Special Issue "Transdisciplinary Multispectral Modelling and Cooperation for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage"

A special issue of Heritage (ISSN 2571-9408).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonia Moropoulou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou str, 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: cutural heritage; building materials; non destructive testing; sustainable development; circular economy; development schemes; environmental management; gis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Elisabetta Zendri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Sciences, Computer Science and Statistics, Università Ca' Foscari, Venezia, Italy
Interests: conservation science; new materials and techniques for CH; design and assessment in CH conservation and management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Ekaterini Delegou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou str, 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: cutural heritage; building materials; non destructive testing; sustainable development; environmental management; gis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Michael Turner
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design in Jerusalem, Jerusalem, ‎Israel
Interests: architecture; urban planning; conservation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Innovative scientific methodologies and challenging projects marking future trends in the protection of cultural heritage, have initiated a universal conversation within a holistic approach, merging competence from the scientific fields of architecture, civil engineering, surveying engineering, materials science and engineering, information technology and archaeology, as well as heritage professionals on restoration and conservation, stakeholders, industry representatives and policy makers. The combined utilization of digital documentation technologies with innovative analytical and non-destructive techniques, numerical, computational and 3D techniques, archaeometric and archaeogene methods, supports the creation of a transdisciplinary multispectral modeling towards the sustainable preservation of cultural heritage. Innovation is enhancing and revealing a critical dimension of the preservation of cultural heritage along with social participation and communication.

In 2018, the emblematic rehabilitation of the Holy Aedicule of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem was presented at the 1st TMM_CH “Transdisciplinary Multispectral Modelling and Cooperation for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage” International Conference as an exemplary application, in the field of monuments' protection, of interdisciplinary and multispectral collaboration, as an outcome of innovation, not only on research, but in the implementation process as well, with emphasis on technological advancements, not only intersecting all the scientific fields of engineers and natural scientists, but also initiating an ongoing dialogue with humanities, such as Archaeology, Theology, Sociology, Diplomacy and Tourism.

In the 2nd TMM_CH Conference in 2021 the latest developments in research and innovation that identify novel trends to build an interdisciplinary approach to conservation and holistic digital documentation of cultural heritage will be presented. The utilization and reuse of monuments, historic cities and sites, forms the framework of a sustainable preservation of cultural heritage, in accordance with the principles of circular economy; in terms of respect and protection of values, materials, structures, architecture and landscape; with an informed society, able to participate effectively in the policies that will design and implement the new strategies required. Sharing knowledge, experiences, and recommendations about sustainable cultural heritage approaches and practices at a moment of great risk and a time of renewed possibilities, will reorientate conversation to explore the current conditions and contours of the World in crisis rebranding itself through Culture, and relaunching development.

Contributions are therefore invited on, but not restricted, to the following topics:

  • Multispectral, Multidimensional, Novel Approach through Transdisciplinarity and Cooperation in the Protection of Cultural Heritage: Exemplary Projects
  • Digital Heritage
  • Heritage at Risk
  • Resilience to Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Pandemic Risks – Biosafety
  • Advanced Non Destructive and Structural Techniques for Diagnosis, Redesign and Health Monitoring
  • Archaeometry, Archaeogene
  • Conserving Compatibility, the Materiality of Structures and Architectural Authenticity
  • Cross-Discipline Earthquake Protection and Structural Assessment of Monuments
  • Transdisciplinary Dialogue among Architecture, Engineering and Natural Sciences with Humanities and Diplomacy
  • Bridging Heritage Stakeholders, Science and Industry
  • Sustainable Preservation and Management of Cultural Heritage
  • Historical / Architectural Sites, Monuments and Complexes as Open Labs of Innovation and Sustainable Socioeconomic Development
  • Historic Cities and Centers: New Preservation Strategies by Reuse for Development
  • The Reuse of Cultural Heritage through Circular Economy and Social Participation as Key Contribution to Local and Regional Development
  • Cultural Heritage and Tourism
  • Revealing and Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets within Green and Blue Deal for Integrated Sustainable Development of Isolated Areas (Islands, Mountain areas, et als)
  • Novel Educational Approach for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage 
  • From Research and Innovation to Policy
  • Rebranding the World in Crisis through Culture

Prof. Dr. Antonia Moropoulou
Dr. Elisabetta Zendri
Dr. Ekaterini Delegou
Prof. Michael Turner
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Heritage is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Wide-Area Heritage Projects in Lombardy: From a Mono-Sector to a Multi-Sector Approach
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4304-4317; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040237 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 148
Abstract
A public-private partnership (P3) and public-private-people partnership (P4) are amongst the institutional options available when it comes to funding cultural heritage management through the involvement of private players pertaining to the business or third sectors, respectively. In light of the growing relevance of [...] Read more.
