessive exercising was associated with more mental health issues. To this end, we assessed mental health issues, stress, mental toughness, and sleep disturbances among heavy and light adult exercisers. Methods: A total of 200 adults (mean age: 35 years; 62% females) took part in the study. Of those, 100 were heavy exercisers (18–22 h/week), and 100 were light exercisers (1–6 h/week). Participants completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, mental health issues, perceived stress, mental toughness, and sleep disturbances. Results: Compared with light exercisers, heavy exercisers reported higher mental health issues, more stress, but also higher mental toughness scores and less sleep disturbances. Higher age, lower mental toughness scores, heavy exerciser-status, and more sleep disturbances predicted higher mental health complaints. Conclusions: Compared with light exercising, heavy exercising might be associated with more mental health issues. As such, it appears that the association between exercise frequency, intensity, and duration and psychological well-being might be related to an optimum point, but not to a maximum point. In a similar vein, heavily exercising athletes, their coaches, parents, and representatives of sports associations should get sensitized to possible adverse psychological effects of excessive physical activity patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
Article
Influence of Physical Fitness and Attention Level on Academic Achievements of Female and Male Military Academy Cadets in Poland
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1261; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9101261 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 278
Abstract
A professional soldier should be characterized not only by high physical fitness but also by high intellectual and cognitive skills. Therefore, it is important to focus on the future commanding cadre-cadets that are educated in military academies. The aim of the study was [...] Read more.
A professional soldier should be characterized not only by high physical fitness but also by high intellectual and cognitive skills. Therefore, it is important to focus on the future commanding cadre-cadets that are educated in military academies. The aim of the study was to look for correlations between the level of physical fitness and attention and academic achievements (AA) in different subjects among cadets studying at military academies. The research group consisted of students of a military academy in Poland, i.e., 228 cadets, including 31 women and 197 men. Correlations between explained and explanatory variables were assessed using Pearson’s correlation. Correlations between AA and somatic parameters and motor components were analysed using optimal regression, using the best subset method. A statistical difference was found between men and women in terms of the level of somatic and motor development; men also performed significantly better in practical military subjects. In the female group, dominant hand strength is a significant determinant of AA in civilian and theoretical military subjects. The findings suggest the need for specialized training aimed at bridging the major differences in physical fitness between men and women by placing greater emphasis on muscle strength development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
Article
Relationship between Heart Rate Variability and Functional Fitness in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9091205 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. The treatments may also cause neuromuscular and skeletal disorders; therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the existence of a relationship between heart rate variability and different functional fitness parameters [...] Read more.
Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. The treatments may also cause neuromuscular and skeletal disorders; therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the existence of a relationship between heart rate variability and different functional fitness parameters in women survivors of breast cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 25 women survivors of breast cancer, with a mean ± SD age, height, and body mass of 50.8 ± 8.8 years, 1.6 ± 0.7 m, and 67.1 ± 12.3 kg, respectively. Patients underwent measurements of heart rate variability with time and frequency domain analyses, as well as a “30 s chair-stand test”, “6 min walking test”, “timed up and go test”, and “ball throwing test”. Results: A multiple linear regression analysis showed that from the heart rate variability frequency domain, high frequency explained 21% (R2 = 0.21) of the “30 s chair-stand test” performance. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight high frequency as a predictor of “30 s chair-stand test” performance, regardless of age and time after diagnosis, suggesting its usefulness as a clinical indicator of functionality in breast cancer survivors. This study presents a straightforward and non-invasive methodology predicting functional fitness in women breast cancer survivors potentially applicable to clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
Article
A Feasibility and Efficacy Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Exercise Programs in Severe AECOPD Patients with Resting Hypoxemia
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9091102 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Resting hypoxemia is the most severe stage of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Due to their impairments during the exacerbation, these patients are limited to traditional exercise rehabilitation and are excluded from the majority of the studies. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Resting hypoxemia is the most severe stage of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Due to their impairments during the exacerbation, these patients are limited to traditional exercise rehabilitation and are excluded from the majority of the studies. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and the efficacy of two exercise programs in Acute Exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) patients with resting hypoxemia. In this randomized clinical trial, patients hospitalized due to an acute exacerbation of COPD with hypoxemia at rest were included. Patients were randomly assigned into three groups. A Control Group (pharmacological treatment), a Global Exercise Group (GEG), and a Functional Electrostimulation Group (FEG). Patients were treated during the hospitalization period. The main outcomes were lower limb strength (assessed by a dynamometer), balance (assessed by the one leg standing balance test), health related quality of life (assessed by the EQ-5D), adverse events and adherence. At the end of the intervention, there were significant differences in all the variables in favour of the experimental groups (p < 0.05). We concluded that conducting an exercise program is feasible and improves lower limb strength, balance, and health related quality of life in AECOPD patients with resting hypoxemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Association of Primary Hypertension and Risk of Cerebrovascular Diseases with Overweight and Physical Activity in Korean Women: A Longitudinal Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1093; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9091093 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Cerebrovascular diseases include stroke, intracranial stenosis, aneurysms, and vascular malformations; primary hypertension is typically associated with cerebrovascular disease. The incidence of these diseases is higher in men than in women, and low physical activity and obesity are known to increase the risk of [...] Read more.
