Special Issue "Interdisciplinarity in Health and Health Care: Management–Education–Prevention"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Care Sciences & Services".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Izabella Lecka
E-Mail Website
Chief Guest Editor
Center for Health Care Management, Faculty of Management, University of Warsaw, 00-927 Warszawa, Poland
Interests: medical geography; medical innovation; telemedicine; health inequalities; socio-economic background of health and health care; quality management
Prof. Dr. Sally Brailsford
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Southampton Business School, University of Southampton, Highfield, SO17 1BJ, UK
Interests: health care modelling; HIV/AIDS; diabetes; cancer; sexually transmitted diseases; emergency care; healthcare information systems; operational research
Prof. Dr. Józef Haczyński
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Center for Health Care Management Faculty of Management, University of Warsaw, 00-927 Warszawa, Poland
Interests: practicing physician; internist; sexologist; health care management; pharmacology specialist
Prof. Dr. Remigiusz Kozlowski
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Centre for Security Technologies in Logistics, Faculty of Management, University of Lodz, 90-136 Lodz, Poland
Interests: management of healthcare system logistics; telematics in medicine; management of security in logistics; risk management; economics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on Interdiscipinarity in health and healthcare from a perspective of management and prevention framework in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information about the journal, we refer you to https://0-www-mdpi-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/journal/ijerph.

Our potential authors are conference participants (http://www.wz.uw.edu.pl/portale/konferencja-naukowa-interdisciplinarity-in-health-and-health-care/dzial/about; http://www.wz.uw.edu.pl/portale/konferencja-naukowa-interdisciplinarity-in-health-and-health-care/dzial/program-english) under the auspices of IJERPH. Most of them are healthcare managers and young scientists researching a chance of significant economic (and quality) and safety improvements in the operation of hospitals and other health care institutions.

The issues presented are visibly important. Assuming that specialized teams which identify, analyze, and implement remedial activities for reducing the risk of adverse events would operate in health care institutions, the advantages would be felt at every level of operation of the institution, both for employees and for patients. Moreover, medical institutions would be better protected against claims filed by law firms.

This Special Issue takes into account the effects of education in medical and health sciences, economy, legal, social, and technical studies (interdisciplinary studies). The interconnection of scientific fields is necessary to ensure that decision makers might be prepared for comprehensive management of a health institution/facility.

The effects of those investigations may be implemented in healthcare facilities and commercialized, supporting national innovation as a result.

Prof. Dr. Izabella Lecka
Prof. Dr. Remigiusz Kozlowski
Prof. Dr. Józef Haczyński
Prof. Dr. Sally Brailsford
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • medical and health science
  • education
  • prevention
  • healthcare management
  • interdisciplinary approach

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

Article
Costs Associated with the Treatment of Clostridioides Difficile Infections
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7647; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147647 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Background: Clostridioides difficile, as the main cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalised patients, is a considerable challenge for medical personnel (hospital environment) who have direct contact with the patient, as well as being of interest to public health specialists. Financial issues related [...] Read more.
