Topical Collection "Feature Papers"

Editors

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

We plan to publish a Special Issue on "Feature Papers" in order to give a broad overview of our area. We are looking for top-quality papers which will be published free of charge in Open Access form. Authors will be the editorial board members and researchers invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief. Papers could be both long research papers and papers describing the current state-of-the-art in one of the areas covered by the journal.

Dr. Francesco Soldovieri
Dr. Nicola Masini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Heritage is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (23 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2018

Article
Insights on Eastern Hellenistic Historical and Archaeological Material Culture of the Oikoumene: Globalisation and Local Socio-Cultural Identities
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3307-3330; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040184 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 237
Abstract
This paper focuses on the Hellenistic Middle East, especially the age of Ptolemaic Alexandrian and Syrian Seleucid influence. It investigates and clarifies some of the Hellenistic-age historical and archaeological material culture within the Hellenisation and globalisation conceptions. Furthermore, it suggests that by reviewing [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the Hellenistic Middle East, especially the age of Ptolemaic Alexandrian and Syrian Seleucid influence. It investigates and clarifies some of the Hellenistic-age historical and archaeological material culture within the Hellenisation and globalisation conceptions. Furthermore, it suggests that by reviewing the context of the local socio-cultural identities in the Hellenistic Oikoumene, mainly based on the lingua franca about local identity and how the local identity was expressed on coinage during Hellenistic times, many related insights issues can be revealed. In addition, it also attempts to discuss and reveal aspects of the cultural sharing achievements in Hellenistic art, architecture, and urban built environment planning. Finally, how did Eastern Hellenistic cities manage to benefit from the process of Hellenistic globalisation and localisation/globalisation while minimising identity risks? The focus is on the transnational socio-cultural and economic area of Ptolemaic Alexandria, the centre of the post-Classical Greek world, and the Syrian Seleucid influence. As an investment, mass migration and the transfer of goods, culture, and ideas increasingly transformed these Middle Eastern cities and shaped their translocal culture conception, local socio-cultural identities, cultural sharing, art and architecture edifice forms, and spatial patterns in the Hellenistic period. One of the main contributions and significance of this study is to continue the dialogue of how non-Greek influence in Hellenistic times impacted an area that has been traditionally seen as unaffected or minimally affected by years under foreign rule. This also sheds new light on some Greco-Macedonian topics not sufficiently debated in the Oikoumene discussion dialogue. These two aspects would furthermore contribute to better understanding and accepting the neglected role of the contribution of non-Greek culture to Greek achievements, as well as how the local non-Greek customs of the indigenous peoples of the Ptolemy and Seleucid kingdoms would affect how they assimilated Greco-Macedonian practices, and how the vision of Alexander the Great and Hellenisation worked in the different territories of these two kingdoms. Full article
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Article
Time-Slip Journey to Jomon Period: A Case Study of Heritage Tourism in Aomori Prefecture, Japan
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3238-3256; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040181 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
This study focuses on Aomori, a prefecture situated in the northern part of the Japanese main island Honshu. Riding on the popularity of time-slip-themed entertainment, Aomori began to brand itself as a place where people can experience a time-travel journey to the Jomon, [...] Read more.
This study focuses on Aomori, a prefecture situated in the northern part of the Japanese main island Honshu. Riding on the popularity of time-slip-themed entertainment, Aomori began to brand itself as a place where people can experience a time-travel journey to the Jomon, the Japanese prehistoric era. Through this study, we investigated the practice of Aomori to incorporate fantasy in its heritage tourism. Mixed-method research was used to retrieve and analyze information about Aomori and its Jomon-themed time-slip tourism, including desk research and word frequency analysis. While selling fantasy in tourism is a not-so-new topic, the Aomori case shed light on the alternative strategy that regional areas can consider. The prefecture showed us the prospect to combine fantasy and the local culture to attract younger tourists and dedicated pop-culture fans to visit the local attractions. It also demonstrated the potential of thematic fantasy in heritage tourism, especially archaeotourism, often perceived as boring by the younger generation. Additionally, the Aomori case indicated the importance of tourism infrastructure, creative marketing, and innovation in heritage tourism. It further signifies the importance of speeding up digital transformation for the future of heritage tourism. Full article
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Article
The Seat of the Roman Governor at Carnuntum (Pannonia superior)
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3009-3031; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040168 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 258
Abstract
The Roman site of Carnuntum was once a flourishing center on the frontiers of the Roman Empire. In its heyday as the capital of the province of Pannonia superior, Carnuntum probably covered an area of almost 9 km2. The whole [...] Read more.
