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Special Issue "Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (6 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jason K. Levy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management, University of Hawaii, Kapolei, HI 96707, USA
Interests: disaster risk governance; sustainable hazard mitigation; emergency management decision making; natural–technological (na–tech) crises; health-related emergencies; fluvial and marine disasters; global climate change
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Geohazards (geologic hazards) are a growing menace to public health. There are a wide variety of geological or hydrological processes that pose a critical threat to health facilities and other health-related critical infrastructure, as well as to human health and the property of citizens. Every year, severe natural events damage critical infrastructure and cause injuries and even deaths. Potentially hazardous geo-processes include volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, mudflows, sinkholes, snow avalanches, flooding, and tsunamis.

While human activities can exacerbate geologic risks, there are new set of tools in the big data era that that can help to reduce the impact of geohazards. For example, there are machine learning tools, statistical approaches that capitalize on the ubiquity of health data sets, as well as advances in remote sensing, global position systems and GIS. These solutions also provide new opportunities for the analysis and management of geohazards, human health and disaster risks.

Prof. Jason K. Levy
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • earthquakes
  • human health
  • statisics
  • GIS
  • geohazards

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Article
Relief Demand Calculation in Humanitarian Logistics Using Material Classification
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 582; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17020582 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Demand calculation, which is the base of most logistics decisions and activities, is a critical work in humanitarian logistics (HL). However, previous studies on demand calculation in HL mainly focus on demand forecasting methodology, with many neglecting the checklist of critical supplies and [...] Read more.
Demand calculation, which is the base of most logistics decisions and activities, is a critical work in humanitarian logistics (HL). However, previous studies on demand calculation in HL mainly focus on demand forecasting methodology, with many neglecting the checklist of critical supplies and practice background. This work proposes a new method for relief demand calculation by dividing the process into two parts: supply classification and demand calculation. A general method for classifying relief supplies and clarifying the checklist of relief items for multi-disaster and multiple natural scenarios is given in detail, followed by the procedure of demand calculation for each relief material. The authors present a case study to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method based on the disaster response practice in China. Detailed lists of relief demand for different types and severities of disaster are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Historical Typhoon Search Engine Based on Track Similarity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4879; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16244879 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
The potential effect of a typhoon track on the extent of damage makes the track a critical factor during the emergency response phase. Historical typhoon data may provide information for decision makers to anticipate the impact of an upcoming typhoon and develop prevention [...] Read more.
The potential effect of a typhoon track on the extent of damage makes the track a critical factor during the emergency response phase. Historical typhoon data may provide information for decision makers to anticipate the impact of an upcoming typhoon and develop prevention strategies to reduce the damage. In our preliminary work, we proposed a track similarity algorithm and implemented a real-time search engine for past typhoon events. However, the proposed algorithm was not discussed thoroughly in the preliminary work, and the great number of historical typhoon track records slowed down the similarity calculations. In addition, the tool did not feature the option of automatically importing upcoming typhoon track predictions. This research introduces the assumption of the recentness dominance principle (RDP), explores the details of the track similarity algorithm of the preliminary work, completes the discussion of parameter setting, and developed a method to improve the efficiency of the similarity calculation. In this research, we implemented the proposed advanced methodology by developing a new information display panel featuring the ability to auto-import forecast data. The results of this study provide decision makers and the public with a concise and handy search engine for searching similar historical typhoon records. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Disaster Chain Analysis of Avalanche and Landslide and the River Blocking Dam of the Yarlung Zangbo River in Milin County of Tibet on 17 and 29 October 2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4707; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16234707 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
As a “starting zone” and “amplifier” of global climate change, the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau is very responsive to climate change. The global temperature rise has led directly to an acceleration of glacial melting in the plateau and various glacier avalanche disasters have frequently occurred. [...] Read more.