Cerebrovascular diseases include stroke, intracranial stenosis, aneurysms, and vascular malformations; primary hypertension is typically associated with cerebrovascular disease. The incidence of these diseases is higher in men than in women, and low physical activity and obesity are known to increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to longitudinally analyze the adjusted relative risk (ARR) of primary hypertension and cerebrovascular diseases, in relation to body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA), in Korean women. The study retrieved the data of 1,464,377 adult Korean women (aged 50–79 years), who participated in the national health screening program from 2002 to 2003. The participants had no history of primary hypertension or cerebrovascular diseases, and were followed up by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) until 2013. The participants were divided into the following groups: normal weight (18.5–24.9), overweight (25.0–29.9), and obese (≥30.0) kg/m2, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The frequency of PA (days) was determined using a physical activity questionnaire, and defined as low (0–2), medium (3–4), and high (5–7) days. The RR was calculated using Cox regression. Three models were created based on the adjusted variables. The ARR for hypertension was 0.933 (95% CI; 0.920–0.955, p < 0.001) in obese patients with medium PA. Primary hypertension was lower (ARR: 0.943; 95% CI; 0.928–0.961, p < 0.001) in overweight participants with medium PA, than in those with low PA. The incidence of cerebrovascular disease was lower in overweight individuals with medium PA (ARR: 0.945, 95% CI; 0.925–0.976, p < 0.001), than in those with low PA. The risk of cerebrovascular disease was reduced in normal-weight participants with medium PA (ARR: 0.889; 95% CI: 0.854–0.919; p < 0.001), than in those with high PA (ARR 0.913; 95% CI; 0.889–0.953, p < 0.001). In the obese group, there was no significant difference in the risk of cerebrovascular disease, based on the frequency of PA. In conclusion, the relative risk of primary hypertension in women was lower with moderate activity than with low activity, in the normal-weight and overweight groups. The relative risk of cerebrovascular disease was lower in the participants with moderate and high activity than in those with low activity, even at normal weight. In obese individuals, moderate and high activity reduced cerebrovascular disease compared to low activity. Therefore, regardless of obesity, PA may contribute to the prevention of primary hypertension and cerebrovascular disease in adult women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Force Production and Coordination from Older Women in Water Fitness Exercises
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 1054; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9081054 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare bilateral propulsive forces and coordination while exercising at static and dynamic conditions in the water. A total of 27 older women (age: 65.1 ± 6.7 years old) performed the following exercises: (i) horizontal upper-limbs adduction [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare bilateral propulsive forces and coordination while exercising at static and dynamic conditions in the water. A total of 27 older women (age: 65.1 ± 6.7 years old) performed the following exercises: (i) horizontal upper-limbs adduction (HA; static condition) and (ii) rocking horse (RH; dynamic condition) through an incremental protocol with music cadences from 105 up to 150 b·min−1. The duration of each trial was set at 30 second (sec). Propulsive peak force (in Newton, N) of dominant (PFD) and nondominant (PFND) upper limbs was retrieved using hand sensors coupled to a differential pressure system. Significant differences in force production were found between static and dynamic exercises at higher cadences (120, 135, and 150 b·min−1). The static condition elicited higher bilateral propulsive forces and a more symmetric pattern. The in-water static exercise with bilateral action from the upper limbs proved to be the most appropriate strategy for older women to work strength and to reduce asymmetries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Intra-Season Variations in Workload Parameters in Europe’s Elite Young Soccer Players: A Comparative Pilot Study between Starters and Non-Starters
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 977; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9080977 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 494
Abstract
Background: The main purpose of the current study was to compare the within-season variations of workload, training duration, acute/chronic workload ratio (ACWR), training monotony ™, and training strain (TS) through session rating perceived exertion (s-RPE) between starters and non-starters. Methods: Seventeen under-17 European [...] Read more.
Background: The main purpose of the current study was to compare the within-season variations of workload, training duration, acute/chronic workload ratio (ACWR), training monotony ™, and training strain (TS) through session rating perceived exertion (s-RPE) between starters and non-starters. Methods: Seventeen under-17 European male soccer players (age, 16.2 ± 0.3 y, height, 1.8 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 66.5 ± 4.0 kg) divided in two groups: nine starters and eight non-starters, were evaluated over 50 weeks throughout the season. Results: In general, there were load variations for all players during the full-season. RPE tended to decrease during in-season and RPE, training duration and s-RPE did not present significant differences between starters and non-starters. TM and TS presented lower values for starters in mesocycle (M) 4 and M11 compared to non-starters. TS presented lower values for starters in M4 and M11 compared to non-starters, while in M10 a higher value was found for starters when compared to non-starters. ACWR showed differences between starters and non-starters in two of the mesocycles. Conclusions: This study showed that some mesocycles provided higher load for non-starters. This information can alert coaches that non-starter players are likely to try too hard in training to demonstrate their abilities, leading to non-functional overreaching, overtraining syndrome, and then poor performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
The Relationship between Foot Status and Motor Status in Preschool Children: A Simple, Comparative Observational Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 936; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9080936 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Background: The research objective of the study is to determine the differences in the manifestation of the motor status of normally fed preschool test subjects, classified into groups according to foot status. Methods: This is a simple, comparative observational study. Preschool children included [...] Read more.