The Roman site of Carnuntum was once a flourishing center on the frontiers of the Roman Empire. In its heyday as the capital of the province of Pannonia superior, Carnuntum probably covered an area of almost 9 km2. The whole site was divided into a military settlement (castra and canabae legionis) and a civil town (municipium/colonia). Through a large-scale archaeological prospection project, this huge area could be investigated and analyzed in great detail using a wide variety of nondestructive prospection methods. One of the main discoveries of the project was observed in the military settlement, where it was possible to identify a previously unknown military camp, interpreted as the garrison of the governor’s guard, the castra singularium. Through the topographic analysis of the immediate surroundings, the Roman fort was determined to be embedded in a large administrative complex related to the governor’s seat in Carnuntum. This article presents these new discoveries and shows what an important part they formed in the administration of the Roman province of Upper Pannonia. Full article
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Article
A Multi-Analytical Study of Egyptian Funerary Artifacts from Three Portuguese Museum Collections
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 2973-2995; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4040166 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 239
Abstract
A diachronic, multi-analytical approach combining EDXRF, µFTIR, µRaman, SEM-EDS, and Py-GC/MS has been adopted with the aim to study for the first time the painting materials used to decorate Egyptian funerary masks and sarcophagi ranging from the Late Period to the Roman Period [...] Read more.
A diachronic, multi-analytical approach combining EDXRF, µFTIR, µRaman, SEM-EDS, and Py-GC/MS has been adopted with the aim to study for the first time the painting materials used to decorate Egyptian funerary masks and sarcophagi ranging from the Late Period to the Roman Period and stored in the Archaeological National Museum (MNA) and the Carmo Archaeological Museum (MAC) of Lisbon and the Natural History Museum of the University in Oporto (MNH-FCUP). Results indicate that yellow and red ochres, realgar, cinnabar, Egyptian blue, and Egyptian green were used as pigments while chalk served as the preparatory layer. Over the 1000-year timeline of the studied artifacts, the palette remained remarkably consistent with previous findings as exemplified by cinnabar being used for red pigments in samples only dated after the Ptolemaic period. The presence of Sn in Egyptian blue and Egyptian green pigments used in one sample suggests the use of recycled bronze scraps during pigment production. Black pigments in two Late Period masks were found to be produced by mixing Egyptian blue with red ochre suggesting either a hitherto unknown method for production of purple pigments in the Egyptian palette or, alternatively, an attempt to create a specific hue or shade of dark brown or black. The results of this study contribute to further expand the database of Ancient Egyptian painting materials while at the same time helping to valorize three important Egyptian collections in Portugal. Full article
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Article
Architectural Heritage Conservation in Nigeria: The Need for Innovative Techniques
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2124-2139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4030120 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Architectural heritage conservation in recent years has hinged on conventional methods and has failed to recognize innovative methods and emerging technologies. Consequently, in Nigeria, suboptimal conservation work results in the continual deterioration of architectural heritage, leading to the loss of heritage and its [...] Read more.