A public-private partnership (P3) and public-private-people partnership (P4) are amongst the institutional options available when it comes to funding cultural heritage management through the involvement of private players pertaining to the business or third sectors, respectively. In light of the growing relevance of P4 operations as a means to improve heritage management, this paper aims at analyzing the initiatives developed by the Fondazione Cariplo banking foundation, which can be considered exemplary instances of P4. A total of two projects were selected, which go by the name of Distretti Culturali and AttivAree, respectively, and may serve as highly indicative examples of community involvement and multi-sector-oriented action. To conduct a truly realistic analysis and reliably measure the adequacy of the outcomes obtained, interviews with the parties involved were performed and direct participation in the projects was provided for. Considering, also, that funding has, so far, typically been aimed at interventions on individual buildings, the foundation has managed to develop some true cross-sector programs, and thus further refine the multi-sector approach most likely to prove useful in future community-centered initiatives. Herein, some of the features are isolated; those which we deem most suitable for adoption in the planning of future cultural heritage-related projects. Full article
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Article
TEOS-PDMS-Calcium Oxalate Hydrophobic Nanocomposite for Protection and Stone Consolidation
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4068-4075; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040224 - 30 Oct 2021
Viewed by 258
Abstract
A treatment for both protection and consolidation, was synthesized in a simplified procedure through the sol gel process. Synthesized nano-calcium oxalate (CaOx) was incorporated into tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), providing a hybrid hydrophobic consolidant nanocomposite. Oxalic acid was selected due to its [...] Read more.
A treatment for both protection and consolidation, was synthesized in a simplified procedure through the sol gel process. Synthesized nano-calcium oxalate (CaOx) was incorporated into tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), providing a hybrid hydrophobic consolidant nanocomposite. Oxalic acid was selected due to its ability to catalyse the hydrolysis of TEOS, as a drying control agent, but also because of its contribution at the formation of the calcium oxalate in reaction with calcium hydroxide. CaOx, incorporated into the silica matrix of the final copolymer, exhibits interfacial compatibility with the stone substrate and simultaneously strengthens the treated surface, since CaOx appears to be more stable than calcium carbonate. The hydrolysis of TEOS, as well as the formation of CaOx was evaluated through thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA). The nanocomposite consists of particles with approximately 7–700 nm in size range, as shown in TEM images. The consolidation, in combination with the hydrophobicity of surface resulted in an increase of the resistance to decay. Mechanical properties were enhanced as evaluated by ultrasonic pulse velocity on treated and untreated surfaces. Furthermore, water contact angle, as well as water absorption by capillarity test, showed improved water repellency of treated stones. Finally, this treatment doesn’t alter the aesthetic surface parameters, a fact that is essential in cultural heritage conservation, while the consolidant remains intact under UV and moisture exposure. Full article
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Article
The Protection of Building Materials of Historical Monuments with Nanoparticle Suspensions
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3970-3986; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040218 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Marble and limestone have been extensively used as building materials in historical monuments. Environmental, physical, chemical and biological factors contribute to stone deterioration. The rehabilitation of stone damage and the delay of further deterioration is of utmost importance. Inorganic nanoparticles having chemical and [...] Read more.
Marble and limestone have been extensively used as building materials in historical monuments. Environmental, physical, chemical and biological factors contribute to stone deterioration. The rehabilitation of stone damage and the delay of further deterioration is of utmost importance. Inorganic nanoparticles having chemical and crystallographic affinity with building materials is very important for the formation of protective coatings or overlayers. In the present work, we have tested the possibility of treating calcitic materials with suspensions of amorphous calcium carbonate (am-CaCO3, ACC) and amorphous silica (AmSiO2). Pentelic marble (PM) was selected as the test material to validate the efficiency of the nanoparticle suspension treatment towards dissolution in undersaturated solutions and slightly acidic pH (6.50). Suspensions of ACC and AnSiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by spontaneous precipitation from supersaturated solutions and by tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) hydrolysis, respectively. The suspensions were quite stable (nine days for ACC and months for AmSiO2). ACC and Am SiO2 particles were deposited on the surface of powdered PM. The rates of dissolution of PM were measured in solutions undersaturated with respect to calcite at a constant pH of 6.50. For specimens treated with ACC and AmSiO2 suspensions, the measured dissolution rates were significantly lower. The extent of the rate of dissolution reduction was higher for AmSiO2 particles on PM. Moreover, application of the nanoparticles on the substrate during their precipitation was most efficient method. Full article
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Article
Characterization of Ancient Mortars from Minoan City of Kommos in Crete
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3908-3918; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040214 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 266
Abstract
This work characterizes ancient mortars used in construction of the Bronze Age Minoan port at Kommos in Crete. The port dates from c. 1850 BCE with port facilities at the harbor and residences on the Central hillside and the Hilltop. A Greek, Phoenician, [...] Read more.