Background: The research objective of the study is to determine the differences in the manifestation of the motor status of normally fed preschool test subjects, classified into groups according to foot status. Methods: This is a simple, comparative observational study. Preschool children included in this study have been subjected to anthropometric measurements in order to determine BMI, tests for motor skills assessment (running at 20 m from a high start, standing broad jump, backwards polygon, rectangular seated forward bend, plate tapping, sit-ups for 60 s, and bent arm hang), and a determination of foot status. The total sample was comprised of 202 test subjects who attended a regular sports program, aged 3.9 to 6.5 years of decimal age (M = 141; Age = 5.3 ± 0.74; Height = 117.3 ± 7.1; Weight = 22 ± 3.7; F = 61; Age = 5.1 ± 0.73; Height = 114.9 ± 7.4; Weight = 21.2 ± 3.8), of which 153 (75.7%) were normally fed, 6 (3%) were undernourished, 30 were overweight (14.9%), and 13 were obese (6.4%). Results: In the total sample, 30 (14.9%) subjects had normal arch feet, 90 (44.6%) high arched feet, and 41 (20.3%) flat feet. We found 41 (20.3%) subjects who had different left and right foot statuses within this sample. The data were processed by means of nonparametric tests (the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests) at a significance level p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results show that there is a statistically significant difference between groups of subjects with different foot statuses in the manifestation of motor status in most tests, with a significance level of p ≤ 0.01, and in tests of sit-ups for 60 s and the bent arm hang, there is a statistically significant difference, the level of which is p ≤ 0.05. It is only in the inclination test of rectangular seated forward bend that no statistically significant difference was displayed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
A Cross-Sectional Study of the Relationship of Timed Up & Go Test with Physical Characteristics and Physical Activity in Healthy Japanese: The Toon Health Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 933; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9080933 - 24 Jul 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
This study evaluated the Timed Up & Go test (TUG) among healthy Japanese individuals without walking problems to clarify the relationship of TUG performance with physical characteristics and physical activity according to sex and age groups. In total, 797 men and women (30–84 [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the Timed Up & Go test (TUG) among healthy Japanese individuals without walking problems to clarify the relationship of TUG performance with physical characteristics and physical activity according to sex and age groups. In total, 797 men and women (30–84 years old) in Toon City, Ehime Prefecture, were assessed from 2016 to 2017. The survey data for physical characteristics, TUG performance, and physical activity measures were used. After adjusting for age according to TUG time and categorization into sex and age groups (30–64 and 65–84 years), the relationship of TUG performance with physical characteristics and physical activities was confirmed using multiple regression analysis. In men, TUG performance was associated with work and household chores in the 30–64-year age group, whereas it was only associated with skeletal muscle mass among those older than 65 years. In women, TUG performance was associated with height and amount of exercise, regardless of age. In conclusion, TUG performance may be maintained by increasing the amount of physical activity for men through work and housework, and increasing the amount of exercise for women, which may prevent the need for long-term care in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Running Pace Percentile Values for Brazilian Non-Professional Road Runners
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 829; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9070829 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to establish sex-specific percentile curves and values for the running pace of Brazilian non-professional runners. Methods: The sample comprised 1152 amateur runners aged 18–72 (61.8% males), from the five Brazilian regions. The runners answered an online [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study was to establish sex-specific percentile curves and values for the running pace of Brazilian non-professional runners. Methods: The sample comprised 1152 amateur runners aged 18–72 (61.8% males), from the five Brazilian regions. The runners answered an online questionnaire providing information about their biological (sex, age, height, weight) and training (volume and frequency/week, running pace) characteristics. Using 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile, the running pace was computed for women and men by age groups and by running distances (5 km, 10 km, 21 km, and 42 km). Sex- and age-specific percentile curves (10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th) were created through the Lambda Mu Sigma method. Results: For all ages and distance, men performed better than women, and a decrease in the performance was observed across age groups. Among male runners, the beginning of their thirties and the end of their forties seem to be the moments where they observed substantial improvements in running pace; among female runners, this improvement phase was observed to be more pronounced toward the end of their forties. Conclusions: Percentile values of running pace could help coaches during training programs and runners to better understand “how well” they are comparing against their peers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Comparing Idiopathic Chronic Fatigue and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in Males: Response to Two-Day Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Protocol
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 683; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9060683 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3494
Abstract