Architectural heritage conservation in recent years has hinged on conventional methods and has failed to recognize innovative methods and emerging technologies. Consequently, in Nigeria, suboptimal conservation work results in the continual deterioration of architectural heritage, leading to the loss of heritage and its values and significance. The study, therefore, sought to examine challenges and prospects for implementing innovative techniques in the conservation of architectural heritage in Nigeria. The study examined three heritage conservation interventions in Nigeria, focusing on the applicability of innovative conservation methods for documentation, diagnosis, and treatment of deterioration of architectural heritage. Questionnaires were administered through purposive sampling to 40 heritage conservation professionals, with 31 (77.5%) completed and returned for analysis. A Cronbach’s alpha reliability test value of 0.76 established the validity of the research instrument. The findings affirmed that heritage professionals have low familiarity (mean value of 2.19) with innovative techniques for conservation of architectural heritage. Of the respondents, 41.9% had gained a minimal level of technical knowledge of how to implement innovative techniques in conservation interventions. Improving the performance of conservation interventions also ranked highly as a potential strength of implementing innovative techniques. Conclusively, there is a need to improve advocacy and training in innovative conservation techniques based on their ability to characterize architectural heritage materials and investigate their chemical composition, microstructure, and morphological features. Full article
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Article
Towards Sustainable Museum Conservation Practices: A Study on the Surface Cleaning of Contemporary Art and Design Objects with the Use of Biodegradable Agents
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2023-2043; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4030115 - 29 Aug 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Green contemporary art conservation cleaning methods are explored as sustainable museum practices, ensuring the conservator’s health and reducing the environmental impact. The performance of selected biodegradable cleaning agents, namely deionised (DI) water, a chelate based on trisodium salt of methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), Trilon [...] Read more.
Green contemporary art conservation cleaning methods are explored as sustainable museum practices, ensuring the conservator’s health and reducing the environmental impact. The performance of selected biodegradable cleaning agents, namely deionised (DI) water, a chelate based on trisodium salt of methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), Trilon® M, a non-ionic surfactant based on alkoxylated fatty alcohols (Plurafac® LF900), and two solvents, limonene and ethyl lactate, was evaluated for the surface cleaning of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polylactic acid (PLA), polypropylene (PP), and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC). Plastic mockups were used untreated or artificially soiled, simulating particulate matter or sebum stains produced by handling. Furthermore, the efficacy of ink removal from the plastic’s surface was evaluated. Surface examination was carried out using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), while μ-Raman and gloss measurements complemented the cleaning assessment methodology. The cleaning agents’ potency depends on the type of plastic, precluding a general cleaning protocol. However, their cleaning efficacy is very promising, enriching the available choices for the cleaning of plastics, using sustainable materials and practices. This study offers valuable information to the conservation field regarding the effects of the selected biodegradable cleaning agents on each type of plastic, their application method, and their cleaning efficacy for the removal of different types of soil and ink. Full article
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Article
Contemporary Sound Practices: Church Bells and Bell Ringing in New South Wales, Australia
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1754-1772; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4030098 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
As a social species, humans have developed soundscapes that surround, and to some extent circumscribe, their daily existence. The concept of aural heritage, its conceptualization and its management represent a rapidly expanding area of research, covering aspects of both natural and human heritage. [...] Read more.
As a social species, humans have developed soundscapes that surround, and to some extent circumscribe, their daily existence. The concept of aural heritage, its conceptualization and its management represent a rapidly expanding area of research, covering aspects of both natural and human heritage. However, there have been no contemporary regional or supra-regional studies that examine the nature of sound making in Christian religious settings, nor the extent to which it is still used. This paper presents the results of a survey into the presence of bells and bell ringing practices among five major Christian denominations in New South Wales, and examines to what extent bell ringing is still practiced and what factors may determine any differentiation. In doing so, it provides an objective basis from which to investigate future changes in bell ringing practices, and provides a solid foundation with reference to aural heritage of sound in a religious setting. Full article
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Article
The Scopic Feast of Heritage and the Invention of Unthreatening Diversity in Neoliberal Cities
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1660-1680; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4030092 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
This article explores the role that heritage might play in the representation of ‘difference’, within the context of neoliberal cities. The case is a large-scale urban change in the former working-class neighborhood of Gamlestaden, Sweden. Interviews and on-site observations revealed how authorized heritage [...] Read more.