As a “starting zone” and “amplifier” of global climate change, the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau is very responsive to climate change. The global temperature rise has led directly to an acceleration of glacial melting in the plateau and various glacier avalanche disasters have frequently occurred. The landslide caused by glacier avalanches will damage the surrounding environment, causing secondary disasters and a disaster chain effect. Take the disaster chain of the Yarlung Zangbo River at Milin County in Tibet on 17 and 29 October 2018 as an example; a formation mechanical model was proposed. The evolution mechanism for the chain of events is as follows: glacial melt → loose moraine deposit → migration along the steep erosion groove resulting in glacier clastic deposition then debris flow → formation of the dam plug to block the river → the dammed lake. This sequence of events is of great significance for understanding the developmental trends for future avalanches, landslides, and river blocking dam disasters, and for disaster prevention planning and mitigation in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Risk Propagation Model and Its Simulation of Emergency Logistics Network Based on Material Reliability
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4677; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16234677 - 23 Nov 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
Emergency logistics plays an important role in the rescue process after sudden disasters. However, in the process of emergency logistics activities, risks may arise due to scheduling problems or insufficient supply of warehouse stocks, resulting in an insufficient rescue capacity. In addition, the [...] Read more.
Emergency logistics plays an important role in the rescue process after sudden disasters. However, in the process of emergency logistics activities, risks may arise due to scheduling problems or insufficient supply of warehouse stocks, resulting in an insufficient rescue capacity. In addition, the risk of emergency logistics is random and may exist in a certain link or throughout the whole rescue process of emergency logistics. Consequently, the disaster site may be invaded by sudden disaster risk due to the lack of necessary material supplies. The entire emergency logistics system may be destroyed and cause even greater losses as well. Based on this phenomenon, this paper introduces reliability factors of materials and combines the complex network theory to build an emergency logistics network and analyze the emergency logistics risk propagation mechanism. This paper firstly builds an emergency logistics network based on complex network theory. Then, it combines the improved epidemic model to analyze the influencing factors of risk propagation in the emergency logistics network. Finally, this paper probes into the emergency logistics risk propagation mechanisms and processes in terms of network type, material reliability, rescue speed, etc. Furthermore, this paper identifies key factors for risk control and proposes countermeasures to further spread risks, thereby reducing the risk to loss of economic life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Local Governments’ Disaster Emergency Communication and Information Collection for Nutrition Assistance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4617; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16234617 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
We examined local governments’ disaster emergency communication and information collection and distribution systems. Postal surveys were conducted for all prefectures, cities with public health centers, and specified districts in Tokyo Metropolis in 2005 and 2013. Municipalities were included in the 2013 survey only. [...] Read more.
We examined local governments’ disaster emergency communication and information collection and distribution systems. Postal surveys were conducted for all prefectures, cities with public health centers, and specified districts in Tokyo Metropolis in 2005 and 2013. Municipalities were included in the 2013 survey only. The response rate for the 2013 survey was 71.2% (n = 1272). Thirty-six prefectures, 41 cities with health centers, and 16 specified districts in Tokyo Metropolis answered both surveys. A majority of respondents (88.8% in 2005 and 92.1% in 2013) of respondents reported that disaster management radio broadcasting was written into their local disaster management plans, guidelines, or manuals as the main communication tool. The proportion of respondents using computer networks (41.6–60.7%) and cell phones (email) (40.4–62.9%) had significantly increased between the surveys. It was also found that municipalities that had been previously affected by disasters (39.6%) were more likely to have systems to collect information from shelters and affected communities than those without any experience (24.3%), and prefectures that had been previously affected by disasters were more likely to have food supply damage reporting systems (36.4%) than those without such experience (3.3%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
Article
Earthquake Disaster Risk Perception Process Model for Rural Households: A Pilot Study from Southwestern China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4512; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16224512 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
There are many important factors to consider when creating robust, regional disaster prevention systems. These include rural households’ knowledge and reported skills of earthquake disasters, disaster risk perception, awareness of disaster risk reduction, willingness to purchase insurance, and willingness to relocate to avoid [...] Read more.
