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Special Issue "Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Frontistis Zacharias
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Río, Greece
Interests: water and wastewater treatment; Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs); photocatalysis; ozonation; photo fenton; sonochemistry; activated persulfate; electrochemical oxidation; emerging contaminants; disinfection; artificial neural network
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The research on the application of different  physcochemcial processes based on the in situ production of reactive oxygen species has been showing impressive growth in recent years The objective of this issue is to present recent advances in the field of environmental applications of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) Therefore, this issue will cover research on the application of different advanced oxidation processes, including but not limited to photocatalysis, photo-Fenton, activated persulfate , UV/H2O2, sonochemistry, ozonation and electrochemical oxidatiom as well as hybrid processes for (a) industrial wastewater treatment, (b) removal of micro-pollutants and emerging contaminants from water and wastewater, (c) air purification systems, (d) water disinfection (with particular emphasis on the fate of antibiotic resistance genres), and (e) energy (hydrogen production or CO2 reduction) (f) Process modelling , hybrid processes and scaling up (pilot plant studies), Research on the synthesis and applications of smart catalytic materials for environmental applications is especially encouraged while we also welcome critical reviews

Dr. Frontistis Zacharias
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • water and wastewater treatment
  • Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)
  • photocatalysis
  • ozonation
  • photo fenton
  • sonochemistry
  • activated persulfate
  • electrochemical oxidation
  • emerging contaminants
  • disinfection
  • artificial neural network

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Sonoelectrochemical Degradation of Propyl Paraben: An Examination of the Synergy in Different Water Matrices
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2621; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082621 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
The synergistic action of anodic oxidation using boron-doped diamond and low-frequency ultrasound in different water matrices and operating conditions for the decomposition of the emerging contaminant propyl paraben was investigated. The degree of synergy was found to decrease with an increase in current [...] Read more.
The synergistic action of anodic oxidation using boron-doped diamond and low-frequency ultrasound in different water matrices and operating conditions for the decomposition of the emerging contaminant propyl paraben was investigated. The degree of synergy was found to decrease with an increase in current in the range 1.25–6.25 mA/cm2 or the ultrasound power until 36 W/L, where a further decrease was observed. Despite the fact that the increased propyl paraben concentration decreased the observed kinetic constant for both the separated and the hybrid process, the degree of synergy was increased from 37.3 to 43.4% for 0.5 and 2 mg/L propyl paraben, respectively. Bicarbonates (100–250 mg/L) or humic acid (10–20 mg/L) enhanced the synergy significantly by up to 55.8%, due to the higher demand for reactive oxygen species. The presence of chloride ions decreased the observed synergistic action in comparison with ultrapure water, possibly due to the electro-generation of active chlorine that diffuses to the bulk solution. The same behavior was observed with the secondary effluent that contained almost 68 mg/L of chlorides. The efficiency was favored in a neutral medium, while the hybrid process was delayed in alkaline conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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Article
BP–ANN Model Coupled with Particle Swarm Optimization for the Efficient Prediction of 2-Chlorophenol Removal in an Electro-Oxidation System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2454; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16142454 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
Electro-oxidation is an effective approach for the removal of 2-chlorophenol from wastewater. The modeling of the electrochemical process plays an important role in improving the efficiency of electrochemical treatment and increasing our understanding of electrochemical treatment without increasing the cost. The backpropagation artificial [...] Read more.
Electro-oxidation is an effective approach for the removal of 2-chlorophenol from wastewater. The modeling of the electrochemical process plays an important role in improving the efficiency of electrochemical treatment and increasing our understanding of electrochemical treatment without increasing the cost. The backpropagation artificial neural network (BP–ANN) model was applied to predict chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and total energy consumption (TEC). Current density, pH, supporting electrolyte concentration, and oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) were used as input parameters in the 2-chlorophenol synthetic wastewater model. Prediction accuracy was increased by using particle swarm optimization coupled with BP–ANN to optimize weight and threshold values. The particle swarm optimization BP–ANN (PSO–BP–ANN) for the efficient prediction of COD removal efficiency and TEC for testing data showed high correlation coefficient of 0.99 and 0.9944 and a mean square error of 0.0015526 and 0.0023456. The weight matrix analysis indicated that the correlation of the five input parameters was a current density of 18.85%, an initial pH 21.11%, an electrolyte concentration 19.69%, an oxidation time of 21.30%, and an ORP of 19.05%. The analysis of removal kinetics indicated that oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) is closely correlated with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total energy consumption (TEC) of the electro-oxidation degradation of 2-chlorophenol in wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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Article
Ultrasound-Enhanced Catalytic Ozonation Oxidation of Ammonia in Aqueous Solution
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16122139 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Excessive ammonia is a common pollutant in the wastewater, which can cause eutrophication, poison aquatic life, reduce water quality and even threaten human health. Ammonia in aqueous solution was converted using various systems, i.e., ozonation (O3), ultrasound (US), catalyst (SrO-Al2 [...] Read more.