This article explores the role that heritage might play in the representation of ‘difference’, within the context of neoliberal cities. The case is a large-scale urban change in the former working-class neighborhood of Gamlestaden, Sweden. Interviews and on-site observations revealed how authorized heritage practices can enable the celebration of particular social and cultural values, while naturalizing the erasure of others. People’s cultural diversity, and diverging interpretations of the past, have been guided by the power of heritage into a process of subjectification, according to which only ‘unthreatening’ forms of cultural diversity were celebrated and revealed legitimate. The ‘fetishized’ difference and particular historical records have served to conceal the political interest at stake in its’ production and maintenance, and led to a politicised representation of cultural diversity through what Annie Coombes’ terms ‘scopic feast’. All this was made possible through BID, the first neoliberal business improvement district model in Sweden, and its investment in a deeply rooted process of heritageisation. Uncritical engagement with difference in the context of heritage management and neoliberal urban development, make it appear almost natural to erase the cultural values that fall outside the authorized narrative of value. Full article
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Article
The Evidentiary Value of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Postcards for Heritage Studies
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1460-1496; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4030081 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 487
Abstract
A postcard ‘craze’ engulfed the developed world and colonial world during the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, when over 2.3 million picture postcards were mailed in 1904 alone. Formally published picture postcards can provide a rich source [...] Read more.
A postcard ‘craze’ engulfed the developed world and colonial world during the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, when over 2.3 million picture postcards were mailed in 1904 alone. Formally published picture postcards can provide a rich source of information for heritage studies as they depict landscape scenery, towns, individual buildings and public plantings such as parks. The evidentiary value of late nineteenth and early twentieth century postcards depends on the veracity of the depicted image. While based on photographs, processes of postcard production allowed the publisher to modify the original imagery to improve the messaging entailed in the image. Modes of image manipulation, such as retouching, can sufficiently alter the content of the image to create limitations to using published postcard imagery as a tool for historic landscape and building analysis. This is the first paper to systematically discuss the process of postcard production and the manipulation of images depicted on the view size of picture postcards. It demonstrates that where evidentiary emphasis is placed on postcard images, it is imperative that a systematic search for variants is carried out. Full article
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Article
Paper Foxing Stains on a Historic Manuscript from the Early Qajar Era: Abiotic or Biotic Foxing?
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1366-1374; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4030074 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the nature and cause of foxing spots in a historical manuscript. This manuscript was a Holy Quran from the beginning of the Qajar period and the end of the 18th century. Samples were incubated for [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify the nature and cause of foxing spots in a historical manuscript. This manuscript was a Holy Quran from the beginning of the Qajar period and the end of the 18th century. Samples were incubated for 14 days and were evaluated for the presence of fungal activity. UV fluorescence photography, micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were also used to investigate the characteristics and causes of foxing spots. The results showed that there was no fungal activity in the foxing spots of this manuscript. Based on the morphology of the stain in UV fluorescence photography, these foxing stains are of the Bullseye type, usually associated with metal ions. µXRF spectroscopy also showed a high accumulation of iron and copper at the site of these spots. This indicates abiotic foxing in this manuscript. Based on FTIR spectroscopy and peak deconvolution and fitting by Gaussian function, abiotic foxing increases the cellulose oxidation rate. Intensification of cellulose oxidation in foxing stains can be considered as one of the reasons for paper discoloration. Full article
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Article
The Fortress Beneath: Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging of the Citadel at Alcatraz: 1. A Guide for Interpretation
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1328-1347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4030072 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Ground-penetrating radar has emerged as a prominent non-destructive evaluation tool for the study of inaccessible subsurface elements of cultural heritage structures. Often of central interest is the desire to image the remains of a pre-existing historic structure that is located directly beneath a [...] Read more.
Ground-penetrating radar has emerged as a prominent non-destructive evaluation tool for the study of inaccessible subsurface elements of cultural heritage structures. Often of central interest is the desire to image the remains of a pre-existing historic structure that is located directly beneath a more recently built one. The interpretation of GPR images in such cases is usually difficult due to ambiguities caused by the presence of pervasive clutter, environmental noise, and overlapping target signatures. Sites with abundant ground truth allow for more confident interpretations and serve as a useful testbed to assist similar studies at other places, where little or no ground truth is available. This study reports GPR interpretations of structures belonging to the 19th century Citadel beneath the main prison cellhouse at Alcatraz. At this site, lidar scans, direct observations, and historical documents are available to facilitate identification of radar target signatures. A general interpretation of the acquired radargrams is made in this paper, while the companion paper presents more advanced analysis of target signatures based on curvelet image processing. This study points to the development of a radar facies classification scheme that is specific to cultural heritage investigations. Full article
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Article
Software “Pinxit”: Hail Magister Leonardo!
