Special Issue "Body Composition in Sports and Health"

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Marcos Maynar Mariño
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Physiology department, University of Extremadura, Plaza de Caldereros, s/n. Edificio Rectorado 10003 Cáceres, Spain
Interests: exercise physiology; oxidative stress; lipids, steroids; performance analysis; health; trace elements
Prof. Dr. Armando de Mendoça Raimundo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sport and Health, School of Health and Human Development, University of Évora, 7000-812 Évora, Portugal
Interests: body composition; physical activity; exercise; health; sport performance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The body composition of individuals plays a role of great importance in both sports performance and health status. Therefore, its assessment is of great importance to assess both the level of fitness in a person and to see the possible deterioration in the health of the individual.

In sports performance, it is beyond doubt that each sports activity has an ideal body composition for its practice, so coaches and physical trainers place special interest in its evaluation and adjustment.

Regarding health, the relationship between different pathologies such as cardiovascular, metabolic, bone, or endocrine diseases and the body composition of the individual is known.

Therefore, we are interested in compiling research whose main focus is body composition, sports performance, and the various pathologies related to it.

Prof. Dr. Marcos Maynar Mariño
Dr. Diego Muñoz Marín
Prof. Dr. Armando de Mendoça Raimundo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • exercise
  • training
  • sports performance
  • heat
  • obesity
  • sarcopenia
  • cardiovascular disease
  • osteoporosis