Excessive ammonia is a common pollutant in the wastewater, which can cause eutrophication, poison aquatic life, reduce water quality and even threaten human health. Ammonia in aqueous solution was converted using various systems, i.e., ozonation (O3), ultrasound (US), catalyst (SrO-Al2O3), ultrasonic ozonation (US/O3), ultrasound-enhanced SrO-Al2O3 (SrO-Al2O3/US), SrO-Al2O3 ozonation (SrO-Al2O3/O3) and ultrasound-enhanced SrO-Al2O3 ozonation (SrO-Al2O3/US/O3) under the same experimental conditions. The results indicated that the combined SrO-Al2O3/US/O3 process achieved the highest NH4+ conversion rate due to the synergistic effect between US, SrO-Al2O3 and O3. Additionally, the effect of different operational parameters on ammonia oxidation in SrO-Al2O3/O3 and SrO-Al2O3/US/O3 systems was evaluated. It was found that the ammonia conversion increased with the increase of pH value in both systems. The NH3(aq) is oxidized by both O3 and ·OH at high pH, whereas the NH4+ oxidation is only carried out through ·OH at low pH. Compared with the SrO-Al2O3/O3 system, the ammonia conversion was significantly increased, the reaction time was shortened, and the consumption of catalyst dosage and ozone were reduced in the SrO-Al2O3/US/O3 system. Moreover, reasonable control of ultrasonic power and duty cycle can further improve the ammonia conversion rate. Under the optimal conditions, the ammonia conversion and gaseous nitrogen yield reached 83.2% and 51.8%, respectively. The presence of tert-butanol, CO32−, HCO3, and SO42− inhibited the ammonia oxidation in the SrO-Al2O3/US/O3 system. During ammonia conversion, SrO-Al2O3 catalyst not only has a certain adsorption effect on NH4+ but accelerates the O3 decomposition to ·OH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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Article
Kinetic Evaluation of Dye Decolorization by Fenton Processes in the Presence of 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1602; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16091602 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
The fungal metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) was used as a redox mediator with the aim of increasing dye degradation by Fenton oxidative processes (Fe2+/H2O2, Fe3+/H2O2). Its Fe3+-reducing activity can [...] Read more.
The fungal metabolite 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) was used as a redox mediator with the aim of increasing dye degradation by Fenton oxidative processes (Fe2+/H2O2, Fe3+/H2O2). Its Fe3+-reducing activity can enhance the generation of reactive oxygen species as HO radicals. Initially, the influence of 3-HAA on decolorization kinetics of five dyes (methylene blue, chromotrope 2R, methyl orange, phenol red, and safranin T) was investigated using decolorization data from a previous work conducted by the present research group. Fe3+-containing reaction data were well fitted with first-order and mainly second-order kinetic models, whereas the BMG (Behnajady, Modirshahla and Ghanbary) model obtained optimal fit to Fe2+. Improvements in kinetic parameters (i.e., apparent rate constants and maximum oxidation capacity) were observed with the addition of 3-HAA. In another set of experiments, a decrease in apparent activation energy was observed due to introducing 3-HAA into reactions containing either Fe2+ or Fe3+ in order to decolorize phenol red at different temperatures. This indicates that the redox mediator decreases the energy barrier so as to allow reactions to occur. Thus, based on recent experiments and the reaction kinetics models evaluated herein, pro-oxidant properties have been observed for 3-HAA in Fenton processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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Article
Electrooxidation Using Nb/BDD as Post-Treatment of a Reverse Osmosis Concentrate in the Petrochemical Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 816; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16050816 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
This work evaluated the performance of an electrochemical oxidation process (EOP), using boron-doped diamond on niobium substrate (Nb/BDD), for the treatment of a reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) produced from a petrochemical wastewater. The effects of applied current density (5, 10, or 20 mA·cm [...] Read more.