There are many important factors to consider when creating robust, regional disaster prevention systems. These include rural households’ knowledge and reported skills of earthquake disasters, disaster risk perception, awareness of disaster risk reduction, willingness to purchase insurance, and willingness to relocate to avoid disasters. However, few empirical studies have systematically established the theoretical research frameworks to analyze these factors. This study analyzed the data sampled from 241 rural households located in counties affected by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. A theoretical model was designed to investigate rural households’ disaster risk perception and used path analysis to systematically analyze the mechanism of the factors stated above. The results showed that 53.11% of rural households had a stronger willingness to purchase disease insurance and 72.19% had a stronger willingness to relocate to avoid disasters. Risk perception, knowledge and reported skills, and awareness of disaster risk reduction were significantly correlated with a willingness to purchase disaster insurance. Risk perception and awareness of disaster risk reduction were significantly positively correlated with a willingness to relocate to avoid disasters. Knowledge and reported skills indirectly affected the willingness to purchase insurance and the willingness to relocate to avoid disasters through risk perception and awareness of disaster risk reduction. Risk perception could indirectly affect the willingness to purchase insurance and the willingness to relocate to avoid disasters through awareness of disaster risk reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Monitoring Differential Subsidence along the Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Railway with Multiband SAR Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4453; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16224453 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
High-speed railways have strict standards of infrastructure deformation and post-construction settlement. The interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has the ability to detect ground deformation with a high accuracy and wide coverage and is becoming a useful tool for monitoring railway health. In this [...] Read more.
High-speed railways have strict standards of infrastructure deformation and post-construction settlement. The interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has the ability to detect ground deformation with a high accuracy and wide coverage and is becoming a useful tool for monitoring railway health. In this study, we analyzed the Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Railway (BTIR) track using InSAR time-series analysis with different data sets. First, by using RADARSAT-2 images, we examined the areas along the BTIR with significant subsidence. Then, we characterized these areas by means of X-band TerraSAR-X data. We adopted the expectation (Ex) and entropy (En) method, combined with GIS spatial analysis, to analyze the ground settlement differences on both sides of the railway. The results show that the area with the most severe differential settlement occurs between 12 and 20 km along the railway and within 120 to 20 m on both sides of the Chaoyang–Tongzhou section (CTS). Thereafter, we analyzed the reasons for the large difference in this area by considering different factors, e.g., regional land subsidence, groundwater level changes, and the dynamic load. In addition, we studied the impact of regional subsidence on the safe operation of the BTIR. The results show that the maximum different settlement along the BTIR is within the safe range, according to the high-speed railway design standard between 2010 and 2015. This study aims to provide technical support for assessing the impact of subsidence on the safety of railway operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
On Dam-Break Flow Routing in Confluent Channels
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16224384 - 09 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
The flood propagation at a confluence of channels exhibits a unique routing pattern, while there are few studies on the routing of dam-break flow in confluent channels. In this study, we conducted physical experiments and a numerical simulation to investigate the influence of [...] Read more.
The flood propagation at a confluence of channels exhibits a unique routing pattern, while there are few studies on the routing of dam-break flow in confluent channels. In this study, we conducted physical experiments and a numerical simulation to investigate the influence of different confluence angles on the routing of a dam-break flood. Experiments were carried out in smooth, transparent, rectangular prismatic channels to study the dam-break flow under four different confluence angles. The flow velocity was measured using an image processing technique, and the surface flow field was effectively captured by synchronously recording the particle motion images. Based on the variation of the water level and flow discharge, as the confluence angle increased, the retardation and abatement effects on the flood increased. Specifically, the flood arrival time was delayed by approximately 0.91% to 21.18%, and the peak flood discharge was reduced by approximately 9.05% to 58.36%. Combined with the surface flow field at the confluence and in the downstream sections, as the confluence angle increased, the impact points at the confluence and in the downstream straight sections moved upward, and the impact range was reduced. Combined with the pressure variation pattern, the routing of dam-break flow in the confluent channels experienced a process of impact-reflection-return-attenuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Inversion of Wind-Stress Drag Coefficient in Simulating Storm Surges by Means of Regularization Technique
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3591; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193591 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
In this study, water levels observed at tide stations in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea during Typhoons 7203 and 8509 were assimilated into a numerical assimilation storm surge model combined with regularization technique to study the wind-stress drag coefficient. [...] Read more.