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Skeletal Muscle Mass and Higher-Level Functional Capacity in Female Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6692; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136692 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Purpose: In this study, our purpose was to examine the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and higher-level functional capacity in female community-dwelling older adults. Participant(s) and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we targeted 55 female community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and above [...] Read more.
Purpose: In this study, our purpose was to examine the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and higher-level functional capacity in female community-dwelling older adults. Participant(s) and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we targeted 55 female community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and above participating in long-term care prevention classes in Ibaraki Prefecture between 2018 and 2020. We excluded individuals with cognitive impairment and those judged as having sarcopenia. The variables of interest included age, height, weight, body mass index, skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), handgrip strength, step count, and family structure. We calculated the SMI by dividing the extremities’ total lean mass by the square of the height (in m), while the number of steps was calculated using the three-axis accelerometer Actigraph GT3X®. We measured skeletal muscle mass via bioelectrical impedance analysis using the InBody270 body composition analyzer and muscular strength as grip strength. Results: We observed significant relationships between skeletal muscle mass and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) (β = 0.336, p < 0.01) and handgrip strength (β = 0.230). Conclusion: In this study, a relationship between skeletal muscle mass and higher-level functional capacity was demonstrated among elderly female community residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Composition in Sports and Health)
Article
Body Composition in Elite Soccer Players from Youth to Senior Squad
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4982; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094982 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
There is a strong relationship between body composition and performance in male soccer players. This study aimed to display an optimal body height and weight, and body composition profile of male soccer players for four competitive age groups. This cross-sectional study included four [...] Read more.
There is a strong relationship between body composition and performance in male soccer players. This study aimed to display an optimal body height and weight, and body composition profile of male soccer players for four competitive age groups. This cross-sectional study included four groups: U-15 (n = 152), U-17 (n = 154), U-19 (n = 61), and seniors (n = 27). Body height and weight were measured under standard conditions, and the bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA) analyzed body composition. On average, soccer players in the U-15 group had significantly lower body height, weight, body mass index, skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass, total body water and basal metabolic rate than U-17, U-19 and seniors, but a higher percentage of body fat than U-17 and U-19, p < 0.05. In addition, the results show significant non-linear increases in body height, weight and body composition as the age of soccer players increases, with the exception of the percentage of body fat mass, which tends to significantly decrease with age. The main findings of this study are that body fat mass remains stable and similar across all age groups, including in the senior squad. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Composition in Sports and Health)
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Article
Effects of Twelve Sessions of High-Temperature Sauna Baths on Body Composition in Healthy Young Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4458; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094458 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 662
Abstract
The health benefits of sauna baths are attracting ever-increasing interest. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 12 high-temperature (100 °C) sauna baths on body composition of 23 healthy young men, divided into a control group (CG) and [...] Read more.
The health benefits of sauna baths are attracting ever-increasing interest. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 12 high-temperature (100 °C) sauna baths on body composition of 23 healthy young men, divided into a control group (CG) and a sauna group (SG). Both groups were initially evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), after which the SG experienced 12 sessions of sauna baths at high temperatures (100 °C). Initial measurements were carried out after the sauna sessions and after two weeks of decay in both groups. The muscle mass of the right leg (pre vs. decay: 9.50 (5.59) vs. 10.52 (5.15); p < 0.05; Δ 1.07%), bone mineral density (pre vs. post: 1.221 (0.35) vs. 1.315 (0.45); p < 0.05; Δ 7.7%) and bone mineral content (pre vs. post: 0.470 (0.21) vs. 0.499 (0.22); p < 0.05; Δ 6.17%) of the left leg increased in the SG after the sauna baths. It seems that exposure to heat at high temperatures could produce improvements in bone and muscle mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Composition in Sports and Health)
Article
Benefits of Regular Table Tennis Practice in Body Composition and Physical Fitness Compared to Physically Active Children Aged 10–11 Years
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2854; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18062854 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the differences in body composition and physical fitness between children who played table tennis regularly during a two-year period compared to physically active children who were not engaged in a regular activity. Three hundred seventy-four [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify the differences in body composition and physical fitness between children who played table tennis regularly during a two-year period compared to physically active children who were not engaged in a regular activity. Three hundred seventy-four children aged 10 to 11 years were divided into two groups: table tennis players (n = 109 boys and 73 girls) and physically active group (n = 88 boys and 104 girls). Anthropometric analysis included body mass index, skinfolds, perimeters and bone diameters. Somatotype and body composition were determined according to age-specific equations. Physical fitness assessment included hand grip dynamometry (strength), sit-and-reach test (range of movement) and maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test (cardiovascular fitness). The result show that children who regularly played table tennis had greater bone development and superior physical fitness compared to those who were physically active but not engaged in a regular physical activity. This is the largest study to date presenting data about the potential of table tennis to benefit health in children. These results constitute an important first step in clarifying the effectiveness of table tennis as a health-promotion strategy to encourage children to undertake regular physical activity and limit sedentary behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Composition in Sports and Health)
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Article
Changes in Anthropometric and Performance Parameters in High-Level Endurance Athletes during a Sports Season
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2782; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18052782 - 09 Mar 2021
Viewed by 796
Abstract
Several anthropometric and performance parameters related to aerobic metabolism are associated with performance in endurance runners and are modified according to the training performed. The objective of this study was to investigate the ergospirometric and body composition changes in endurance runners during a [...] Read more.
Several anthropometric and performance parameters related to aerobic metabolism are associated with performance in endurance runners and are modified according to the training performed. The objective of this study was to investigate the ergospirometric and body composition changes in endurance runners during a sports season in relation to their training. Twenty highly trained men endurance runners performed an incremental test until exhaustion (initial, and at 3, 6, and 9 months) on a treadmill to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), second ventilatory threshold (VT2), and their associated running speeds. Skinfolds, perimeters, and weights were measured. No changes were obtained in VO2 max or VT2 during the study, although their associated running speeds increased (p < 0.05) after 3 months of the study. Decreases in fat mass (p < 0.05) and muscle mass (p < 0.05) were observed at the end of the season (9 months). Changes occurred in the different skinfolds according to the characteristics of the training performed during the season. In conclusion, vVO2 max and vVT2 increase with a greater volume of kilometres trained and can be adversely affected by loss of muscle mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Composition in Sports and Health)
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Article
Association between Trace Elements and Body Composition Parameters in Endurance Runners
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6563; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186563 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the possible correlations between essential and toxic trace elements of plasma with several anthropometric and body composition parameters and performance in endurance runners. Sixty-five high-level middle and long-distance runners (21  ±  3 years; 1.77 ± 0.05 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the possible correlations between essential and toxic trace elements of plasma with several anthropometric and body composition parameters and performance in endurance runners. Sixty-five high-level middle and long-distance runners (21  ±  3 years; 1.77 ± 0.05 m; 64.97 ± 7.36 kg; VO2 max. 67.55 ± 4.11 mL/min/kg) participated in the present study. Abdominal, subscapular, iliac crest, triceps, front thigh and medial calf skinfold thicknesses and an incremental test until exhaustion were recorded. Body, fat, muscle and bone mass were estimated. Plasma trace elements were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Correlations and simple linear regression were used to assess the relationship between trace elements and several variables. Different skinfolds, fat mass, muscle mass and bone mass correlated positively and negatively with trace elements such as copper, manganese, selenium, vanadium, zinc, lithium, rubidium, strontium, arsenic, beryllium and lead. Lithium was related with performance. In conclusion, endurance training causes changes in the body concentrations of several trace elements that trigger modifications in body composition that may be interesting, if confirmed in the future, for the control of metabolic diseases such as obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Composition in Sports and Health)
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