This work evaluated the performance of an electrochemical oxidation process (EOP), using boron-doped diamond on niobium substrate (Nb/BDD), for the treatment of a reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) produced from a petrochemical wastewater. The effects of applied current density (5, 10, or 20 mA·cm−2) and oxidation time (0 to 5 h) were evaluated following changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Current efficiency and specific energy consumption were also evaluated. Besides, the organic byproducts generated by EOP were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The results show that current densities and oxidation time lead to a COD and TOC reduction. For the 20 mA·cm−2, changes in the kinetic regime were found at 3 h and associated to the oxidation of inorganic ions by chlorinated species. After 3 h, the oxidants act in the organic oxidation, leading to a TOC removal of 71%. Although, due to the evolution of parallel reactions (O2, H2O2, and O3), the specific energy consumption also increased, the resulting consumption value of 66.5 kW·h·kg−1 of COD is considered a low energy requirement representing lower treatment costs. These results encourage the applicability of EOP equipped with Nb/BDD as a treatment process for the ROC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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Article
Removal of Paracetamol Using Effective Advanced Oxidation Processes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 505; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030505 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Fenton, photo-Fenton, and photo-induced oxidation, were investigated and compared for the treatment of 0.26 mmol L−1 of paracetamol (PCT) in a deionised water matrix, during a reaction span of 120.0 min. Low and high Fenton reagent loads were studied. Particularly, the initial [...] Read more.
Fenton, photo-Fenton, and photo-induced oxidation, were investigated and compared for the treatment of 0.26 mmol L−1 of paracetamol (PCT) in a deionised water matrix, during a reaction span of 120.0 min. Low and high Fenton reagent loads were studied. Particularly, the initial concentration of Fe2+ was varied between 0.09 and 0.18 mmol L−1 while the initial concentration of H2O2 was varied between 2.78 and 11.12 mmol L−1. The quantitative performance of these treatments was evaluated by: (i) measuring PCT concentration; (ii) measuring and modelling TOC conversion, as a means characterizing sample mineralization; and (iii) measuring cytotoxicity to assess the safe application of each treatment. In all cases, organic matter mineralization was always partial, but PCT concentration fell below the detection limit within 2.5 and 20.0 min. The adopted semi-empirical model revealed that photo induced oxidation is the only treatment attaining total organic matter mineralization ( ξ MAX = 100% in 200.0 min) at the expense of the lowest kinetic constant (k = 0.007 min−1). Conversely, photo-Fenton treatment using high Fenton reagent loads gave a compromise solution ( ξ MAX = 73% and k = 0.032 min−1). Finally, cytotoxicity assays proved the safe application of photo-induced oxidation and of photo-Fenton treatments using high concentrations of Fenton reagents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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Article
Degradation of Paracetamol by an UV/Chlorine Advanced Oxidation Process: Influencing Factors, Factorial Design, and Intermediates Identification
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2637; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15122637 - 25 Nov 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
The combination of a low-pressure mercury lamp and chlorine (UV/chlorine) was applied as an emerging advanced oxidation process (AOP), to examine paracetamol (PRC) degradation under different operational conditions. The results indicated that the UV/chlorine process exhibited a much faster PRC removal than the [...] Read more.
The combination of a low-pressure mercury lamp and chlorine (UV/chlorine) was applied as an emerging advanced oxidation process (AOP), to examine paracetamol (PRC) degradation under different operational conditions. The results indicated that the UV/chlorine process exhibited a much faster PRC removal than the UV/H2O2 process or chlorination alone because of the great contribution of highly reactive species (OH, Cl, and ClO). The PRC degradation rate constant (kobs) was accurately determined by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The kobs values were strongly affected by the operational conditions, such as chlorine dosage, solution pH, UV intensity, and coexisting natural organic matter. Response surface methodology was used for the optimization of four independent variables (NaOCl, UV, pH, and DOM). A mathematical model was established to predict and optimize the operational conditions for PRC removal in the UV/chlorine process. The main transformation products (twenty compound structures) were detected by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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Article
Degradation of the Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Piroxicam by Iron Activated Persulfate: The Role of Water Matrix and Ultrasound Synergy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2600; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15112600 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
This work examined the oxidation of Piroxicam (PIR), a representative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug using iron activated persulfate. The effect of persulfate dosing was vital for the efficiency of the process. The addition of 20 mg/L sodium persulfate (SPS) eliminated 500 μg/L of PIR [...] Read more.