In this study, water levels observed at tide stations in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea during Typhoons 7203 and 8509 were assimilated into a numerical assimilation storm surge model combined with regularization technique to study the wind-stress drag coefficient. The Tikhonov regularization technique with different regularization parameters was tested during the assimilation. Using the regularization technique, the storm surge elevations were successfully simulated in the whole sea areas during Typhoons 7203 and 8509. The storm surge elevations calculated with the regularization technique and the elevations calculated with independent point method were separately compared with the observed data. Comparison results demonstrated that the former was closer to the observed data. The regularization technique had the best performance when the regularization parameter was 100. The spatial distribution of the inverted drag coefficient, storm surge elevations, and the wind fields during both typhoons were presented. Simulated results indicated that the change of drag coefficient is more significant in the coastal regions of the Bohai Sea and north of the Yellow Sea. Further analysis showed that the rising water elevation in the Bohai Sea is mostly attributed to the influence of onshore winds, and the negative storm surge in the South Yellow Sea is mainly caused by offshore winds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Financial Preparation, Disaster Experience, and Disaster Risk Perception of Rural Households in Earthquake-Stricken Areas: Evidence From the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes in China’s Sichuan Province
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3345; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16183345 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Sichuan is a province in Southwest China that is famous worldwide for its earthquakes. However, few quantitative studies in China have probed the correlations between rural households’ financial preparation, disaster experience, and disaster-risk perception. Using survey data of 327 rural households from four [...] Read more.
Sichuan is a province in Southwest China that is famous worldwide for its earthquakes. However, few quantitative studies in China have probed the correlations between rural households’ financial preparation, disaster experience, and disaster-risk perception. Using survey data of 327 rural households from four areas stricken by the Wenchuan Earthquake and Lushan Earthquake in Sichuan, the ordinary least square (OLS) method was used to quantitatively explore the correlations between these three factors. The results show that rural households’ total family cash income, asset diversity, and whether rural households can borrow money from relatives and friends whenever there is a catastrophe such as an earthquake are significantly negatively correlated with the probability of disaster occurrence. Asset diversity and whether rural households can borrow money from banks whenever there is a catastrophe such as an earthquake are significantly positively related to the severity of disaster occurrence. The severity of residents’ disaster experience is not significantly correlated with the probability of disaster occurrence, but is significantly positively related to the severity of the disaster. The research results can provide useful enlightenment for the improvement of financial preparedness and disaster risk management for rural households in earthquake-stricken areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
Article
Risk Assessment of An Earthquake-Collapse-Landslide Disaster Chain by Bayesian Network and Newmark Models
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3330; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16183330 - 10 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Severe natural disasters and related secondary disasters are a huge menace to society. Currently, it is difficult to identify risk formation mechanisms and quantitatively evaluate the risks associated with disaster chains; thus, there is a need to further develop relevant risk assessment methods. [...] Read more.