This work characterizes ancient mortars used in construction of the Bronze Age Minoan port at Kommos in Crete. The port dates from c. 1850 BCE with port facilities at the harbor and residences on the Central hillside and the Hilltop. A Greek, Phoenician, and Roman sanctuary overlies the administrative center. The first step collected representative samples from the different construction phases, previous conservation interventions, exposure to different environmental factors, and different material composition. From these 10 mortar samples were analyzed using stereo- and digital microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine texture, morphology, mineralogical, and physico-chemical properties. The physico-chemical and mineralogical analyses divided the samples into two groups: lime binder mortars and earthen binder mortars. The main minerals identified in the samples are calcite, quartz, dolomite, illite, albite, kaolinite, and vermiculite. Analysis of local clay showed that local materials were used in the production of these mortars. The analysis of mortar samples with stereomicroscopy, XRF, and FTIR showed that the samples are mainly composed of calcite and silicates in major quantities along with aluminum, magnesium, and iron oxide in minor quantities. A wide variety of local aggregates and ceramic fragments were used in the production of these ancient mortars. The mortar condition resulted in a decay state that needs conservation interventions. This characterization of the ancient mortars was important for the design of compatible restoration mortars. Full article
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Article
The Riverside Roads of Culture as a Tool for the Development of Aitoloakarnania
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3823-3847; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040210 - 21 Oct 2021
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Cultural routes are a well-established development tool to highlight and promote a region’s cultural and environmental reserve, as well as having a positive impact on a region’s socio-economic development. Underdeveloped or rural areas, which have limited financial and technological resources available, often envision [...] Read more.
Cultural routes are a well-established development tool to highlight and promote a region’s cultural and environmental reserve, as well as having a positive impact on a region’s socio-economic development. Underdeveloped or rural areas, which have limited financial and technological resources available, often envision cultural routes as a useful development tool to cater to their needs. However, unless these cultural routes are designed and implemented based on the principles of a circular economy or while respecting the region’s cultural identity and heritage, their impact will not be significant. The region of Aitoloakarnania is the poorest prefecture of Greece. The prefecture served as a case study to demonstrate that the utilization of its cultural and architectural heritage can be based on the identification, documentation, and the reveal of paths of cultural tourism along the region’s main natural features, namely its rivers, lakes, lagoons, and coastline. Τhe density and the representative distribution of the monuments in the area, in combination with the unique natural environment of the prefecture, led to the configuration of a mild design of cultural routes, promoting the revealing of both the cultural and the natural landmarks of Aitoloakarnania. In this framework, certain cultural paths were defined. The first one, along the Acheloos River, includes sites of natural heritage, ancient and medieval monuments (castles, fortifications, monasteries, churches, burial sites, archaeological sites, etc.). The other cultural path regards sites along the Evinos River and Trichonida Lake, which includes similar monuments and traditional settlements. A similar cultural path regards cultural sites and points of interest along the coastal parts of the prefecture, and in particular, a path initiating from the historic city of Nafpaktos and following the route to the west, it reaches the Venetian castle of Plagia, opposite of Lefkada. These cultural paths fuse along their routes sites of natural heritage, sites of archaeological and cultural interest, and sites of historic importance to the region. This amalgamation of different types of cultural sites, integrated into a single cultural entity, provide the means for the local and regional development in a sustainable approach while ensuring and disseminating the region’s brand and history. Full article
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Article
The Ottomans and the Greek Landscape: The Perception of Landscape in Greece by the Ottomans and Its Impact on the Architectural and Landscape Design
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3749-3769; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040206 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 304
Abstract
The current research examines the transformation of the rural and urban landscape during the Ottoman Period across modern Greek territory and the relationship between those changes and the cultural as well as political perceptions of the Ottoman elites, from roughly 1400 to 1800. [...] Read more.