Background: Clostridioides difficile, as the main cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalised patients, is a considerable challenge for medical personnel (hospital environment) who have direct contact with the patient, as well as being of interest to public health specialists. Financial issues related to the occurrence of the above-mentioned micro-organism are being increasingly raised. Due to the scale of the phenomenon, we are beginning to pay attention to the significant system costs caused by the diagnosis and treatment of CDI infection and its complications. Studies indicate that the nosocomial infection of C. difficile complicates hospitalisation, by increasing the cost by more than half and extending patient’s stay by an average of 3.6 days. Material and methods: The aim of this study was to attempt to calculate the estimated costs associated with the prolonged hospitalisation of patients with nosocomial CDI infection, using the example of a hospital in Lodz. A total of 53 completed hospitalisations of patients treated in the period of January–August 2018 were analysed, during which hospital Clostridioides difficile infection was identified. For the purposes of this study, statistical data collected in the hospital’s IT system were also analysed, covering 44,868 hospitalisations in the Jan–Aug 2018 period, during which no hospital infection occurred. They was a control group, in which the analysed cases were compared. The obtained data in the study determined how long each patient with Clostridioides difficile infection stayed in the hospital (from the moment infection was diagnosed until the day of hospital discharge), and which diagnosis related groups (DRG) (according to National Health Fund guidelines) were assigned. The average length of patient stay without infection within a given DRG group in each hospital ward was also determined. The collected materials became the initial point for the final analysis of hospital costs and the length of hospital stay caused by Clostridioides difficile infection. Results: Clostridioides difficile infection extended the hospital stay by an average of almost 12 days. The average cost of prolonged hospitalisation due to CDI infection (according to the average cost per person-day) was about PLN 7148 (1664 EUR), which gave a total value of about PLN 378,860.6 (88,240.5 EUR) in the examined period. At the same time, the average expenditure from the National Health Fund for hospitalisation due to CDI infections increased by about PLN 6627 (1542.8 EUR), which in the analysed period translated into over PLN 351,232.0 (81,505.5 EUR) (according to settlements with the National Health Fund). The outcome indicates that there is a clear relation between CDI and the anticipated length of hospitalisation of patients without an infection. Full article
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Article
Mental and Physical Health Problems as Conditions of Ex-Prisoner Re-Entry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7642; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147642 - 18 Jul 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
The article focuses on a less-discussed issue of social marginalization of people leaving penitentiaries, which is the prevalence of multifaceted health problems experienced by people in this category. It includes poor health status, resulting from, among others, poor housing conditions, harmful or risky [...] Read more.
The article focuses on a less-discussed issue of social marginalization of people leaving penitentiaries, which is the prevalence of multifaceted health problems experienced by people in this category. It includes poor health status, resulting from, among others, poor housing conditions, harmful or risky lifestyle, and lack of access to medical services. Data from the District Inspectorate of the Prison Service in Lodz, Poland on the health conditions of inmates was accessed. These data were supplemented by qualitative research conducted in 21 juvenile detention centers and 8 prisons across the country, conducting direct observations and In-Depth Interviews (IDI). A total of 198 IDIs were conducted with incarcerated (72) and released (30) juvenile offenders, and incarcerated (68) and released (28) adult offenders. These were complemented by IDIs with experts (50) and Focus Group Interviews (FGIs; 8) with male and female inmates in 4 Polish prisons. The study revealed that mental and physical health is a serious obstacle to social reintegration of ex-prisoners. It is rarely addressed by state institutions. There are strong associations between neglect of health issues in the prison population and increasing social exclusion after leaving prison. As Poland has a restrictive penal policy, former prisoners remain a group with social stigma and little support. Full article
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Article
The Effectiveness of Active Rehabilitation Camp on Physical Performance of Disabled People Moving in Wheelchairs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7572; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147572 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
(1) Background: Regular participation in physical activity (PA) prevents many medical complications and improves the physical fitness of people with spinal cord injury, and in turn improves the functional independence, psychosocial status and quality of life. The goal of Active Rehabilitation Camps (ARCs) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Regular participation in physical activity (PA) prevents many medical complications and improves the physical fitness of people with spinal cord injury, and in turn improves the functional independence, psychosocial status and quality of life. The goal of Active Rehabilitation Camps (ARCs) is to use various forms of PA in order for the participants to obtain the greatest efficiency and independence in everyday life. (2) Purpose: To evaluate the improvement in physical performance of people with chronic spinal cord disabilities moving in wheelchairs taking part in the Active Rehabilitation Camp depending on (a) sex, (b) type of disability, (c) the level of injury and (d) the type of wheelchair. (3) Methods: The study included 42 wheelchair users: 28 men and 14 women aged 18–65 years (34.7 ± 14.9 years) taking part in the Active Rehabilitation Camp. Finally, the study involved 27 paraplegics, 9 tetraplegics and 6 individuals with myelomeningocele. The participants took part in four fitness tests: (1) sprint test (SP)—individual time to cover a distance of 15 m in the wheelchair; (2) slalom test (SL)—time to ride between four cones front and back; (3) basketball ball throw at a distance (BT), (4) zig-zag test (ZZ)—riding continuously for 6 min on the designated track. The tests were performed at the beginning and at the end of the ACR. Active wheelchairs were used by 32 participants, and 10 participants used the classic wheelchairs. (4) Results: Paraplegics achieved the best average results in all the tests and the best improvement in physical performance in comparison to individuals with myelomeningocele and tetraplegics. People in active wheelchairs achieved a statistically significant improvement in the results of SL and ZZ (p < 0.001). People with injury above Th-9 level of the spinal cord achieved a statistically significant improvement in the results of SP (p < 0.01), SL and ZZ (p < 0.01). People with injury below Th6 achieved a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05) in SP, SL and ZZ. (5) Conclusions: Regular PA during the Active Rehabilitation Camp improves the physical performance of disabled people in wheelchairs, but the scale of improvement of physical performance fitness depends on the type of wheelchair used and the level and the type of injury. Full article
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Article
Level of Knowledge of Medical Staff on the Basis of the Survey in Terms of Risk Management, Associated with Clostridioides difficile Infections
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7060; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18137060 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Infections caused by the toxigenic strains of Clostridioides difficile in the hospital environment pose a serious public health problem. The progressive increase in hospital infections in Poland indicates that risk management is a tool that is not used in an effective way and [...] Read more.