Severe natural disasters and related secondary disasters are a huge menace to society. Currently, it is difficult to identify risk formation mechanisms and quantitatively evaluate the risks associated with disaster chains; thus, there is a need to further develop relevant risk assessment methods. In this research, we propose an earthquake disaster chain risk evaluation method that couples Bayesian network and Newmark models that are based on natural hazard risk formation theory with the aim of identifying the influence of earthquake disaster chains. This new method effectively considers two risk elements: hazard and vulnerability, and hazard analysis, which includes chain probability analysis and hazard intensity analysis. The chain probability of adjacent disasters was obtained from the Bayesian network model, and the permanent displacement that was applied to represent the potential hazard intensity was calculated by the Newmark model. To validate the method, the Changbai Mountain volcano earthquake–collapse–landslide disaster chain was selected as a case study. The risk assessment results showed that the high-and medium-risk zones were predominantly located within a 10 km radius of Tianchi, and that other regions within the study area were mainly associated with very low-to low-risk values. The verified results of the reported method showed that the area of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.817, which indicates that the method is very effective for earthquake disaster chain risk recognition and assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Drought Variability Using CWSI in the Koshi River Basin (KRB)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16173100 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Drought is one of the most frequent meteorological disasters, and has exerted significant impacts on the livelihoods and economy of the Koshi River Basin (KRB). In this study, we assessed drought patterns using the Crop Water Shortage Index (CWSI) based on the MOD16 [...] Read more.
Drought is one of the most frequent meteorological disasters, and has exerted significant impacts on the livelihoods and economy of the Koshi River Basin (KRB). In this study, we assessed drought patterns using the Crop Water Shortage Index (CWSI) based on the MOD16 product for the period between 2000 and 2014. The results revealed that the CWSI based on the MOD16 product can be act as an indicator to monitor the characteristics of the drought. Significant spatial heterogeneity of drought was observed in the basin, with higher CWSI values downstream and upstream than in the midstream. The midstream of the KRB was dominated by light drought, moderate drought occurred in the upstream, and the downstream was characterized by severe drought. The monthly CWSI during one year in KRB showed the higher CWSI between March to May (pre-monsoon) and October to December (post-monsoon) rather than June to September (monsoon), and the highest was observed in the month of April, suggesting that precipitation plays the most important role in the mitigation of CWSI. Additionally, the downstream and midstream showed a higher variation of drought compared to the upstream in the basin. This research indicates that the downstream suffered severe drought due to seasonal water shortages, especially during the pre-monsoon, and water-related infrastructure should be implemented to mitigate losses caused by drought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
An Empirical Study on the Influence Path of Environmental Risk Perception on Behavioral Responses In China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2856; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16162856 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
In recent years, the outbreak of numerous environmental risk incidents aroused widespread public concern about the amplification mechanism of environmental risk in China. However, few studies have investigated the influence path of environmental risk perception on behavioral responses in Chinese context from a [...] Read more.
In recent years, the outbreak of numerous environmental risk incidents aroused widespread public concern about the amplification mechanism of environmental risk in China. However, few studies have investigated the influence path of environmental risk perception on behavioral responses in Chinese context from a micro perspective. In this article, we develop a multidimensional path model from environmental risk perception to behavioral responses, which aims to investigate how the public’s environmental risk perception influence its different behavioral responses, including environmental radical behavior, environmental concern behavior and environmental protection behavior. A survey data from Chinese General Social Survey 2013 (CGSS2013), was used to test the model, including questions related to information channel (e.g., media use, interpersonal network), cognitive evaluation (e.g., environmental value, public’s evaluation of environmental governance) and environmental knowledge. The results indicate that both information channel factors and cognitive evaluation factors can significantly influence the progress that from environmental risk perception to behavioral responses, of which both media use and environmental value play the amplification role in the transform process, while interpersonal network and public’s evaluation of environmental governance would inhibit public’s risk perception transforming into environmental behavior. Besides, environmental knowledge displays a key bridge role between information channel factors and cognitive evaluation factors. This research findings also demonstrated the evolution paths of three environmental behaviors under the same level of risk perception, namely, risk transformation and diffusion, risk perception enhancement and risk attenuation respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
An Optimization-Based Approach to Social Network Group Decision Making with an Application to Earthquake Shelter-Site Selection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2740; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152740 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
The social network has emerged as an essential component in group decision making (GDM) problems. Thus, this paper investigates the social network GDM (SNGDM) problem and assumes that decision makers offer their preferences utilizing additive preference relations (also called fuzzy preference relations). An [...] Read more.