The current research examines the transformation of the rural and urban landscape during the Ottoman Period across modern Greek territory and the relationship between those changes and the cultural as well as political perceptions of the Ottoman elites, from roughly 1400 to 1800. The study embraces the view of the importance of the landscape as a crucial factor in the birth and development of civilizations and it attempts to confirm this view by projecting it in intentional examples of organization of the built space in Greece, focusing, as already mentioned, on the Ottoman period. Those aforementioned examples highlight the influence of the political and cultural trends in the Ottoman court on specific landscape formations, which reflect the social structure of the Ottoman Empire and constitute at the same time, the spatial inscription of all political decisions. The methodology adopted in this research with regards to the exploration of the relationship between the building units and the natural surroundings in the selected case studies is based on the theoretical investigation of the cultural background of the Ottomans and their association to the Byzantine heritage, supplemented by in situ research in thoroughly selected case studies across Greece. The results of this combined methodological toolset attested to the fact that the Ottomans, through the use of spatial and cultural elements deriving either from their oriental background or from the local established ones, altered the spatial qualities of their surroundings in a way that the emerging political ideologies, the financial power, and the imperial glory of the Ottomans were manifested into the landscape. Full article
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Article
The Voyatzis Mansion in Aegina, Greece: A Historical and Architectural Approach and Physicochemical Documentation of the Wall Painting Decoration
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3630-3651; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040200 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 312
Abstract
This paper refers to the study of the Voyatzis mansion, in the port of Aegina, Greece. The building complex consists of two discrete structures, which were built at different times (before 1830, 1880 and 1890) and have housed either the Voyatzis family home [...] Read more.
This paper refers to the study of the Voyatzis mansion, in the port of Aegina, Greece. The building complex consists of two discrete structures, which were built at different times (before 1830, 1880 and 1890) and have housed either the Voyatzis family home or its business and work premises. The present research is focused on the documentation of the building, which was never published, and combines the architectural form and elements within its historical context as well as the physicochemical analysis of the painted decoration. The key hypothesis investigated is whether Konstantinos Voyatzis transferred the aesthetic approach and application techniques from Symi to Aegina, when he emigrated from his birthplace. The documentation of the ceiling decoration as well as the physicochemical study of the second floor’s internal wall painting decoration in the main rooms was carried out using in situ modern hyperspectral imaging in specific wavelengths of the visible and near-infrared region, as well as in false color infrared mode. Complementary SWIR imaging, using an InGaAs sensor at the range 900–1700 nm was also applied. The assumption was supported by the findings of the imaging techniques, which showed, apart from the secco method, the use of traditional pigments for the wall paintings, such as cobalt blue, brown, red and yellow earth pigments, chrome oxide green and black, sometimes in admixture with white. The use of guidelines and stencil in the case of the hallway was also recorded. Full article
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Article
Original Varnish Recipes in Post-Byzantine Painting Manuals
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3572-3582; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040197 - 17 Oct 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
During the last decades, manuscripts have become increasingly available through digitization and deposition in online repositories. This trend has very much facilitated primary source research, as scholars are no longer subjected to time- and effort-consuming processes such as travel, applications for photography permissions, [...] Read more.
During the last decades, manuscripts have become increasingly available through digitization and deposition in online repositories. This trend has very much facilitated primary source research, as scholars are no longer subjected to time- and effort-consuming processes such as travel, applications for photography permissions, and so on. In this framework, the authors set forth the results of research that deals with post-Byzantine panel-painting varnish recipes which were found in a hitherto unpublished Greek painting manual dating back to 1824. The recipes in consideration are compared to those existing in the renowned “Hermeneia” by Dionysios of Fourna (early 18th century) painter’s manual. A brief discussion dealing with various pertinent terms, along with a note on data deriving from the analytical investigation of varnish samples stemming from post-Byzantine icons are also included in this work. The study reveals a shift towards lean and intermediate varnish recipes during the early 19th century that might reflect the progression of resins and oleoresins, and the gradual replacement of oil-based varnishes. In addition, a unique recipe describing various methods of varnish application is transcribed and commented upon. Finally, the analytical data revealed an unexpected employment of a protein-based varnish in a mid-19th century icon. Full article
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Article
Fluorosilane Water-Repellent Coating for the Protection of Marble, Wood and Other Materials
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 2668-2675; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040150 - 25 Sep 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
The preservation of cultural heritage monuments and artifacts requires the development of methods to produce water-repellent materials, which can offer protection against the effects of atmospheric water. Fluorosilanes are a very promising class of materials, as they act as precursors for the formation [...] Read more.
The preservation of cultural heritage monuments and artifacts requires the development of methods to produce water-repellent materials, which can offer protection against the effects of atmospheric water. Fluorosilanes are a very promising class of materials, as they act as precursors for the formation of low surface energy polymer networks. 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl-triethoxysilane is applied on marble, wood and the surfaces of other materials, such as glass, silicon wafer, brass, paper and silk. According to the measurements of static water contact angles, it is reported that superhydrophobicity and enhanced hydrophobicity are achieved on the surfaces of coated marble and wood, respectively. Hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity were observed on the treated surfaces of the other materials. More important, water repellency is achieved on any hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surface, as revealed by the very low sliding angles of water drops. The study is accompanied by colorimetric measurements to evaluate the effects of the treatment on the aesthetic appearances of the investigated materials. Finally, the capillary absorption test and a durability test are applied on treated wood and marble, respectively. Full article
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