This work examined the oxidation of Piroxicam (PIR), a representative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug using iron activated persulfate. The effect of persulfate dosing was vital for the efficiency of the process. The addition of 20 mg/L sodium persulfate (SPS) eliminated 500 μg/L of PIR in less than 20 min at natural pH. PIR decomposition followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the observed kinetic constant increased by 2.1 times when the initial concentration of PIR decreased from 2000 to 250 μg/L. Acidic pH favored the PIR destruction, while both sulfate and hydroxyl radicals are involved in PIR destruction at natural pH. The effect of inorganic ions like bicarbonate and chlorides was almost insignificant on PIR removal. The presence of humic acid reduced PIR removal from 100% to 67% after 20 min of treatment with 2 mg/L Fe2+ and 20 mg/L SPS. The experiment that was performed with bottled water showed similar efficiency with ultrapure water, while in the case of secondary effluent, PIR removal decreased by 26% after 30 min of treatment. The Fe2+/SPS/ultrasound hybrid process showed a low degree of synergy (18.3%). The ecotoxicity of aqueous solution using the Vibrio fischeri as an indicator was reduced during the treatment, although with a different trend from the removal of PIR, possibly due to byproducts derived from the oxidation of secondary effluent and PIR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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Article
Fabrication of Surfactant-Enhanced Metal Oxides Catalyst for Catalytic Ozonation Ammonia in Water
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1654; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15081654 - 03 Aug 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
The new surfactant-enhanced metal oxides composite catalysts have been prepared using solid state method and characterized by the N2-adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Catalytic activity of the [...] Read more.
The new surfactant-enhanced metal oxides composite catalysts have been prepared using solid state method and characterized by the N2-adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Catalytic activity of the synthesized powders has been investigated in the liquid-phase catalytic ozonation ammonia nitrogen (NH4+) (50 mg/L). Especially, the effect of parameters such as optimum molar ratio for metal salt, NaOH and surfactants, temperature, and time of calcinations was also considered. Leveraging both high catalytic activity in NH4+ degradation and more harmless selectivity for gaseous nitrogen, the CTAB/NiO catalyst is the best among 24 tested catalysts, which was generated by calcining NiCl2·6H2O, NaOH, and CTAB under the molar ratio 1:2.1:0.155 at 300 °C for 2 h. With CTAB/NiO, NH4+ removal rate was 95.93% and gaseous nitrogen selectivity was 80.98%, under the conditions of a pH of 9, ozone flow of 12 mg/min, dosage of catalyst 1.0 g/L, reaction time 120 min, and magnetic stirring speed 600 r/min in room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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Review

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Review
Catalytic Oxidation Process for the Degradation of Synthetic Dyes: An Overview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2066; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16112066 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 74 | Viewed by 2439
Abstract
Dyes are used in various industries as coloring agents. The discharge of dyes, specifically synthetic dyes, in wastewater represents a serious environmental problem and causes public health concerns. The implementation of regulations for wastewater discharge has forced research towards either the development of [...] Read more.
Dyes are used in various industries as coloring agents. The discharge of dyes, specifically synthetic dyes, in wastewater represents a serious environmental problem and causes public health concerns. The implementation of regulations for wastewater discharge has forced research towards either the development of new processes or the improvement of available techniques to attain efficient degradation of dyes. Catalytic oxidation is one of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), based on the active radicals produced during the reaction in the presence of a catalyst. This paper reviews the problems of dyes and hydroxyl radical-based oxidation processes, including Fenton’s process, non-iron metal catalysts, and the application of thin metal catalyst-coated tubular reactors in detail. In addition, the sulfate radical-based catalytic oxidation technique has also been described. This study also includes the effects of various operating parameters such as pH, temperature, the concentration of the oxidant, the initial concentration of dyes, and reaction time on the catalytic decomposition of dyes. Moreover, this paper analyzes the recent studies on catalytic oxidation processes. From the present study, it can be concluded that catalytic oxidation processes are very active and environmentally friendly methods for dye removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for Water Treatment)
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