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Special Issue "Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Care Sciences & Services".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Isabel Martínez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychology, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Av Los Alfares, 44, 16002 Cuenca, Spain
Interests: parenting; socialization; adolescent adjustment; values internalization; adolescent self-steem; sustance use; school adjustment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Social and, particularly, family influence on adolescent adjustment is a main topic of interest in psychology. Research has largely analysed the influence of social factors that contribute to adolescent health and well-being. Different aspects of family functioning, such as parenting styles and other family characteristics that can determine adolescent adjustment, are an issue of increasing interest, since new results are emerging in this area. Recent research has shown the importance of considering the social and cultural context where the adolescent is growing up as a moderating variable in the relation between family variables and adolescent adjustment, estimating different aspects of adolescent behaviour and well-being as adjustment criteria.

In this Special Issue, we invite authors to contribute research that addresses the influence of social determinants in adolescent adjustment and adaptation to their environment. Papers investigating the influence of parenting and family functioning in adolescent adjustment in different social and cultural contexts will be especially welcome.

Dr. Isabel Martínez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • family
  • parenting
  • adolescent adjustment
  • Social factors
  • Adolescent competence
  • Adolescent well-being
  • School adjusment

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Research

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Article
Emotional Intelligence and Mental Health in the Family: The Influence of Emotional Intelligence Perceived by Parents and Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17176255 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Introduction: The relevant scientific literature has confirmed the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and mental health. In addition, previous studies have underlined the importance of perceived EI between family members in the construction of one’s own EI. Adolescence is considered to be a [...] Read more.
Introduction: The relevant scientific literature has confirmed the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and mental health. In addition, previous studies have underlined the importance of perceived EI between family members in the construction of one’s own EI. Adolescence is considered to be a crucial stage in identity construction and a time when mental health is vulnerable. Objectives: To analyze the mediating role of self-reported EI on mental health of adolescents and young adults still living in the family home, we considered the relationship between perceived EI in parents and children. Method: The sample was comprised of 170 children and their respective fathers and mothers living in the same family home. Self-reported EI was evaluated using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24), whereas perceived EI was evaluated via the Perceived Emotional Intelligence Scale-24 (PTMM-24) and mental health using the MH-5. Results: Parents’ perceived EI of their children also children’s perceived EI of their parents has a direct effect on children’s mental health and an indirect effect through the EI self-reported by children. We discuss the differences in the role of mothers and fathers in emotional education and its influence on the results. Conclusions: We highlight the importance of perceived EI among family members, over and above the self-reported EI of each member, for its predictive power on the mental health of children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Exploring the Role of Family and School as Spaces for 1.5 Generation South Korean’s Adjustment and Identity Negotiation in New Zealand: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4408; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124408 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
To date, the majority of research on migrant identity negotiation and adjustment has primarily focused on adults. However, identity- and adjustment-related issues linked with global migration are not only related to those who have recently arrived, but are also relevant for their subsequent [...] Read more.
To date, the majority of research on migrant identity negotiation and adjustment has primarily focused on adults. However, identity- and adjustment-related issues linked with global migration are not only related to those who have recently arrived, but are also relevant for their subsequent descendants. Consequently, there is increasing recognition by that as a particular group, the “1.5 generation” who were born in their home country but came to new countries in early childhood and were educated there. This research, therefore, investigates 1.5 generation South Koreans’ adjustment and identity status in New Zealand. More specifically, this study explores two vital social spaces—family and school—which play a pivotal role in modulating 1.5 generation’s identity and adjustment in New Zealand. Drawing upon in-depth interviewing with twenty-five 1.5 generation Korean-New Zealanders, this paper reveals that there are two different experiences at home and school; (1) the family is argued to serve as a key space where the South Korean 1.5 generation confirms and retains their ethnic identity through experiences and embodiments of South Korean traditional values, but (2) school is almost the only space where the South Korean 1.5 generation in New Zealand can acquire the cultural tools of mainstream society through interaction with English speaking local peers and adults. Within this space, the South Korean 1.5 generation experiences the transformation of an ethnic sense of identity which is strongly constructed at home via the family. Overall, the paper discusses that 1.5 generation South Koreans experience a complex and contradictory process in negotiating their identity and adjusting into New Zealand through different involvement at home and school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
Article
Self and Nature: Parental Socialization, Self-Esteem, and Environmental Values in Spanish Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3732; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103732 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Emergent research seriously questions the use of parental strictness as the best parenting strategy in all cultural contexts. Moreover, previous research on environmental socialization offers inconsistent findings about which specific parenting practices would be the most appropriate for environmental socialization. The present paper [...] Read more.