Infections caused by the toxigenic strains of Clostridioides difficile in the hospital environment pose a serious public health problem. The progressive increase in hospital infections in Poland indicates that risk management is a tool that is not used in an effective way and significantly differs from the goals set by the Leading Authorities, the Ministry of Health and its subordinate units. Systematic education of medical personnel constitutes the basic element of rational risk management aimed at reducing the number of infections as it allows for the transfer of knowledge, development of appropriate organizational procedures, and improves internal communication. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in hospital facilities throughout Poland. The study dealt with what medical personnel know about channels of transmission and prevention of Clostridioides difficile infections in the hospital setting, professional training and risk management in terms of reducing the number of infections. The survey reveals that Clostridioides difficile continues to be a serious problem in the inpatient care system. Procedures and management strategies implemented by hospitals in order to limit the spread of the pathogen are predominantly focused on short-term action, which does not lead to a real improvement in terms of hospitalized patients’ safety. The infection risk management system was assessed at a fairly low level. The obtained research results confirmed the research hypotheses that had been formulated. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Introducing Successive Biosimilars on Changes in Prices of Adalimumab, Infliximab, and Trastuzumab—Polish Experiences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6952; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136952 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Biosimilars are cheaper than original drugs and are thus of interest to the public. The aim of this article is to assess the benefits of introducing more than one biosimilar for the same substance (active pharmaceutical ingredient, API). The hypothesis is that the [...] Read more.
Biosimilars are cheaper than original drugs and are thus of interest to the public. The aim of this article is to assess the benefits of introducing more than one biosimilar for the same substance (active pharmaceutical ingredient, API). The hypothesis is that the introduction of successive biosimilars of a specific original drug reduces the price of the selected API. The study focuses on drug prices varying with the successive arrival of new biosimilars. Three drugs that have at least three reimbursed biosimilars on the market were selected, two from the same therapeutic group (adalimumab and infliximab) and one (trastuzumab) representing another class of drugs. The following data were analyzed: price variation after the introduction of the first, second, and third biosimilar, and the average price reduction for all three biosimilars. Additionally, a literature review was conducted. The reimbursement of each new biosimilar is beneficial since it is associated with a price reduction in percentage terms. However, the first biosimilar brought about the greatest savings due to the higher initial prices of the original drugs and to Polish reimbursement rules. This article is helpful for when taking healthcare decisions regarding the pricing of and reimbursement for new biosimilars. Full article
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Article
Sleep Quality and Performance in Professional Athletes Fasting during the Month of Ramadan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6890; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136890 - 27 Jun 2021
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Background: Maintaining physical performance during Ramadan Diurnal Fasting (RDF) is a challenge for professional athletes. The literature shows that sleep disturbances experienced by athletes during RDF are associated with reduced physical performance. The effect of sleep quality on physical performance, and the effect [...] Read more.