The social network has emerged as an essential component in group decision making (GDM) problems. Thus, this paper investigates the social network GDM (SNGDM) problem and assumes that decision makers offer their preferences utilizing additive preference relations (also called fuzzy preference relations). An optimization-based approach is devised to generate the weights of decision makers by combining two reliable resources: in-degree centrality indexes and consistency indexes. Based on the obtained weights of decision makers, the individual additive preference relations are aggregated into a collective additive preference relation. Further, the alternatives are ranked from best to worst according to the obtained collective additive preference relation. Moreover, earthquakes have occurred frequently around the world in recent years, causing great loss of life and property. Earthquake shelters offer safety, security, climate protection, and resistance to disease and ill health and are thus vital for disaster-affected people. Selection of a suitable site for locating shelters from potential alternatives is of critical importance, which can be seen as a GDM problem. When selecting a suitable earthquake shelter-site, the social trust relationships among disaster management experts should not be ignored. To this end, the proposed SNGDM model is applied to evaluate and select earthquake shelter-sites to show its effectiveness. In summary, this paper constructs a novel GDM framework by taking the social trust relationship into account, which can provide a scientific basis for public emergency management in the major disasters field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
The Solidification of Lead-Zinc Smelting Slag through Bentonite Supported Alkali-Activated Slag Cementitious Material
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16071121 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
The proper disposal of Lead-Zinc Smelting Slag (LZSS) having toxic metals is a great challenge for a sustainable environment. In the present study, this challenge was overcome by its solidification/stabilization through alkali-activated cementitious material i.e., Blast Furnace Slag (BFS). The different parameters (water [...] Read more.
The proper disposal of Lead-Zinc Smelting Slag (LZSS) having toxic metals is a great challenge for a sustainable environment. In the present study, this challenge was overcome by its solidification/stabilization through alkali-activated cementitious material i.e., Blast Furnace Slag (BFS). The different parameters (water glass modulus, liquid-solid ratio and curing temperature) regarding strength development were optimized through single factor and orthogonal experiments. The LZSS was solidified in samples that had the highest compressive strength (after factor optimization) synthesized with (AASB) and without (AAS) bentonite as an adsorbent material. The results indicated that the highest compressive strength (AAS = 92.89MPa and AASB = 94.57MPa) was observed in samples which were prepared by using a water glass modulus of 1.4, liquid-solid ratio of 0.26 and a curing temperature of 25 °C. The leaching concentrations of Pb and Zn in both methods (sulfuric and nitric acid, and TCLP) had not exceeded the toxicity limits up to 70% addition of LZSS due to a higher compressive strength (>60 MPa) of AAS and AASB samples. While, leaching concentrations in AASB samples were lower than AAS. Conclusively, it was found that the solidification effect depends upon the composition of binder material, type of leaching extractant, nature and concentration of heavy metals in waste. The XRD, FTIR and SEM analyses confirmed that the solidification mechanism was carried out by both physical encapsulation and chemical fixation (dissolved into a crystal structure). Additionally, bentonite as an auxiliary additive significantly improved the solidification/stabilization of LZSS in AASB by enhancing the chemical adsorption capacity of heavy metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Optimizing the Predictive Ability of Machine Learning Methods for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using SMOTE for Lishui City in Zhejiang Province, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 368; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030368 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
The main goal of this study was to use the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) to expand the quantity of landslide samples for machine learning methods (i.e., support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression (LR), artificial neural network (ANN), and random forest (RF)) to [...] Read more.