Emergent research seriously questions the use of parental strictness as the best parenting strategy in all cultural contexts. Moreover, previous research on environmental socialization offers inconsistent findings about which specific parenting practices would be the most appropriate for environmental socialization. The present paper aims to examine parents’ contribution (i.e., authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful) to adolescents’ self-esteem and internalization of environmental values. Participants were 308 Spanish adolescents with 171 females (55.5%), between 12 and 17 years old. The four parenting styles were defined using measures of parental warmth and strictness. Self-esteem was captured with global and multidimensional measures. Internalization of environmental values was evaluated by measuring the priority given to biospheric values. Results revealed a consistent pattern between parenting styles and adolescent self-esteem and internalization of environmental values. Overall, adolescents from homes characterized by parental warmth (i.e., indulgent and authoritative) have higher self-esteem and greater internalization of environmental values than their counterparts. These findings clearly contrast with those obtained in other cultural contexts where parental strictness is essential in achieving well-adjusted children with optimal psychosocial development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
Article
Validation of the Index for Inclusion Questionnaire for Parents of Non-University Education Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093216 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
The perspective from the parents of non-university students is essential in determining inclusive education in a school. The Index of Inclusion is one of the most widely used self-assessment tools and strategies to help teaching teams self-assess their political cultures and practices from [...] Read more.
The perspective from the parents of non-university students is essential in determining inclusive education in a school. The Index of Inclusion is one of the most widely used self-assessment tools and strategies to help teaching teams self-assess their political cultures and practices from the perspective of the values and principles of educational inclusion worldwide. For this reason, the present study intends to show evidence of validity of the Index for Inclusion questionnaire for parents of non-university education students, in a quantitative way, through a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In this study, 108 fathers and 500 mothers took part, aged between 21 and 62 years (M = 43.59; SD = 6.64), whose children belonged to educational institutions throughout Spain. The results revealed adequate adjustment rates, showing invariant structure with respect to sex. The Index for Inclusion for families of non-university education students was shown to be a robust and adequate psychometric instrument to assess the degree of development of inclusive education in educational institutions from the perspective of the parents of said student body. The family is a basic pillar in the education of children and a reference for them. In addition, parents of non-university education students are configured as fundamental participatory elements of the child’s educational institution thus; making the family a fundamental element that favors inclusive education. Precisely because of all this, the future administration of this questionnaire (to the parents of these students) is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Barriers and Facilitators to Leisure Physical Activity in Children: A Qualitative Approach Using the Socio-Ecological Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3033; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093033 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
Despite the benefits of engaging in physical activity during their leisure time, children do not meet the recommendations on physical activity. Following the socio-ecological model as a theoretical framework, the aim of this study was to determine the barriers and facilitators that influence [...] Read more.