Background: Maintaining physical performance during Ramadan Diurnal Fasting (RDF) is a challenge for professional athletes. The literature shows that sleep disturbances experienced by athletes during RDF are associated with reduced physical performance. The effect of sleep quality on physical performance, and the effect of work status on physical performance during RDF among athletes, besides engaging in trainings, have been little investigated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of RDF on the physical performance of professional athletes taking into consideration their sleep quality and work status. Methods: Professional medium-distance male runners (n = 32) participated in our study in the summer of 2019. Data about socio-demographics, training characteristics, sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index: PSQI), physical performance (Cooper Test; Harvard step test) were collected before and during Ramadan. Student’s-test and Welch and Wilcoxon tests were used for data analysis. Results: Both quality of sleep and physical performance of athletes deteriorated during Ramadan. People with better quality of sleep had better physical fitness/performance both before and during RDF. Athletes who worked beside trainings achieved worse physical fitness test results and had worse quality of sleep. Conclusions: Policies aimed to improve physical performance in RDF should consider the quality of sleep and the work status of athletes. Full article
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Article
Risk Factors of Early Adolescence in the Criminal Career of Polish Offenders in the Light of Life Course Theory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6583; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126583 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Life course theory (LCT) diagnoses childhood and adolescent factors that determine an individual’s involvement in crime in the future. Farrington lists eight key correlates identified by empirical analyses of criminal careers. In this paper, we seek to discuss the inconsistencies with LCT that [...] Read more.
Life course theory (LCT) diagnoses childhood and adolescent factors that determine an individual’s involvement in crime in the future. Farrington lists eight key correlates identified by empirical analyses of criminal careers. In this paper, we seek to discuss the inconsistencies with LCT that we observed in our three empirical studies of the criminal careers of Polish offenders. During 12 years of qualitative research, we conducted direct observations and in-depth interviews in juvenile correction institutions (21) and prisons (8) across the country. We gained access to incarcerated (102) and released (30) juvenile offenders, as well as to incarcerated (68) and released (28) adult offenders. We also conducted in-depth interviews (92) with experts working with young and adult offenders. We similarly accessed some offenders’ criminal records and psychological opinions. Our study revealed the strong presence of family and neighborhood influences on early criminality. Contrary to LCT assumptions, state-dependent institutions (military, work, family) were not strong enough determinants of delinquency. Polish offenders generally experience criminal onset later than LCT-oriented criminologists indicate. Based on our data, we also agree with the thesis that the onset of crime should be discussed as different age-related periods rather than just a general onset. Full article
Article
Framing Sustainable Healthcare Services
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126336 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 403
Abstract
This paper develops an analytical framework using process thinking to achieve sustainable healthcare services. Healthcare is characterised by low economic efficiency. At the same time, it is embedded in ethical concerns related to society and nature. Healthcare is thus conceptualised as functionality in [...] Read more.
This paper develops an analytical framework using process thinking to achieve sustainable healthcare services. Healthcare is characterised by low economic efficiency. At the same time, it is embedded in ethical concerns related to society and nature. Healthcare is thus conceptualised as functionality in an ecosystem. The patient is woven into both nature and society. Given the complex nature of healthcare services, we seek an alternative way to understand healthcare services, focusing on the exchange aspect of the economy. We offer a conceptual model that helps build an analytical framework focusing on how practitioners and leaders in healthcare frame their activities. This framing provides guidance in healthcare practice. Furthermore, framing is associated with both healthcare service providers as well as patients and next of kin—the recipients. This framework aims to guide practical research and development activities in healthcare. Full article
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Article
The Impact of COVID-19 on Admissions and Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Episodes in the Emergency Department
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6048; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18116048 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of admissions to the emergency department (ED) due to a primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) has decreased when compared to pre-pandemic times. The principal aim of the study was to assess the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 [...] Read more.