Heritage 2021, 4(2), 917-936; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4020050 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
In the present report, we offer a novel way for studying (via optical and digital means) features in Renaissance and Leonardo’s (and of course any other painter who followed this canon) paintings, based on a software that separately recognizes white, red, green, blue [...] Read more.
In the present report, we offer a novel way for studying (via optical and digital means) features in Renaissance and Leonardo’s (and of course any other painter who followed this canon) paintings, based on a software that separately recognizes white, red, green, blue colors and measures the intensity of single bright spots in canvasses. After mapping the distribution of individual colors, the software proposes a trajectory considering the different geometrical and topological aspects. What we propose here is not just a variant of known methods for discovering the color distribution in a painting; on the contrary, it represents a new way to find unknown parameters in any Renaissance painting. In addition, via multispectral and hyperspectral analyses and image processing, the developed software permitted us to monitor the decay of some pigments in these canvasses at macro- and microscopic levels. Full article
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Article
Tourism in the Time of Coronavirus. Fruition of the “Minor Heritage” through the Development of Bioarchaeological Sites—A Proposal
Heritage 2021, 4(2), 759-774; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4020042 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
The consequences of the coronavirus pandemic are and will continue to be devastating for the tourism sector, especially for the cultural one. It is necessary to reflect on the new strategies to be adopted to deal with the heavy losses that the world [...] Read more.
The consequences of the coronavirus pandemic are and will continue to be devastating for the tourism sector, especially for the cultural one. It is necessary to reflect on the new strategies to be adopted to deal with the heavy losses that the world of cultural heritage is suffering. The great archaeological attractions will no longer be able to accommodate the prepandemic numbers and therefore we must also think of alternative routes to present the minor heritage of our country. In recent years, our experience has allowed us to realize an open-air museum project in bioarchaeological sites (archaeological cemetery areas characterized by the recovery of human remains) that are part of an archaeological heritage that is little known, but which reserve great dissemination and fruition potential. The design of an archaeological itinerary, even a virtual one, which includes the bioarchaeological sites that we are musealizing, could offer a new visiting experience, especially in this difficult moment for all of us. Full article
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Article
On-Site Raman Spectroscopic Study of Beads from the Necropolis of Vohemar, Northern Madagascar (>13th C.)
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 524-540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010031 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
In the late 19th century, ancient tombs were discovered near the village of Vohemar at the northeastern point of Madagascar, and subsequent excavations during the French period (1896–1945) revealed the presence of a major necropolis active from ~13th to 18th centuries. Some artefacts [...] Read more.
In the late 19th century, ancient tombs were discovered near the village of Vohemar at the northeastern point of Madagascar, and subsequent excavations during the French period (1896–1945) revealed the presence of a major necropolis active from ~13th to 18th centuries. Some artefacts (Chinese ceramic shards and glass trade beads) recovered from these excavations was sent to France and now in part belong to the collection of the Musée d’Histoire Naturelle, Nimes. Carnelian and glass trade beads were analyzed with a mobile Raman spectrometer, which identified different materials (soda-lime glass, quartz/moganite, carnelian/citrine, chalcedony) and coloring agents (Naples yellow, cassiterite, amber chromophore, transition metal ions, etc.). The results are compared with those obtained on beads excavated at different sites of Southern Africa and at Mayotte Island, and it appears that (most of) the beads come from southern Asia and Europe. The results confirmed the role that northern Madagascar played within the maritime networks of the Western Indian Ocean during the 15th–16th century. Full article
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Article
Quasi-Static Nonlinear Seismic Assessment of a Fourth Century A.D. Roman Aqueduct in Istanbul, Turkey
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 401-421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010025 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
The majority of architectural heritage consists of load-bearing masonry components made up of stone units and relatively weak mortar joints, yielding potential weak planes for masonry structures where tension and shear failures are expected to occur. Advanced nonlinear analyses are required to simulate [...] Read more.