Despite the benefits of engaging in physical activity during their leisure time, children do not meet the recommendations on physical activity. Following the socio-ecological model as a theoretical framework, the aim of this study was to determine the barriers and facilitators that influence physical activity participation in children’s leisure time. Data collection was conducted through focus groups and individual drawings in a sample of 98 eight- to eleven-year-olds from six schools in Cuenca (Spain). Following the socio-ecological model, individual characteristics (age and sex), as well as the microsystem (parents and friends), mesosystem (timing and out-of-school schedule) and exosystem (safety and weather) influence physical activity participation. The relationships between these levels of the socio-ecological model reveal that opportunities for leisure physical activity are determined by children’s schedules. This schedule is negotiated by the family and is influenced by parents’ worries and necessities. This is the main barrier to physical activity participation due to the creation of more restrictive, sedentary schedules, especially for girls. Our results show the elements required to develop successful strategies to increase physical activity opportunities, namely, focusing on giving children the opportunity to choose activities, raising parents’ awareness of the importance of physical activity and improving the perceived safety of parks, taking into consideration the gender perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Teen Dating Violence, Sexism, and Resilience: A Multivariate Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2652; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082652 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
The aim of this research was to know the factors associated with teen dating violence and victimization because violence in teenagers’ relationships is increasing in recent years, constituting a serious social problem. For this purpose, we analyzed teen dating violence and explored the [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to know the factors associated with teen dating violence and victimization because violence in teenagers’ relationships is increasing in recent years, constituting a serious social problem. For this purpose, we analyzed teen dating violence and explored the variables (sexist attitudes, personal adjustment, clinical maladjustment, and resilience) related to teen dating violence and victimization using multinomial logistic models. The sample was composed of 268 school teenagers aged 12 to 17 from the Basque Country (Spain). Results showed that sex, age, sexism, and self-esteem predicted teen dating violence and that sex and social problems predicted victimization. Associations between the wide range of variables and types of perpetration and victimization (verbal-emotional, relational, and physical) were also explored. These results could be taken into consideration for future prevention programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
Article
Parenting Styles, Internalization of Values and Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Study in Spain, Portugal and Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2370; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072370 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3767
Abstract
The present study analyzes the impact of parenting styles on adolescents’ self-esteem and internalization of social values in three countries, Spain, Portugal and Brazil. The sample of the study was comprised of 2091 adolescents from Spain (n = 793), Portugal (n [...] Read more.
The present study analyzes the impact of parenting styles on adolescents’ self-esteem and internalization of social values in three countries, Spain, Portugal and Brazil. The sample of the study was comprised of 2091 adolescents from Spain (n = 793), Portugal (n = 675), and Brazil (n = 623) from 12–18 years old (52.1% females). The four types of parenting styles, authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian and neglectful, were measured through the warmth and strictness dimensions of the Scale of Parental Socialization ESPA29. The two criteria variables were captured with the five dimensions of the AF5, Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire, and with self-transcendence and conservation Schwartz values. Results confirm emergent research in parenting socialization: the use of parental warmth is evidenced as key for adolescent self-esteem and internalization of social values in the three countries analyzed. Indulgent and authoritative parenting (both characterized by parental warmth) are associated with the highest value internalization in the three countries. Furthermore, indulgent parenting (use of warmth) is associated with the highest adolescent self-esteem, overcoming authoritative parenting (use of warmth and strictness). The influence of parenting over adolescent self-esteem and values internalization is maintained independent of the differences in self-esteem and value priorities observed in the cultural context, the sex and age of the participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Behavioral, Emotional and School Adjustment in Adolescents with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) Is Related to Family Involvement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1949; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17061949 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2600
Abstract
Developmental language disorder (DLD) refers to a language delay in the absence of other underlying causes. Individuals with DLD can also present other problems related to behavioral, scholarly, and emotional aspects of their daily lives because of their language difficulties. Moreover, these difficulties [...] Read more.