(1) Introduction: Multiple studies have shown that peak oxygen consumption is reduced in the majority of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS )patients, using the gold standard for measuring exercise intolerance: cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). A 2-day CPET protocol has shown different results on [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: Multiple studies have shown that peak oxygen consumption is reduced in the majority of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS )patients, using the gold standard for measuring exercise intolerance: cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). A 2-day CPET protocol has shown different results on day 2 in ME/CFS patients compared to sedentary controls. No comparison is known between ME/CFS and idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) for 2-day CPET protocols. We compared ME/CFS patients with patients with chronic fatigue who did not fulfill the ME/CFS criteria in a male population and hypothesized a different pattern of response would be present during the 2nd day CPET. (2) Methods: We compared 25 male patients with ICF who had completed a 2-day CPET protocol to an age-/gender-matched group of 26 male ME/CFS patients. Measures of oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, workload (Work), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were collected at maximal (peak) and ventilatory threshold (VT) intensities. (3) Results: Baseline characteristics for both groups were similar for age, body mass index (BMI), body surface area, (BSA), and disease duration. A significant difference was present in the number of patients with fibromyalgia (seven ME/CFS patients vs. zero ICF patients). Heart rate at rest and the RER did not differ significantly between CPET 1 and CPET 2. All other CPET parameters at the ventilatory threshold and maximum exercise differed significantly (p-value between 0.002 and <0.0001). ME/CFS patients showed a deterioration of performance on CPET2 as reflected by VO2 and workload at peak exercise and ventilatory threshold, whereas ICF patients showed improved performance on CPET2 with no significant change in peak workload. (4) Conclusion: This study confirms that male ME/CFS patients have a reduction in exercise capacity in response to a second-day CPET. These results are similar to published results in male ME/CFS populations. Patients diagnosed with ICF show a different response on day 2, more similar to sedentary and healthy controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Female Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or Idiopathic Chronic Fatigue: Comparison of Responses to a Two-Day Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Protocol
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 682; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9060682 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2580
Abstract
Introduction: Multiple studies have shown that peak oxygen consumption is reduced in the majority of ME/CFS patients, using the golden standard for measuring exercise intolerance: cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). A 2-day CPET protocol has shown different results on day 2 in ME/CFS patients [...] Read more.
Introduction: Multiple studies have shown that peak oxygen consumption is reduced in the majority of ME/CFS patients, using the golden standard for measuring exercise intolerance: cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). A 2-day CPET protocol has shown different results on day 2 in ME/CFS patients compared to sedentary controls. No comparison is known between ME/CFS and idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) for 2-day CPET protocols. We compared ME/CFS patients with patients with chronic fatigue who did not fulfil the ME/CFS criteria in a male population and hypothesized a different pattern of response would be present during the 2nd day CPET. Methods: Fifty-one female patients with ICF completed a 2-day CPET protocol and were compared to an age/sex-matched group of 50 female ME/CFS patients. Measures of oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, workload (Work), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were collected at maximal (peak) and ventilatory threshold (VT) intensities. Results: Baseline characteristics for both groups were similar for age, BMI, BSA, and disease duration. A significance difference was present in the number of patients with fibromyalgia (seven ME/CFS patients vs zero ICF patients). Heart rate at rest and the RER did not differ significantly between CPET 1 and CPET 2. All other CPET parameters at the ventilatory threshold and maximum exercise differed significantly (p-value between 0.002 and <0.0001). ME/CFS patients showed a deterioration of performance on CPET2 as reflected by VO2 and workload at peak exercise and ventilatory threshold, whereas ICF patients showed improved performance on CPET2 with no significant change in peak workload. Conclusion: This study confirms that female ME/CFS patients have a reduction in exercise capacity in response to a second day CPET. These results are similar to published results in female ME/CFS populations. Patients diagnosed with ICF show a different response on day 2, more similar to sedentary and healthy controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Comparison of Knee and Hip Kinematics during Landing and Cutting between Elite Male Football and Futsal Players
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 606; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9050606 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 802
Abstract
To design an accurate sport injury prevention program, alterations in the knee and hip kinematic variables involved in injury mechanisms should be known. The main purpose of the current study was to compare knee and hip kinematic variables during landing and cutting among [...] Read more.
To design an accurate sport injury prevention program, alterations in the knee and hip kinematic variables involved in injury mechanisms should be known. The main purpose of the current study was to compare knee and hip kinematic variables during landing and cutting among male football and futsal players, and to discuss them within an injury description frame. Twenty football (20.5 ± 2.1 years., 74.5 ± 6.9 kg and 1.79 ± 0.07 m) and twenty futsal players (20.3 ± 2.0 years., 73.5 ± 7.1 kg and 1.78 ± 0.07 m), with at least three years’ experience of playing in the Kerman Province League, participated in this study. Hip flexion, knee flexion and knee valgus angle during two main movements with risk of injury, such as landing and cutting, were measured using a motion capture system with passive markers at 120-Hz sampling frequency. Landing and cutting maneuvers were administered in as natural way as possible. Results showed significant differences in landing and cutting maneuvers between groups in hip flexion, knee flexion and knee valgus angle. Results indicated that footballers have less extension of hip and knee joints than futsal players in landing maneuvers, which may be due to the higher requirement of jumping−landing maneuvers when playing football. In cutting maneuvers, footballers showed less hip and knee flexion than futsal players, whereas the knee valgus angle in cutting maneuvers was lower in futsal players. More information on the injury mechanisms of landing and cutting in football and futsal are needed to improve the design of injury prevention programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Fluctuations in Well-Being Based on Position in Elite Young Soccer Players during a Full Season
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 586; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9050586 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
The current study surveyed weekly and daily variations of well-being ratings relative to the Hooper Index (HI): fatigue (wFatigue), stress (wStress), delayed onset muscle soreness (wDOMS), and sleep quality (wSleep) during a soccer season based on players’ positions. The full-season was divided into [...] Read more.