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of admissions to the emergency department (ED) due to a primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) has decreased when compared to pre-pandemic times. The principal aim of the study was to assess the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infections and sinus rhythm restoration among patients who arrived at the ED with AF. Secondary aims included determining whether patients arriving at the ED principally due to AF delayed their presentations and whether the frequency of successful cardioversion for AF was decreased during the pandemic period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients admitted to two hospital EDs due to AF during July–December 2019 (pre-pandemic period) versus July–December 2020 (pandemic period) was performed. Results: During the study periods, 601 ED visits by 497 patients were made due to the primary diagnosis of AF. The patients were aged 71.2+/−13.5 years and 51.3% were male. The duration of an AF episode before the ED admission was 10 h (4.5–30 h) during the pandemic period vs. 5 h (3–24 h) during the non-pandemic period (p = 0.001). A shorter duration of the AF episode before ED admission was associated with the successful restoration of the sinus rhythm. During the pandemic period, among patients with short-lasting AF who were not treated with Phenazolinum, the restoration of the sinus rhythm was more frequent in the Copernicus Memorial Hospital than in the University Hospital (p = 0.026). A positive SARS-CoV-2 test was found in 5 (1%) patients, while 2 other patients (0.5%) had a prior diagnosis of COVID-19 disease noted in their medical history. Conclusions: 1. The number of AF episodes treated in these two EDs was lower during the pandemic than non-pandemic period. 2. The patients with AF appeared at the ED later after AF onset in the pandemic period. 3. Successful cardioversion of atrial fibrillation was more frequent during the pre-pandemic period in one of the two hospitals. 4. A difference of approaches to the treatment of short-lasting AF episodes between EDs during the pandemic period may exist between these two EDs. 5. The patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic constituted a small percentage of the patients admitted to EDs due to an AF episode. Full article
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Article
Age-Graded Transitions and Turning Points in Polish Offenders’ Criminal Careers from the Standpoint of Life Course Theory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6010; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18116010 - 03 Jun 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Both juvenile and adult criminal careers show regularities in the origins of delinquency, the dynamics of the criminal pathway, and the turning points that lead to desistance/persistence in crime. Research shows that family, education, and friendship environments contribute significantly to the individual choices [...] Read more.
Both juvenile and adult criminal careers show regularities in the origins of delinquency, the dynamics of the criminal pathway, and the turning points that lead to desistance/persistence in crime. Research shows that family, education, and friendship environments contribute significantly to the individual choices that create criminal biographies. Our aim was to apply core aspects of life course theory (LCT): trajectory, the aged-graded process, transitions, institutions, and ultimately how desistance/persistence factor into explaining the criminal careers of Polish offenders. The research is based on in-depth interviews (130) carried out with both offenders (90) and experts (40). The offenders were divided into two groups: 30 were juveniles, and 60 were adults of whom half were sentenced for the first time (30) and half were recidivists (30) located in correctional institutions or released. The experts group (40) includes psychologists, educators, social rehabilitators, and prison and juvenile detention personnel working with offenders. We used triangulation of researcher, data, and methodology. Our data revealed that similar biographical experiences characterized by an early socialization, family and friends-based circles laid the groundwork for their entry and continued participation in criminal activity. Juvenile and adult first-time sentenced offenders led criminal careers significantly different from those of recidivists, who faced problems with social adaptation caused by lack of family and institutional support. Full article
Article
Physical Activity as a Predictor of the Level of Stress and Quality of Sleep during COVID-19 Lockdown
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5811; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115811 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Background: The coronavirus pandemic and the government restrictions significantly disturbed the daily functioning of people, thereby influencing healthy behaviors, such as physical activity—the core indicator of well-being. This study evaluates the associations between physical activity (PA), the level of stress and quality of [...] Read more.
Background: The coronavirus pandemic and the government restrictions significantly disturbed the daily functioning of people, thereby influencing healthy behaviors, such as physical activity—the core indicator of well-being. This study evaluates the associations between physical activity (PA), the level of stress and quality of sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Methods: An online survey was distributed during the governmental lockdown in April 2020 and included measures for assessing physical activity, stress and sleep. The surveyed participants included all adults aged 18 years and over. The final data were collected from the 1959 respondents using: International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Findings: Almost half of the respondents indicated a low level of PA, performing only 60 min of PA daily. Most of the participants reported a moderate or high level of stress (57% and 29%, respectively) and 64% of them reported poor quality of sleep. People with low levels of stress performed on average 85.1 min/day of walking (WPA), 40.9 min/day of moderate PA (MPA) or 52.6 min/day of vigorous PA (VPA). People with good quality of sleep performed 82.9 min/day of WPA, 43.6 min/day MPA and 40.5 min/day VPA. Interpretation: The results from the study indicate that the volume of daily PA may be a predictor of the level of stress and sleep quality in adults during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. To retain a low level of stress and good quality of sleep, a lifestyle that allows to achieve a moderate level of physical activity should be maintained. The optimal daily dose of PA is at least 70 min per day, involving different intensities. Full article
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Article
Frequency and Characteristics of Injuries and Rehabilitation Procedures in Rugby Players in Poland and France
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4835; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094835 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Objectives: Rugby is sport with a high risk of injury. Repeated changes in exercise intensity and the high training intensity may cause to overuse injuries and long-term disability. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of injuries during trainings [...] Read more.