Developmental language disorder (DLD) refers to a language delay in the absence of other underlying causes. Individuals with DLD can also present other problems related to behavioral, scholarly, and emotional aspects of their daily lives because of their language difficulties. Moreover, these difficulties could be influenced by family and socioeconomic characteristics. Twenty-eight bilingual adolescents with and without DLD in typical schools were followed from childhood to adolescence. At age five, language and cognitive variables were assessed. In addition, language, behavior, emotional and school adjustment, and socioeconomic and family aspects were evaluated at age 12. Results reveal that adolescents with DLD show poorer school adjustment and less adaptive skills when evaluated by their tutors, and a larger index of emotional problems when self-assessed. Moreover, family involvement, but not socioeconomic status (SES), emerged as a protective factor since it was related to behavioral, emotional, and school adjustment, a result that was further confirmed by structural equation modeling. Therefore, a more global approach involving individuals, schools and families is needed to provide adolescents with DLD adequate support. It is important to stimulate their social skills and emotional adjustment so they can cope with social difficulties more easily, especially at school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
On Time: A Qualitative Study of Swedish Students’, Parents’ and Teachers’ Views on School Attendance, with a Focus on Tardiness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1430; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17041430 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2152
Abstract
Tardiness is a common problem in many schools. It can be understood as an individual risk for future problematic behavior leading to absenteeism, school dropout, exclusion and later health problems. Tardiness can also be examined in relation to a broader social-ecological perspective on [...] Read more.
Tardiness is a common problem in many schools. It can be understood as an individual risk for future problematic behavior leading to absenteeism, school dropout, exclusion and later health problems. Tardiness can also be examined in relation to a broader social-ecological perspective on health. The aim of this study was to analyze students’, school staff’s and parents’ views on students’ tardiness in two Swedish schools. A focus group interview design was used with 21 school personnel, 21 students in grade nine and two parents. The data were analyzed by using thematic content analysis. The results illustrated the main theme—It depends on…—regarding what will happen if a student arrives late to school lessons. This finding is further explained by the subthemes about teachers’ signals and reactions and the responses from teachers and students. The conclusion showed the importance of organizing the school day more predictably for the students. Late arrival is a sign of shortcomings in a school organization. It is necessary to develop guidelines related to how to handle students’ late arrival based on predictable viewpoints but even more so on how to promote students’ sense of belonging and their interest in and motivation for going to school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
Article
A Longitudinal Study of Authoritative Parenting, Juvenile Delinquency and Crime Victimization among Chinese Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1405; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17041405 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
Empirical research on the relationship between authoritative parenting and crime victimization has been sparse, although this style of parenting has been identified as an effective parenting practice for inhibiting offending behavior among children and adolescents. The current research aims at filling this gap [...] Read more.
Empirical research on the relationship between authoritative parenting and crime victimization has been sparse, although this style of parenting has been identified as an effective parenting practice for inhibiting offending behavior among children and adolescents. The current research aims at filling this gap by examining the influences of authoritative parenting on juvenile delinquency and crime victimization, as well as the mechanisms connecting the processes. Using two-wave survey data collected from a probability sample of 1066 Chinese adolescents, the current study employed a structural equation modeling analysis to test the relationships. The results indicated that authoritative parenting negatively predicted juvenile delinquency and crime victimization. Further, adolescent mental health problems and delinquent peer association partially mediated the influence of authoritative parenting on delinquency, while adolescent mental health problems, delinquent peer association, and juvenile delinquency fully mediated the relationship between authoritative parenting and crime victimization. The results also showed that juvenile delinquency positively predicted future crime victimization. Overall, this study demonstrated that authoritative parenting operated as a protective factor against juvenile delinquency and crime victimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
The Influence of Physical Activity, Diet, Weight Status and Substance Abuse on Students’ Self-Perceived Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1387; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17041387 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the level and relationship between the self-perceived health of adolescents in relation to the level of practice of physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, weight status and consumption of substance abuse, such as alcohol [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the level and relationship between the self-perceived health of adolescents in relation to the level of practice of physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, weight status and consumption of substance abuse, such as alcohol and tobacco. A total of 516 adolescent students between the ages of 12 and 16 completed a series of questionnaires to assess their health, physical activity, compliance with the Mediterranean diet and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Adolescents who practice more physical activity have better health and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The level of health is higher among adolescents with greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet, evidencing better health among those who consume less tobacco. These results show the need to involve the educational community, families and the media to promote healthy lifestyle habits that can help physical activity and sports professionals in the development of theoretical–practical proposals aimed at improving the health of students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Association Among Battered Mothers’ Parenting Competences and Children’s Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17041134 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Background: Exposure to violence perpetrated on a mother by her intimate partner (IPV or intimate partner violence) has an impact on the psychosocial adjustment of her children. In addition, the violence suffered by mothers could affect parental competences. Methods: Through the Child Behavior [...] Read more.