The current study surveyed weekly and daily variations of well-being ratings relative to the Hooper Index (HI): fatigue (wFatigue), stress (wStress), delayed onset muscle soreness (wDOMS), and sleep quality (wSleep) during a soccer season based on players’ positions. The full-season was divided into three meso-cycles: Early season, week (W)1 to W7; Mid-season, W8 to W13, and End-season, W14 to W20. Twenty-six young players participated in the study (age, 15.5 ± 0.2 years; height, 172.9 ± 4.2 cm; body mass, 61.4 ± 5.6 kg; body fat, 8.6 ± 2.9%; VO2max, 48.4 ± 2.4 mL.kg−1·min−1; maturity offset, 1.9 ± 0.3 years). Participants played in the same team and competed in Iran national under-16 competitions. Well-being status was monitored on training days using the HI questionnaire. The main result was a significant difference between well-being status 5 days before match day (MD) and 4 days before MD, compared to MD for all playing positions (p ≤ 0.001). The highest and lowest records occurred during End-season for wDOMS (strikers = 11.5 ± 8.4 arbitrary units (AU)), Early season (central defenders = 9.5 ± 0.7 AU) and for wFatigue (central midfielders = 11.4 ± 0.9 AU), and Early season (wide defenders = 9.7 ± 0.7 AU), respectively. Overall, the results showed a significant increase in wStress and wSleep for all players’ positions from Early- to End-season. The main application of this study is to make coaches aware of their players’ well-being fluctuations throughout the full season, especially in young elite soccer players, and to avoid injuries, overtraining, and overreaching as much as possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Impact of Three Strengthening Exercises on Dynamic Knee Valgus and Balance with Poor Knee Control among Young Football Players: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 558; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9050558 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 958
Abstract
The observed dynamic knee valgus and the limited dynamic balance described in the literature are modifiable risk factors for injuries in athletes. Therefore, identification and appropriate prevention are crucial in managing the development of young athletes. The aim of the study was to [...] Read more.
The observed dynamic knee valgus and the limited dynamic balance described in the literature are modifiable risk factors for injuries in athletes. Therefore, identification and appropriate prevention are crucial in managing the development of young athletes. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of three exercises strengthening the muscles: gluteal medius, popliteal and tibialis posterior to reduce dynamic knee valgus and improve the dynamic balance of the lower limbs in young football players with poor knee control. A total of 134 footballers were assessed for eligibility, and finally 45 participants (age 12–15) met the inclusion criteria. Participants were assessed with 2D video kinematic analysis during single-leg squats to assess the knee valgus angles and the dynamic balance (Y-Balance Test). No significant interactions between groups (Control and Exercise) and time (baseline and after 6 week) were noted for dynamic valgus for the left and right knee (p > 0.05). For the dynamic balance, there were statistically significant results, but not clinically relevant for anterior, posteromedial, and composite direction for the right lower limbs and for the anterior direction for left lower limbs in the exercise group. However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in all of the YBT scores for both lower limbs between groups. This study demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences in dynamic knee valgus angles and dynamic balance values after 6 weeks of exercise program in young footballers with poor knee control. Future randomized trials should focus on more comprehensive exercises, where possible using biofeedback methods to improve knee kinematics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Electromyographic Assessment of the Lower Leg Muscles during Concentric and Eccentric Phases of Standing Heel Raise
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 465; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9040465 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 608
Abstract
Only a small number of muscle activation patterns from lower limbs have been reported and simultaneous muscle activation from several lower limb muscles have not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine any gender differences in surface electromyography (EMG) [...] Read more.