The majority of architectural heritage consists of load-bearing masonry components made up of stone units and relatively weak mortar joints, yielding potential weak planes for masonry structures where tension and shear failures are expected to occur. Advanced nonlinear analyses are required to simulate these phenomena and predict the corresponding nonlinear structural behavior of historic masonry constructions. In this context, this paper presents a model of a stone masonry Roman aqueduct (the Valens Aqueduct), constructed in the fourth century A.D. in Istanbul, Turkey, to explore the seismic capacity and behavior using the discrete element method (DEM). The employed modeling approach comprises distinct rigid blocks interacting along their boundaries based on the point-contact hypothesis. Thus, the discontinuous stone skeleton of the masonry aqueduct is represented explicitly in the computational model. First, a validation study was conducted on the laboratory experiment to demonstrate the capabilities of the adopted modeling approach. Then, a discontinuum model representing the Valens Aqueduct was used to assess the seismic capacity of the structure under gradually increasing lateral forces. The numerical simulations gave insight into the structural response of the aqueduct from the elastic range to total collapse. Additionally, parametric research was performed considering joint properties, namely the joint tensile strength, contact stiffness, joint friction angle, and compressive strength of the masonry, to quantify the effects of contact parameters on the displacement response of the DEM model. Further inferences were made regarding the modeling parameters, and practical conclusions were derived. Full article
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Article
A Stochastic View of Varying Styles in Art Paintings
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 333-348; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010021 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
A physical process is characterized as complex when it is difficult to analyze and explain in a simple way, and even more difficult to predict. The complexity within an art painting is expected to be high, possibly comparable to that of nature. Herein, [...] Read more.
A physical process is characterized as complex when it is difficult to analyze and explain in a simple way, and even more difficult to predict. The complexity within an art painting is expected to be high, possibly comparable to that of nature. Herein, we apply a 2D stochastic methodology to images of both portrait photography and artistic portraits, the latter belonging to different genres of art, with the aim to better understand their variability in quantitative terms. To quantify the dependence structure and variability, we estimate the Hurst parameter, which is a common dependence metric for hydrometeorological processes. We also seek connections between the identified stochastic patterns and the desideratum that each art movement aimed to express. Results show remarkable stochastic similarities between portrait paintings, linked to philosophical, cultural and theological characteristics of each period. Full article
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Article
Detection and Identification of Possible Gel Residues on the Surface of Paintings after Cleaning Treatments
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 304-315; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010019 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
Important features required for gels used for the cleaning of paintings are viscoelastic properties ensuring good adaptability to the morphology of the surfaces and complete gel removal after application. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-borax gels containing different liquid phases are often used as cleaning [...] Read more.
Important features required for gels used for the cleaning of paintings are viscoelastic properties ensuring good adaptability to the morphology of the surfaces and complete gel removal after application. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-borax gels containing different liquid phases are often used as cleaning materials, but still little is known about their ability to leave no residues. This study reports the development of an analytical method based on attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) for the identification of PVA-borax gel residues on mock-ups and on works of art after cleaning treatments. The effect of additives in the formulation (i.e., poly (ethylene oxide)) and of clearing treatments with organic solvents after the gel removal was assessed both with respect to the effectiveness of the cleaning and the presence of residues on the painted surfaces. The results obtained show that clearing the surfaces with cotton swabs and organic solvents after the application of the gel is necessary to ensure a good removal of gel residues. Moreover, Py-GC/MS analyses in single-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode are more sensitive and selective, allowing the detection of gel residues even on surfaces where no residue is detected by ATR-FTIR. Full article
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Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Combined with Naturally Occurring Crystallization Inhibitors: An Integrated Strategy for a more Sustainable Control of Salt Decay in Built Heritage
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 220-229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010013 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
Salt inhibitors have been receiving increasing attention as potential innovative systems to counteract salt damage by preventing crystallisation of the salts within the natural stone structure—and related disruptive action—of built heritage. Especially, we focus on biomass-derived inhibitor systems featuring complete solubility in water [...] Read more.