Background: Exposure to violence perpetrated on a mother by her intimate partner (IPV or intimate partner violence) has an impact on the psychosocial adjustment of her children. In addition, the violence suffered by mothers could affect parental competences. Methods: Through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), this work analyzes the psychosocial adjustment in children between 6 and 17 years old who live with their mothers in shelters after having experienced IPV situations. It also explores the association between mothers’ parenting competences and children’s adjustment in shelters. Results: The evaluation shows a negative correlation between the quality of mothers’ care of their children during their stay in shelters and the rate of children’s behavioral problems, so that the better the parental competences of mothers, the lower the rate of behavioral problems presented by children. Conclusions: As a result of IPV, mother–child relationships can be affected. Children exposed to IPV may exhibit more externalizing behavior problems and their mothers may have difficulty demonstrating competent parenting behaviors while living in a shelter. Work should be aimed at reestablishing parenting competences in mothers and the quality of mother–child interactions while they remain in the shelters, in an effort to mitigate the psychosocial consequences of IPV for their children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Relationship of Parental Support on Healthy Habits, School Motivations and Academic Performance in Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 882; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17030882 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
The objective of the study was to analyze how parental support relates to the physical activity practice, satisfaction with sports, level of physical activity, academic performance and alcohol consumption. Descriptive cross-sectional study, with 1100 adolescents (12–16 years old), where the factors related to [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to analyze how parental support relates to the physical activity practice, satisfaction with sports, level of physical activity, academic performance and alcohol consumption. Descriptive cross-sectional study, with 1100 adolescents (12–16 years old), where the factors related to parental support, gender and age acted as independent variables, and satisfaction with sport, level of physical activity (PA), academic performance and alcohol consumption acted as dependent variables. A multivariate statistical analysis was conducted. Adolescents with little parental support show (p < 0.001) more boredom, less fun, worse academic performance and higher alcohol consumption. Gender shows differences (p < 0.001) experiencing girls more boredom, less fun, less PA practice and higher academic performance than boys. Age establishes (p < 0.01) that older adolescents (15–16 years old) experience more boredom, less fun, less PA practice, lower academic performance and higher alcohol consumption than young boys and girls (12–14 years old). Parental support towards PA practice improves healthy habits, benefits academic performance and school satisfaction with physical and sports activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Associations between Family Weight-Based Teasing, Eating Pathology, and Psychosocial Functioning among Adolescent Military Dependents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17010024 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Weight-based teasing (WBT) by family members is commonly reported among youth and is associated with eating and mood-related psychopathology. Military dependents may be particularly vulnerable to family WBT and its sequelae due to factors associated with their parents’ careers, such as weight and [...] Read more.