Objectives: Rugby is sport with a high risk of injury. Repeated changes in exercise intensity and the high training intensity may cause to overuse injuries and long-term disability. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of injuries during trainings and forms of rehabilitation procedures performed after their occurrence among elite and sub-elite rugby players. Methods: The data was obtained from 60 professional rugby males from France and Poland. Data were collected using paper-based recording form. It was a specially designed questionnaire which concerned specific details of the injury, including body location, type of injury, treatment and number of days off lost from playing rugby and on forms of rehabilitation procedures performed after their occurrence among elite and sub-elite rugby players. Results: During the study period, the overall incidence rate for injury suggested a 1.04 times more often injury occurrence (IRR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.08; 2.00) among Polish players compared with French players; however, the distribution of injuries varied by country. The training injury incidence (TII) and incidence proportion (IP) were also higher in Poland than in France (p < 0.05) with the sprain as the most frequent type of injury in all rugby players. France was 7.8 times (IRR = 7.88, 95% CI: 1.29; 3.21) more likely to sustain a fracture than Poland, which much often experienced less serious injuries (bruise, rapture of muscle and ligament) (IRR = 3.02, 95% CI: 2.06; 3.98). Polish players were provided with various forms of physiotherapy while Franch players often worked with a physiotherapist with a therapeutic method (p < 0.005). Poland and France reported experiencing side effects after an injury and the most frequent was pain. In their opinions, the reasons influencing the effectiveness of rehabilitation are too quick return to the game and too short time of rehabilitation. Conclusions: The competitive level of the rugby player influences not only the frequency and type of injury occurrence, but also access to the different forms of rehabilitation. Nonetheless, the side effects occurring after injury and the causes of ineffective rehabilitation are still similar. Further studies are needed to gather significant data to accurately formulate future injury prevention protocols or recommend modifications to game laws or competition formats, aiming at players’ welfare. Full article
Article
The Influence of a Psychosocial Rehabilitation Program in a Community Health Setting for Patients with Chronic Mental Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4319; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084319 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Purpose: To examine (a) the amount of health-related behavior, (b) the level of generalized optimism, (c) the belief about patients’ abilities to cope with difficult situations and obstacles and (d) the subjective sense of social exclusion at baseline and at follow-up among [...] Read more.
Purpose: To examine (a) the amount of health-related behavior, (b) the level of generalized optimism, (c) the belief about patients’ abilities to cope with difficult situations and obstacles and (d) the subjective sense of social exclusion at baseline and at follow-up among patients with chronic mental health issues participating in a psychosocial rehabilitation program in a community mental health setting. Materials and Methods: This prospective study involved 52 participants aged 18–43 years and diagnosed with mental illness who participated in a 6-month psychosocial rehabilitation program, organized within a special community setting. Different questionnaires were used: the Health-Related Behavior Questionnaire, the Revised Life Orientation Test, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Personal Competence Scale and a self-made questionnaire concerning social exclusion problems. Results: Statistical analysis of the questionnaire results taken at the beginning and end of the six-month course, running from November 2015 to May 2016, revealed significant increases in health-related behavior (p = 0.006) and general self-efficacy (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Psychosocial rehabilitation programs offered by community mental health settings might serve as an easy, accessible strategy to deal with different interpersonal and intrapersonal problems and as a potential way to improve health behavior. Further research is required to evaluate other psychosocial rehabilitation programs in different community mental health settings in Lodz Voivodeship, Poland. Full article
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Article
Informal Dementia Caregivers: Current Technology Use and Acceptance of Technology in Care
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18063167 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 797
Abstract
(1) Background: Given the increased social isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the challenges faced by informal dementia caregivers have increased. An increasing use of technology, both in care and dementia clinical trials, depends upon caregivers’ abilities as a user. Accordingly, the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Given the increased social isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the challenges faced by informal dementia caregivers have increased. An increasing use of technology, both in care and dementia clinical trials, depends upon caregivers’ abilities as a user. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to verify the current technology (smartphone and computer) use and acceptance in care, regarding socio-demographic variables; (2) Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 102 dementia caregivers, mostly of patients with moderate dementia; (3) Results: The majority of participants were women (63%), and large number of them used technological devices such as a smartphone (91%) or computer (81%). Results revealed differences between age, gender, and education level on technology acceptance. Interestingly, smartphone use and acceptance seemed to be feasible, regardless of age, whereas computer use was negatively correlated with age. Technology was perceived by respondents as most useful for patients’ activities including locomotion, toileting, and meals; (4) Conclusions: The future of technology use in dementia care should indicate solutions tailored to individual characteristics such as new technology solutions (GPS trackers, smartphone apps, dietary intervention, and meal planning apps). Full article