Only a small number of muscle activation patterns from lower limbs have been reported and simultaneous muscle activation from several lower limb muscles have not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine any gender differences in surface electromyography (EMG) activity from six recorded lower limb muscles of the dominant limb at baseline (i.e., with the foot placed flat on the floor and in the neutral position), and during concentric and eccentric phases when performing a heel raise task. In total, 10 females and 10 males performed a standing heel raise task comprising of three continuous phases: baseline, unloading (concentric muscle action), and loading (eccentric muscle action) phases. Muscle activation from six muscles (gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, soleus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and peroneus brevis) were measured using the Myon 320 EMG System. Root mean squared values of each muscle were calculated for each phase. Descriptive and inferential statistics were incorporated into the study. Statistically significant p values were set at 0.05. The results showed no significant differences between baseline, concentric, and eccentric phases with respect to each of the muscles investigated. Except for the gastrocnemius medialis at baseline and concentric phases, no significant differences were observed between genders or contractions. The data suggests that gender does not significantly influence the eccentric phase during the standing heel raise task. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Mechanism of the Effect of High-Intensity Training on Urinary Metabolism in Female Water Polo Players Based on UHPLC-MS Non-Targeted Metabolomics Technique
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 381; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9040381 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Objective: To study the changes in urine metabolism in female water polo players before and after high-intensity training by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to explore the biometabolic characteristics of urine after training and competition. Methods: Twelve young female water polo [...] Read more.
Objective: To study the changes in urine metabolism in female water polo players before and after high-intensity training by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to explore the biometabolic characteristics of urine after training and competition. Methods: Twelve young female water polo players (except goalkeepers) from Shanxi Province were selected. A 4-week formal training was started after 1 week of acclimatization according to experimental requirements. Urine samples (5 mL) were collected before formal training, early morning after 4 weeks of training, and immediately after 4 weeks of training matches, and labeled as T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The samples were tested by LC-MS after pre-treatment. XCMS, SIMCA-P 14.1, and SPSS16.0 were used to process the data and identify differential metabolites. Results: On comparing the immediate post-competition period with the pre-training period (T3 vs. T1), 24 differential metabolites involved in 16 metabolic pathways were identified, among which niacin and niacinamide metabolism and purine metabolism were potential post-competition urinary metabolic pathways in the untrained state of the athletes. On comparing the immediate post-competition period with the post-training period (T3 vs. T2), 10 metabolites involved in three metabolic pathways were identified, among which niacin and niacinamide metabolism was a potential target urinary metabolic pathway for the athletes after training. Niacinamide, 1-methylnicotinamide, 2-pyridone, L-Gln, AMP, and Hx were involved in two metabolic pathways before and after the training. Conclusion: Differential changes in urine after water polo games are due to changes in the metabolic pathways of niacin and niacinamide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Article
Variations of Trail Runner’s Fitness Measures across a Season and Relationships with Workload
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 318; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9030318 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Trail running involves off-road running over different surfaces of positive and negative unevenness. Given these particularities and the associated physical demands, it is essential to understand this relationship and how fitness levels influence performance. This study aimed to analyze fitness level variations during [...] Read more.
Trail running involves off-road running over different surfaces of positive and negative unevenness. Given these particularities and the associated physical demands, it is essential to understand this relationship and how fitness levels influence performance. This study aimed to analyze fitness level variations during different times of the season and establish a relationship between changes in fitness levels and accumulated load. Twenty-five trail running athletes (age: 36.23 ± 8.30 years) were monitored over 52 weeks. Three periods of assessment were implemented, while load between those periods was calculated. Athletes were monitored daily by global positioning systems. The collected data included distance covered, duration, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE), which were used to obtain session-RPE. Additionally, maximal aerobic speed, vertical jump, and dynamic balance were tested periodically. Moderate inverse correlations were found between assessment 1 and 2 for total sRPE and vertical jump: countermovement jump (VJ: CMJ) (r = −0.349), and Y balance test: left posterolateral (YBT: LPL) (r = −0.494). Similar correlations were found between assessment 2 and 3 for total sRPE and VJ: CMJ (r = −0.397), and vertical jump: drop jump (VJ: DJ) (r = −0.395). The results suggest that trail running coaches should monitor and assess dose–response relationships and possible anterior asymmetries of dynamic balance performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
Long-Term Effect of Exercise on Irisin Blood Levels—Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Healthcare 2021, 9(11), 1438; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9111438 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Physical exercise may activate a number of important biochemical processes in the human body. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to identify the long-term effect of physical activity on irisin blood levels. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science [...] Read more.
Physical exercise may activate a number of important biochemical processes in the human body. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to identify the long-term effect of physical activity on irisin blood levels. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for articles addressing the long-term effect of physical exercise on irisin blood levels. Fifty-nine articles were included in the final qualitative and quantitative syntheses. A statistically significant within-group effect of exercise on irisin blood levels was in 33 studies; out of them, the irisin level increased 23× and decreased 10×. The significant positive between-groups effect was found 11×. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated that physical exercise had a significant positive effect on irisin blood levels (SMD = 0.39 (95% CI 0.27–0.52)). Nevertheless, considerably high heterogeneity was found in all the analyses. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that physical exercise might increase irisin blood levels; however, the results of individual studies were considerably inconsistent, which questions the methodological detection of irisin by ELISA kits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
Review
A Reporting Quality Assessment of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Sports Physical Therapy: A Review of Reviews
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1368; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9101368 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 242
Abstract
This review of reviews aimed to evaluate the reporting quality of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the field of sports physical therapy using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. This review of reviews included a literature search; [...] Read more.