Weight-based teasing (WBT) by family members is commonly reported among youth and is associated with eating and mood-related psychopathology. Military dependents may be particularly vulnerable to family WBT and its sequelae due to factors associated with their parents’ careers, such as weight and fitness standards and an emphasis on maintaining one’s military appearance; however, no studies to date have examined family WBT and its associations within this population. Therefore, adolescent military dependents at-risk for adult obesity and binge-eating disorder were studied prior to entry in a weight gain prevention trial. Youth completed items from the Weight-Based Victimization Scale (to assess WBT by parents and/or siblings) and measures of psychosocial functioning, including the Beck Depression Inventory-II, The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Social Adjustment Scale. Eating pathology was assessed via the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and height and fasting weight were measured to calculate BMIz. Analyses of covariance, adjusting for relevant covariates including BMIz, were conducted to assess relationships between family WBT, eating pathology, and psychosocial functioning. Participants were 128 adolescent military dependents (mean age: 14.35 years old, 54% female, 42% non-Hispanic White, mean BMIz: 1.95). Nearly half the sample (47.7%) reported family WBT. Adjusting for covariates, including BMIz, family WBT was associated with greater eating pathology, poorer social functioning and self-esteem, and more depressive symptoms (ps ≤ 0.02). Among military dependents with overweight and obesity, family WBT is prevalent and may be linked with eating pathology and impaired psychosocial functioning; prospective research is needed to elucidate the temporal nature of these associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Perceived Social Support from Significant Others among Binge Drinking and Polyconsuming Spanish University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4506; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16224506 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Sense of acceptance is conceived as a central component of perceived social support and is thought to be a key resilience factor for adjustment during transition to university. The current study examines how a binge drinking pattern of alcohol consumption and the co-consumption [...] Read more.
Sense of acceptance is conceived as a central component of perceived social support and is thought to be a key resilience factor for adjustment during transition to university. The current study examines how a binge drinking pattern of alcohol consumption and the co-consumption of binge drinking and cannabis in first-year university students are related to perceived acceptance from family, mother, father, and friends. The study sample consisted of 268 women and 216 men, of average age 18.25 years (SE = 0.01), enrolled in the first year of different degree courses at the University of Santiago de Compostela. Participants were classified in three groups (control, binge drinking, polyconsuming) on the basis of the Timeline Followback for alcohol and cannabis. Perceived sense of acceptance was measured using the Perceived Acceptance Scale. Analysis of the data revealed that perceived acceptance was lower in polyconsuming students than in the binge drinking and control groups (p < 0.05; with η2 ranging between 0.009 and 0.020). A curvilinear relationship between binge drinking and perceived acceptance from friends was identified. Social support should be considered in future investigations and interventions as a vulnerability marker for detrimental consequences of substance use and risk of consumption disorders, as well as adolescent maladjustment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Parenting Practices, Life Satisfaction, and the Role of Self-Esteem in Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4045; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16204045 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4124
Abstract
Introduction: Studies have shown significant associations between parenting practices, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, and the role of parenting practices in adolescent adjustment, emphasizing its influence on wellbeing. Objectives: To analyze the relationships between parenting practices, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and test the mediating [...] Read more.
Introduction: Studies have shown significant associations between parenting practices, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, and the role of parenting practices in adolescent adjustment, emphasizing its influence on wellbeing. Objectives: To analyze the relationships between parenting practices, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and test the mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between the different parenting practices and life satisfaction of adolescents. Method: The sample came to a total of 742 adolescents, with an average age of 15.63 (SD = 1.24; range 13–19). The Parenting Style Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were used. Results: Perception by adolescents of high levels of affect and communication, self-disclosure, and a sense of humor related to their parents, as well as low levels of psychological control, explained the life satisfaction of the adolescents. Self-esteem exerted a partial mediating effect on the relationship between parenting practices and satisfaction with the life of the adolescent. Finally, self-esteem also appeared to be a moderator variable, specifically in the effect of self-disclosure on the life satisfaction of the adolescent. Conclusions: The results reinforce the role of personal variables, especially self-esteem, in parent-child interaction and in the improved subjective wellbeing of the adolescent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Neighborhood Influences on Women’s Parenting Practices for Adolescents’ Outdoor Play: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3853; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16203853 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
Understanding factors that influence parenting decisions for outdoor play is necessary to promote physical activity during critical years for adolescent adjustment. This study explored physical and social environmental influences on parenting decisions and rules for their child’s outdoor play using semistructured in-depth interviews [...] Read more.