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Article
Respiratory Burst and TNF-α Receptor Expression of Neutrophils after Sepsis and Severe Injury-Induced Inflammation in Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18042187 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is defined as the systemic host response to infection or a non-infectious factor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in severe inflammation and to assess the discrimination strength of [...] Read more.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is defined as the systemic host response to infection or a non-infectious factor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in severe inflammation and to assess the discrimination strength of the neutrophil BURSTTEST assay regarding its etiology in three groups of patients (sepsis, burns, and bone fractures) who met the SIRS criteria. The neutrophil activation (respiratory burst of granulocytes as well as p55 and p75 tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) receptor expression) was evaluated twice using flow cytometry, and the results were compared with healthy controls and among SIRS subjects. A decreased oxygen metabolism in neutrophils after E.coli stimulation and increased TNF-α receptor expression were found in septic and burned patients on admission, while ROS production augmented and TNF-α receptor expression diminished with the applied therapy. The significant differences in neutrophil respiratory burst intensity among septic and burned patients and those with sepsis and bone fractures were found (however, there were not any such differences between patients with thermal and mechanical injuries). This study indicates that the neutrophil BURSTTEST evaluation might be a clinically reliable marker for differentiating the SIRS etiology. Full article
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Article
Assessment of the Selected Health Factors by Polonia in the Greater Toronto Area in the Relation to Their Quality and Standard of Living
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031296 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Quality of life constitutes an indicator of well-being, satisfaction or happiness resulting from one’s existence. It is often referred to as a standard of living. In general, it is contentment with the fulfilment of one’s needs. The main objective of the article is [...] Read more.
Quality of life constitutes an indicator of well-being, satisfaction or happiness resulting from one’s existence. It is often referred to as a standard of living. In general, it is contentment with the fulfilment of one’s needs. The main objective of the article is to describe the selected components of the living standards and quality of life within the Polish community of the Greater Toronto Area which includes four regions: Halton, Peel, York and Durham. The model of mutually affecting objective factors (standard of living) and subjective factors (quality of life) will be presented. The specific factors (demographic, social, cultural, economic, legal, educational, geographical and health-related) included in field studies among the respondents and based on assigned indices influencing the quality of life in the Polish community of the Greater Toronto Area, will be demonstrated. The major goal of the paper is to present an assessment of aspects related to health factors, both in terms of objective factors (standard of living) and subjective ones (quality of life) by Polonia living in the Greater Toronto Area. Results will be shown on the basis of the survey questionnaire completed by 583 respondents. The questions focused on, among other issues, access to the healthcare system, competence of medical staff and access to sports facilities. Respondents also evaluated their satisfaction with their general health, both physical and mental, as well as the possibility of practicing sports associated with healthy lifestyle. Full article
Article
Priority Setting in the Polish Health Care System According to Patients’ Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031178 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Identification of health priorities is concerned with equitable distribution of resources and is an important part of strategic planning in the health care system. The aim of this article is to describe health priorities in the Polish health care system from the patients’ [...] Read more.
Identification of health priorities is concerned with equitable distribution of resources and is an important part of strategic planning in the health care system. The aim of this article is to describe health priorities in the Polish health care system from the patients’ perspective. The study included 533 patients hospitalized in the Lodz region. The average age of the respondents was 48.5 years and one third (36.6%) had university education. Most of the respondents (64.9%) negatively assessed the functioning of the health care system in Poland. Most of them claimed the following aspects require improvements: financing health services (85.8%), determining priorities in health care (80.3%), the role of health insurance (80.3%), and medical education (70.8%). Over 70% of the respondents agreed the role of politicians in designing and implementing health system reforms should be limited. The fact that the respondents so negatively assessed the Polish health care system implies there is a need for full discussion on redefining health priorities. Full article
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