This review of reviews aimed to evaluate the reporting quality of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the field of sports physical therapy using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. This review of reviews included a literature search; in total, 2047 studies published between January 2015 and December 2020 in the top three journals related to sports physical therapy were screened. Among the 125 identified articles, 47 studies on sports physical therapy were included in the analysis (2 systematic reviews and 45 meta-analyses). There were several problems areas, including a lack of reporting for key components of the structured summary (10/47, 21.3%), protocol and registration (18/47, 38.3%), risk of bias in individual studies (28/47, 59.6%), risk of bias across studies (24/47, 51.1%), effect size and variance calculations (5/47, 10.6%), additional analyses (25/47, 53.2%), and funding (10/47, 21.3%). The quality of the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies on sports physical therapy was low to moderate. For better evidence-based practice in sports physical therapy, both authors and readers should examine assumptions in more detail, and report valid and adequate results. The PRISMA guideline should be used more extensively to improve reporting practices in sports physical therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Review
Methodological Characteristics, Physiological and Physical Effects, and Future Directions for Combined Training in Soccer: A Systematic Review
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 1075; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9081075 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 879
Abstract
Combined training (CT) may combine strength and endurance training within a given time period, but it can also encompass additional protocols consisting of velocity, balance, or mobility as part of the same intervention. These combined approaches have become more common in soccer. This [...] Read more.
Combined training (CT) may combine strength and endurance training within a given time period, but it can also encompass additional protocols consisting of velocity, balance, or mobility as part of the same intervention. These combined approaches have become more common in soccer. This systematic review was conducted to (1) characterize the training protocols used in CT studies in soccer, (2) summarize the main physiological and physical effects of CT on soccer players, and (3) provide future directions for research. Methods: A systematic review of Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The PICOS were defined as follows: P (soccer players of any age or sex); I (CT combining strength and endurance or sprinting or balance or mobility training); C (the control group (whenever applicable), with or without comparative interventions in addition to usual soccer training); O (acute and/or chronic responses: biochemical, physiological and physical); S (must have at least two groups, either randomized or non-randomized). The database search initially identified 79 titles. From those, eight articles were deemed eligible for the systematic review. Three studies analyzed acute responses to concurrent training, while the remaining five analyzed adaptations to CT. In those tested for acute responses, physiological (hormonal) and physical (strength and power external load, internal load) parameters were observed. Adaptations were mainly focused on physical parameters (strength and power, sprints, jumps, repeated sprint ability, aerobic, change-of-direction), with relatively little focus on physiological parameters (muscle architecture). Short-term responses to CT can affect hormonal responses of testosterone after resistance training with internal and external load. In turn, these responses’ effects on strength and power have produced mixed results, as have adaptations. Specifically, strength and hypertrophy are affected to a lesser extent than speed/power movements. Nevertheless, it is preferable to perform CT before endurance exercises since it is a limiting factor for interference. Volume, intensity, rest between sessions, and athletes’ fitness levels and nutrition dictate the degree of interference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Review
Effects of Exercise Programs on Anxiety in Individuals with Disabilities: A Systematic Review with a Meta-Analysis
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 1047; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9081047 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Anxiety symptoms are increasingly prevalent in individuals and may affect their quality of life. Physical exercise (PE) has been shown to be an effective method for reducing anxiety symptoms in the general population. The present study aimed to identify if PE programs can [...] Read more.
Anxiety symptoms are increasingly prevalent in individuals and may affect their quality of life. Physical exercise (PE) has been shown to be an effective method for reducing anxiety symptoms in the general population. The present study aimed to identify if PE programs can be a good method to reduce anxiety symptoms in individuals with disabilities, through the methodology of a systematic review with a meta-analysis. The PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases were used, considering the period from 2001 to 2021. The descriptors used were: “cerebral palsy”, “motor disability”, “physical disability”, “vision impairment”, “visual impairment”, “vision disability”, “intellectual disability”, “mental retardation”, “intellectual disabilities”, “hearing impairment”, “hearing disability”, “multiple disabilities”, “physical activity”, “exercise”, “sport”, “training”, and “anxiety”, with the Boolean operator “AND” or “OR”. The systematic review with a meta-analysis was carried out in the period between May and June 2021. The Z values (Z-values) obtained to test the null hypothesis, according to which the difference between means is zero, demonstrated a Z = 2.957, and a corresponding p-value of 0.003. Thus, we can reject the null hypothesis, and affirm that PE promotes positive effects and can be a good method or methodology for the reduction of anxiety symptoms of individuals with disabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Review
Effects of Recreational Small-Sided Soccer Games on Bone Mineral Density in Untrained Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 457; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9040457 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
This systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of small-sided games (SSG)-based training programs on bone mineral density (BMD) in untrained adults. The data sources utilized were Cochrane, Embase, Medline (PubMed), Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. The study eligibility [...] Read more.
This systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of small-sided games (SSG)-based training programs on bone mineral density (BMD) in untrained adults. The data sources utilized were Cochrane, Embase, Medline (PubMed), Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. The study eligibility criteria were: (i) untrained adults (>18 years old) of any sex, with or without a noncommunicable disease; (ii) SSG-based programs with a minimum duration of four weeks and no restrictions regarding frequency (number of sessions per week); (iii) passive or active control groups; (iv) pre-post values of BMD; (v) only randomized controlled trials; and (vi) only original and full-text studies written in English. The database search initially yielded 374 titles. From those, nine articles were eligible for the systematic review and meta-analysis. The age of included population varied from a minimum of 20 and a maximum of 71 years old. Non-significant differences between SSG and passive and active control groups on total BMD (ES = 0.14; p = 0.405 and ES = 0.28; p = 0.05, respectively). Meanwhile, significant differences in favor of SSGs vs. passive and control groups were detected, evidencing an improvement of BMD in lower limbs of the adult population for both sexes (ES = 0.26; p = 0.05 and ES = 0.28; p = 0.156, respectively). As conclusions, SSGs can be used as a non-pharmacological alternative to increase the BMD in the lower limbs despite having no significant impact on total body BMD. Careful generalization should be done of the level of heterogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Review
Part I: Relationship among Training Load Management, Salivary Immunoglobulin A, and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Team Sport: A Systematic Review
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 366; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9040366 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is the first line of defense against upper respiratory tract viruses, has been related with training load management. This article aimed to systematically identify and summarize (1) the studies that have found a relationship between training load and salivary [...] Read more.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is the first line of defense against upper respiratory tract viruses, has been related with training load management. This article aimed to systematically identify and summarize (1) the studies that have found a relationship between training load and salivary IgA in team sports, and (2) the studies that have highlighted a relationship between IgA and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in team sports. A systematic review of relevant articles was carried out using two electronic databases (PubMed and WoK) until 3 October 2020. From a total of 174 studies initially found, 24 were included in the qualitative synthesis. This systematic review confirmed that lower values of IgA occurred after greater training load (intensity/volume) and congested periods. In this scenario, a low level of IgA was correlated with higher URTI, which makes training load management mandatory to healthcare avoiding immunosuppression. Therefore, physical fitness and conditioning coaches should carefully manage training load progression, avoiding high-intensity sessions in two consecutive days. In addition, they should not program high-intensity training sessions during at least the two days following competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Other

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Systematic Review
Strength Training versus Stretching for Improving Range of Motion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 427; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9040427 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5496
Abstract
(1) Background: Stretching is known to improve range of motion (ROM), and evidence has suggested that strength training (ST) is effective too. However, it is unclear whether its efficacy is comparable to stretching. The goal was to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Stretching is known to improve range of motion (ROM), and evidence has suggested that strength training (ST) is effective too. However, it is unclear whether its efficacy is comparable to stretching. The goal was to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of ST and stretching on ROM (INPLASY 10.37766/inplasy2020.9.0098). (2) Methods: Cochrane Library, EBSCO, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, and Web of Science were consulted in October 2020 and updated in March 2021, followed by search within reference lists and expert suggestions (no constraints on language or year). Eligibility criteria: (P) Humans of any condition; (I) ST interventions; (C) stretching (O) ROM; (S) supervised RCTs. (3) Results: Eleven articles (n = 452 participants) were included. Pooled data showed no differences between ST and stretching on ROM (ES = −0.22; 95% CI = −0.55 to 0.12; p = 0.206). Sub-group analyses based on risk of bias, active vs. passive ROM, and movement-per-joint analyses showed no between-protocol differences in ROM gains. (4) Conclusions: ST and stretching were not different in their effects on ROM, but the studies were highly heterogeneous in terms of design, protocols and populations, and so further research is warranted. However, the qualitative effects of all the studies were quite homogeneous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Systematic Review
Effects of the Small-Sided Soccer Games on Blood Pressure in Untrained Hypertensive Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 345; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare9030345 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 605
Abstract
This systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of small-sided games (SSGs)-based programs on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of untrained hypertensive adults. The data sources utilized were Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and PubMed. The eligibility criteria were: [...] Read more.
This systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of small-sided games (SSGs)-based programs on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of untrained hypertensive adults. The data sources utilized were Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and PubMed. The eligibility criteria were: (i) randomized controlled trials including a control group and an intervention group exclusively using soccer SSGs; (ii) intervention and control groups including an untrained hypertensive adult population; (iii) articles written in English; and (iv) only full-text and original articles. The database search initially identified 241 titles. From those, five articles were eligible for the systematic review and meta-analysis. The included randomized controlled studies involved five individual experimental groups and 88 participants, and 68 participants in the five control groups. The results showed a large and beneficial effect of SSG on systolic (ES = 1.69; 95% CI = 0.71 to 2.66; p = 0.001; I2 = 85.2%; Egger’s test p = 0.101) and diastolic blood pressure (ES = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.06; p < 0.001; I2 = 74.8%; Egger’s test p = 0.118) when compared to the control groups. The findings of the current systematic review and meta-analysis revealed consistent beneficial effects of recreational soccer SSGs on untrained men and women from the hypertensive population, although high levels of heterogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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