Understanding factors that influence parenting decisions for outdoor play is necessary to promote physical activity during critical years for adolescent adjustment. This study explored physical and social environmental influences on parenting decisions and rules for their child’s outdoor play using semistructured in-depth interviews with parents (n = 30, 29 of whom were mothers) of adolescents. Mothers from low- (n = 16) and high-disadvantage (n = 13) neighborhood environments were recruited to identify environmental factors that resulted in parenting decisions that either promoted or hindered outdoor play and identify differences across neighborhood types. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Mothers limit their child’s independent play, as well as the location and time of outdoor play, due to both social and physical aspects of their neighborhood. Seven themes (safety, social norms, sense of control, social cohesion and neighborhood composition, walkability, and access to safe places for activity) were identified as influencers of parenting practices. Mothers in high-disadvantage neighborhoods reported facing greater neighborhood barriers to letting their child play outside without supervision. Physical and social neighborhood factors interact and differ in low- and high-disadvantage neighborhoods to influence parenting practices for adolescent’s outdoor play. Community-level interventions should target both physical and social environmental factors and be tailored to the neighborhood and target population, in order to attenuate parental constraints on safe outdoor play and ultimately increase physical activity and facilitate adolescent adjustment among developing youth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Identifying Risk Profiles of School Refusal Behavior: Differences in Social Anxiety and Family Functioning Among Spanish Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3731; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193731 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
School attendance problems negatively affect students’ development. This study attempted to identify different school refusal behavior profiles and to examine their relationship with three dimensions of social anxiety (fear of negative evaluation, social avoidance and distress in new situations, and social avoidance and [...] Read more.
School attendance problems negatively affect students’ development. This study attempted to identify different school refusal behavior profiles and to examine their relationship with three dimensions of social anxiety (fear of negative evaluation, social avoidance and distress in new situations, and social avoidance and distress that is experienced more generally in the company of peers) and the perception of family functioning. Participants included 1842 Spanish adolescents (53% girls) aged 15–18 years (M = 16.43; SD = 1.05). The School Refusal Assessment Scale—Revised (SRAS-R), the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A), and the Family APGAR Scale (APGAR: Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) were administered. Latent class analysis revealed four school refusal behavior profiles: non-school refusal behavior, high school refusal behavior, moderately low school refusal behavior, and moderately high school refusal behavior. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) indicated that adolescents’ with the profile of high school refusal behavior showed higher scores in all the subscales of social anxiety. In contrast, the non-school refusal behavior group revealed higher scores in the perception of good family functioning, whereas the high school refusal behavior profile obtained the lowest scores in this scale. These findings suggest that students who reject school are at a higher risk of developing social anxiety problems and manifesting family conflicts. These students should be prioritized in order to attend to their needs, promoting self-help to overcome social anxiety and family problems with the purpose of preventing school refusal behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Development of Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3690; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193690 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
Despite the importance of subjective well-being (SWB) for students’ mental and physical health, there is a lack of longitudinal studies investigating the development of SWB in adolescents and what factors are associated with it over time. The present study seeks to shed further [...] Read more.
Despite the importance of subjective well-being (SWB) for students’ mental and physical health, there is a lack of longitudinal studies investigating the development of SWB in adolescents and what factors are associated with it over time. The present study seeks to shed further light on this question by investigating adolescents longitudinally. A sample of German academic tracks students (N = 476) from five schools were followed longitudinally over a time period of 30 months with four measurement points from Grade 11 to Grade 13. Alongside the longitudinal assessment of SWB (mood and life satisfaction), a range of other factors were also assessed at t1 including; demographic factors (sex, age, socio-economic status (HISEI)), intelligence, grades (report cards provided by the schools), personality (neuroticism, extraversion) and perceived parental expectations and support. Latent growth curve models were conducted to investigate the development of SWB and its correlates. On average, mood and life satisfaction improved at the end of mandatory schooling. However, students significantly differed in this pattern of change. Students’ life satisfaction developed more positively if students had good grades at t1. Furthermore, even though introverted students started with lower life satisfaction at t1, extraverts’ life showed greater increases over time. Changes in mood were associated with socio-economic background; the higher the HISEI the more positive the change. As social comparisons in school performance are almost inevitable, schools should intervene to buffer the influence of school grades on students’ SWB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Are Adolescent Religious Attendance/Spirituality Associated with Family Characteristics?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2947; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16162947 - 16 Aug 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
The family environment is associated with religiosity and spirituality as well as many aspects of adolescent lives, including their health behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess family environment associations with adolescent religious attendance (RA), i.e., weekly participation in religious [...] Read more.