Salt inhibitors have been receiving increasing attention as potential innovative systems to counteract salt damage by preventing crystallisation of the salts within the natural stone structure—and related disruptive action—of built heritage. Especially, we focus on biomass-derived inhibitor systems featuring complete solubility in water or alcohol and intrinsic non-toxicity. Moving from the promising results obtained, the present study aims to develop research concerning the possibility of rationalizing the collected data sets and making them amenable to statistical analysis. This paper reports on an exploratory application of one of the most powerful methods in chemometrics, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), in this area. It will be seen that this method is a promising tool to extract information from a series of tests to optimize them and to reduce the level of “noise” present in the data collected, i.e., unnecessary information or experimental errors, and to suggest new directions. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021, 2018

Article
After They Fell Silent: The Nature and Fate of the Ship Bells Associated with the Vessels Scrapped for the Washington Arms Limitation Treaty of 1922
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 32-75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010003 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
The Washington Arms Limitation Treaty 1922 was arguably one the most significant disarmament treaties of the first half of the 20th century. It can be shown that the heritage items associated with this treaty are still extant. Ship’s bells are one of the [...] Read more.
The Washington Arms Limitation Treaty 1922 was arguably one the most significant disarmament treaties of the first half of the 20th century. It can be shown that the heritage items associated with this treaty are still extant. Ship’s bells are one of the few moveable objects that are specific to the operational life of a ship and are therefore highly symbolic in representing a vessel. This paper surveys which bells of the ships scrapped under conditions of the Washington Arms Limitation Treaty are known to exist. A typology of ship’s bells has been developed to understand the nature of bell provisioning to vessels newly commissioned into the U.S. Navy. Each of the countries associated with the Washington Treaty have divergent disposal practices with respect to navy property, and this is reflected in both the prevalence and nature of custodianship of ship’s bells from this period. Such procedures range from the U.S. requirement commanding all surplus Navy property to be deemed government property upon ship deactivation, to the British practice of vending ship’s bells to private parties at public sales. However, ship’s bells, like many obsolete functional items, can be regarded as iconic in terms of heritage and therefore warrant attention for future preservation and presentation in the public domain. Full article
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Review
Radiocarbon Dating of Anthropogenic Carbonates: What Is the Benchmark for Sample Selection?
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1416-1432; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3040079 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
Anthropogenic carbonates are pyrotechnological products composed of calcium carbonate, and include wood ash, lime plaster/mortar, and hydraulic mortar. These synthetic materials are among the first produced by humans, and greatly influenced their biological and cultural evolution. Therefore, they are an important component of [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic carbonates are pyrotechnological products composed of calcium carbonate, and include wood ash, lime plaster/mortar, and hydraulic mortar. These synthetic materials are among the first produced by humans, and greatly influenced their biological and cultural evolution. Therefore, they are an important component of the archeological record that can provide invaluable information about past lifeways. One major aspect that has been long investigated is the possibility of obtaining accurate radiocarbon dates from the pyrogenic calcium carbonate that makes up most of these materials. This is based on the fact that anthropogenic carbonates incorporate atmospheric carbon dioxide upon the carbonation of hydrated lime, and thus bear the radiocarbon signature of the atmosphere at a given point in time. Since plaster, mortar, and ash are highly heterogeneous materials comprising several carbon contaminants, and considering that calcium carbonate is prone to dissolution and recrystallization, accurate dating depends on the effectiveness of protocols aimed at removing contaminants and on the ability to correctly identify a mineral fraction that survived unaltered through time. This article reviews the formation and dissolution processes of pyrogenic calcium carbonate, and mineralogical approaches to the definition of a ‘dateable fraction’ based on its structural properties. Full article
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Article
Towards an Online Database for Archaeological Landscapes. Using the Web Based, Open Source Software OpenAtlas for the Acquisition, Analysis and Dissemination of Archaeological and Historical Data on a Landscape Basis
Heritage 2020, 3(4), 1385-1401; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage3040077 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 884
Abstract