The main goal of this study was to use the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) to expand the quantity of landslide samples for machine learning methods (i.e., support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression (LR), artificial neural network (ANN), and random forest (RF)) to produce high-quality landslide susceptibility maps for Lishui City in Zhejiang Province, China. Landslide-related factors were extracted from topographic maps, geological maps, and satellite images. Twelve factors were selected as independent variables using correlation coefficient analysis and the neighborhood rough set (NRS) method. In total, 288 soil landslides were mapped using field surveys, historical records, and satellite images. The landslides were randomly divided into two datasets: 70% of all landslides were selected as the original training dataset and 30% were used for validation. Then, SMOTE was employed to generate datasets with sizes ranging from two to thirty times that of the training dataset to establish and compare the four machine learning methods for landslide susceptibility mapping. In addition, we used slope units to subdivide the terrain to determine the landslide susceptibility. Finally, the landslide susceptibility maps were validated using statistical indexes and the area under the curve (AUC). The results indicated that the performances of the four machine learning methods showed different levels of improvement as the sample sizes increased. The RF model exhibited a more substantial improvement (AUC improved by 24.12%) than did the ANN (18.94%), SVM (17.77%), and LR (3.00%) models. Furthermore, the ANN model achieved the highest predictive ability (AUC = 0.98), followed by the RF (AUC = 0.96), SVM (AUC = 0.94), and LR (AUC = 0.79) models. This approach significantly improves the performance of machine learning techniques for landslide susceptibility mapping, thereby providing a better tool for reducing the impacts of landslide disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Flood Risk Evaluation in Urban Spaces: The Study Case of Tormes River (Salamanca, Spain)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16010005 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2339
Abstract
The expansion of cities towards flood zones, and the increasingly frequent episodes of torrential rains arising from global warming, mean that the population is becoming more exposed to floods. Due to this, a correct assessment of flood events is of great help in [...] Read more.
The expansion of cities towards flood zones, and the increasingly frequent episodes of torrential rains arising from global warming, mean that the population is becoming more exposed to floods. Due to this, a correct assessment of flood events is of great help in the development of preventive actions, planning and resource management, or interventions. For this reason, in this work we aim to establish guidelines to assess the hazard, exposure, and vulnerability of the population and its properties to flood events, using Hec-Ras for the simulation of the flood and ArcGis and GeoHecRas to treat geographic information and prepare the cartography. The study was focused on the Tormes River in Salamanca (Spain). We studied three return periods with different probabilities of occurrence and intensity, corresponding to 5, 100, and 500 years. The flow corresponding to each episode was calculated, along with the extension, speed, and depth that would be achieved in each case. Then, the probability of occurrence was delimited, as well as the magnitude, allowing us to obtain different hazard maps. In addition, the areas of greatest hazard to people and property were established for each event. Regarding the exposure, the areas and land use, infrastructure, and buildings that would be flooded in each case were identified, quantifying the extension or length of the affected properties at the different levels of hazard in each case. Additionally, the vulnerability of the different buildings and exposed infrastructure was studied. Finally, the flood risk was estimated by combining these three components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Article
Hands-On Experience of Crowdsourcing for Flood Risks. An Android Mobile Application Tested in Frederikssund, Denmark
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1926; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091926 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2836
Abstract
There is evidence that the toll of death and destruction caused by natural hazards is rising. This is often ascribed to the impact of climate change that resulted in an increased frequency of extreme meteorological events. As a consequence, it is realistic to [...] Read more.