The family environment is associated with religiosity and spirituality as well as many aspects of adolescent lives, including their health behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess family environment associations with adolescent religious attendance (RA), i.e., weekly participation in religious services, and spirituality in a highly secular country. A nationally representative sample (n = 4182, 14.4 ± 1.1 years, 48.6% boys) of Czech adolescents participated in the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. RA, spirituality and the family environment, i.e., family communication, perceived emotional support, and parental monitoring, were measured. Higher adolescent RA was associated with lower self-reported easiness of communication with mother (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68; 99% confidence interval (99% CI) = 0.47–0.99; p < 0.01). In contrast, spiritual respondents were more likely to report both easier communication with their father (OR per standard deviation (SD) change = 1.12, 99% CI 1.02–1.23; p < 0.01) and mother (OR per SD change = 1.38 (1.23–1.55); p < 0.001) and higher perceived emotional support (OR per SD change = 1.73 (1.55–1.92); p < 0.001). Parents of respondents who attended religious services at least once a week, as well as parents of spiritual respondents, were generally more likely to monitor adolescent behaviour. Thus, this study provides information for parents, mental health workers, and pastoral carers. Further research should assess the association of a lower easiness of family communication with dissonances in adolescent–parent religiosity/spirituality and with higher parental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Article
Disparities in Height and Urban Social Stratification in the First Half of the 20th Century in Madrid (Spain)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2048; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16112048 - 10 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Adult height is the most commonly used biological indicator to evaluate material and emotional conditions in which people grew up, allowing the analysis of secular trends associated with socio-economic change as well as of social inequalities among human populations. There is a lack [...] Read more.
Adult height is the most commonly used biological indicator to evaluate material and emotional conditions in which people grew up, allowing the analysis of secular trends associated with socio-economic change as well as of social inequalities among human populations. There is a lack of studies on both aspects regarding urban populations. Our study evaluates the secular trends and the disparities in height of conscripts born between 1915 and 1953 and called-up at the age of 21 between 1936 and 1969, living in districts with low versus middle and high socio-economic conditions, in the city of Madrid, Spain. We test the hypothesis that urban spatial segregation and social stratification was associated with significant differences in height. Results show that height increased significantly during the analysed period, both among conscripts living in the middle- and upper-class districts (5.85 cm) and in the lower-class districts (6.75 cm). The positive secular trend in height among conscripts from middle- and upper-class districts was sustained throughout the period, but the trend in height among the lower class fluctuated according to social, political, and economic events. Our findings support previous research that adult height is influenced strongly by the family living conditions during infancy and by community effects acting during childhood and adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Parenting and Healthy Teenage Lifestyles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5428; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155428 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
How can one promote adolescent adjustment toward a healthy lifestyle? The first step is to locate the healthy habit configuration within the family environment. The hypothesis is that, if adolescent lifestyles are assumed autonomously during adolescence, then it is very likely that they [...] Read more.
How can one promote adolescent adjustment toward a healthy lifestyle? The first step is to locate the healthy habit configuration within the family environment. The hypothesis is that, if adolescent lifestyles are assumed autonomously during adolescence, then it is very likely that they will last throughout life. How does this relate to parenting styles? After reviewing the literature of the last four decades on adolescent behavioral autonomy and scientific articles that link healthy lifestyles with parenting, several conclusions have been reached, such as the relevance of recovering the biopsychosocial richness of healthy lifestyles, the need to use a dialogue strategy to resolve discrepancies between adolescents and their parents, and the adequacy of the personalistic parenting style to promote adjusted adolescent behavioral autonomy, and with it maintain healthy lifestyles in the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
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