In this paper, we present the web-based, open source software OpenAtlas, which uses the International Council of Museums’ Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC CRM), and its possible future potential for the acquisition, analysis and dissemination of a wide range of archaeological and historical data [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the web-based, open source software OpenAtlas, which uses the International Council of Museums’ Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC CRM), and its possible future potential for the acquisition, analysis and dissemination of a wide range of archaeological and historical data on a landscape basis. To this end, we will first introduce the ongoing research project The Anthropological and Archaeological Database of Sepultures (THANADOS), built upon OpenAtlas, as well as its data model and interactive web interface/presentation frontend. Subsequently, the article will then discuss the possible extension of this database of early medieval cemeteries with regard to the integration of further archaeological structures (e.g., medieval settlements, fortifications, field systems and traffic routes) and other data, such as historical maps, aerial photographs and airborne laser scanning data. Finally, the paper will conclude with the general added value for future research projects by such a collaborative and web-based approach. Full article
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2018

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Article
Battling the Tides of Climate Change: The Power of Intangible Cultural Resource Values to Bind Place Meanings in Vulnerable Historic Districts
Heritage 2018, 1(2), 220-238; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage1020015 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
Climate change increases not only the vulnerability of cultural resources, but also the cultural values that are deeply embedded in cultural resources and landscapes. As such, heritage managers are faced with imminent preservation challenges that necessitate the consideration of place meanings during adaptation [...] Read more.
Climate change increases not only the vulnerability of cultural resources, but also the cultural values that are deeply embedded in cultural resources and landscapes. As such, heritage managers are faced with imminent preservation challenges that necessitate the consideration of place meanings during adaptation planning. This study explores how stakeholders perceive the vulnerability of the tangible aspects of cultural heritage, and how climate change impacts and adaptation strategies may alter the meanings and values that are held within those resources. We conducted semi-structured interviews with individuals with known connections to the historic buildings located within cultural landscapes on the barrier islands of Cape Lookout National Seashore in the United States (US). Our findings revealed that community members hold deep place connections, and that their cultural resource values are heavily tied to the concepts of place attachment (place identity and place dependence). Interviews revealed a general acceptance of the inevitability of climate impacts and a transition of heritage meanings from tangible resources to intangible values. Our findings suggest that in the context of climate change, it is important to consider place meanings alongside physical considerations for the planning and management of vulnerable cultural resources, affirming the need to involve community members and their intangible values into the adaptive planning for cultural resources. Full article
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Article
Integrated Investigation of Built Heritage Monuments: The Case Study of Paphos Harbour Castle, Cyprus
Heritage 2018, 1(1), 1-14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage1010001 - 14 Mar 2018
Viewed by 1913
Abstract
The state of preservation of built heritage monuments is often evaluated by means of several destructive techniques, which are mainly focused on the analysis of small parts of the monuments’ construction materials. The necessary sampling for the accomplishment of these destructive analyses is [...] Read more.
The state of preservation of built heritage monuments is often evaluated by means of several destructive techniques, which are mainly focused on the analysis of small parts of the monuments’ construction materials. The necessary sampling for the accomplishment of these destructive analyses is usually restricted to confined parts of a monument, since monuments are usually under protective legislation, and therefore only indicative of larger areas. Current research attempts to enhance the results of provided by destructive methods, using non-destructive image processing techniques. Towards this end, the potential use of image processing based on rectified images is examined, along with material sampling and laboratory analyses as part of a multi-disciplinary methodology for the investigation of Paphos (Cyprus) Harbour Castle. This approach has been adopted in order to map the degradation patterns observed on the monument’s masonry walls, minimizing destructive methods and attempting to visualize the results of the monument as a whole. The combination of both analytical and non-destructive techniques resulted in the acquisition of large amounts of information, permitting the evaluation of applied non-destructive techniques for the study of the deterioration present on a monument’s external surfaces. This approach led to the assessment of the overall state of preservation of the masonry walls of the structure in an extended scale covering all external façades in a semi-automatic way. Full article
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