There is evidence that the toll of death and destruction caused by natural hazards is rising. This is often ascribed to the impact of climate change that resulted in an increased frequency of extreme meteorological events. As a consequence, it is realistic to expect that the casualties and damages caused by floods will increase in the near future. Advanced weather forecast is a fundamental tool to predict the occurrence of floods and structural mitigation measures are crucial for flood protection. However, these strategies should be associate with tools to promote and increase natural-disaster awareness and nonstructural mitigation measures in the exposed population. To bridge this gap, we coupled innovative, ICT-based technologies with crowdsourcing. The idea is to exploit geospatial data gathered by citizens and volunteers with their own devices such as mobile phones to provide authorities with relevant information in case of flood emergencies. This paper describes the design and testing of an Android application named MAppERS (Mobile Applications for Emergency Response and Support), thought to enhance active participation and response of the population in territorial and flood-risk mitigation in Frederikssund, Denmark. The results of the piloting fully validate MAppERS as an effective tool to support the decision-making process during a crisis and to improve the awareness of the community and their disaster resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Review

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Review
Emergency Logistics in a Large-Scale Disaster Context: Achievements and Challenges
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 779; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16050779 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2605
Abstract
There is growing research interest in emergency logistics within the operations research (OR) community. Different from normal business operations, emergency response for large scale disasters is very complex and there are many challenges to deal with. Research on emergency logistics is still in [...] Read more.
There is growing research interest in emergency logistics within the operations research (OR) community. Different from normal business operations, emergency response for large scale disasters is very complex and there are many challenges to deal with. Research on emergency logistics is still in its infancy stage. Understanding the challenges and new research directions is very important. In this paper, we present a literature review of emergency logistics in the context of large-scale disasters. The main contributions of our study include three aspects: First, we identify key characteristics of large-scale disasters and assess their challenges to emergency logistics. Second, we analyze and summarize the current literature on how to deal with these challenges. Finally, we discuss existing gaps in the relevant research and suggest future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)

Other

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Case Report
Land Subsidence Control Zone and Policy for the Environmental Protection of Shanghai
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2729; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152729 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
Land subsidence was once a major geo-hazard in the city of Shanghai, China. From 1921 to 1965, the maximum cumulative land subsidence in the urban areas of China reached 2.6 m. This large subsidence has resulted in high economic losses for Shanghai. The [...] Read more.
Land subsidence was once a major geo-hazard in the city of Shanghai, China. From 1921 to 1965, the maximum cumulative land subsidence in the urban areas of China reached 2.6 m. This large subsidence has resulted in high economic losses for Shanghai. The Regulation of Prevention and Control of Land Subsidence of Shanghai Municipality was published in 2013 (simply cited as the 2013-regulation in the following context). The characteristics of the 2013-regulation included the combination of the subsidence monitoring network and the groundwater detection network due to both the effects of groundwater withdrawal and construction. In addition, the setting up of a supervision system was also incorporated in the 2013-regulation. To control the land subsidence, Shanghai demarcated three land subsidence control zones, where special measures have been implemented. From a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) point of view, the 2013-regulation attains a high total score, indicating that the control of groundwater withdrawal and recharge is effective. The observed land subsidence over the past six years also confirms the effectiveness of the 2013-regulation with the most consideration of SEA for sustainable environment protection in Shanghai. However, more effort should be made in the implementation of SEA in land subsidence control in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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Technical Note
Erosion Failure of a Soil Slope by Heavy Rain: Laboratory Investigation and Modified GA Model of Soil Slope Failure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1075; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16061075 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
Rainfall has been identified as one of the main causes for slope failures in areas where high annual rainfall is experienced. The slope angle is important for its stability during rainfall. This paper aimed to determine the impact of the angle of soil [...] Read more.
Rainfall has been identified as one of the main causes for slope failures in areas where high annual rainfall is experienced. The slope angle is important for its stability during rainfall. This paper aimed to determine the impact of the angle of soil slope on the migration of wetting front in rainfall. The results proved that under the same rainfall condition, more runoff was generated with the increase of slope angle, which resulted in more serious erosion of the soil and the ascent of wetting front. A modified Green-Ampt (GA) model of wetting front was also proposed considering the seepage in the saturated zone and the slope angle. These findings will provide insights into the rainfall-induced failure of soil slopes in terms of angle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hazard, Risk and Disaster Management)
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