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Special Issue "First International Conference on Environmental Sciences and Sustainability in University of Venda"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Joshua Nosa Edokpayi
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Guest Editor
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
Dr. Abel Ramoelo
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Guest Editor
Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Interests: vegetation assessments; biodiversity monitoring including species mapping; nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus); biophysical parameters (biomass, leaf area index); hyperspectral; multispectral; radar; lidar; machine learning; random forest
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Beneah Odhiambo
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Guest Editor
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
Prof. Dr. Vernon Sydwill Somerset
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Guest Editor
The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Prof. Dr. Peter B. Bikam
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Guest Editor
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Science, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
Prof. Dr. Wilson Gitari
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Guest Editor
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
Interests: acid mine drainage; clay and clay minerals; adsorption; water treatment; zeolites; coal fly ash; mine tailings; phytoremediation; biopolymers; hydrogels; aquatic ecosystems; waste management; inorganic nanostructures; geopolymers
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) is hosting a Special Issue for the First International Conference on Sustainable Management of Natural Resources (ICSMNR 2018), organized by the School of Environmental Sciences of the University of Venda in South Africa, 15–17 October, 2018.

Sustainable Management of Natural Resources resonates with four main Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the UN, namely Good Health and Well Being (SDG 3), Clean Water and Sanitation (SDG 6), Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure (SDG 9) and Sustainable Cities (SDG 11). This Special Issue will, therefore, provide an interactive forum for academic discourse and sharing of experiences in exploration and sustainable exploitation and protection of natural resources; thereby promoting collaboration between academics, policy makers, environmental practitioners, environmental engineers, town planners, mining houses, researchers, students and socially-responsible corporations.

This Special Issue will collect papers presented at the First International Conference on Sustainable Management of Natural Resources (ICSMNR 2018) and will publish them on the Special Issue website, and will also appear in a printed edition of IJERPH. Articles are welcome from any of the fields that fall within the sub-themes of the the First International Conference on Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. The sub-themes are:

Ecosystem Management

GIS and Remote Sensing as Tools for Natural Resource Management

Ecosystem Health and Services

Wetland Management

Ecosystem Governance

Environmental Pollution and Management

Environmental Policies and Environmental Impact Assessment

Abandoned Mines Hazards, Tailings Chemistry and Rehabilitation

Air, Soil and Water Quality Management

Mining and the Environment

Catchment Pollution Management-Monitoring and Remediation

Waste Management Challenges

Innovative tools for Environmental Management

Green Economy

Adaptation to Climate Change

Planning and Ecotourism

Environmental Economics

Municipal and Community Initiatives/Innovation/Experiences in Combating Pollution

Dr. Joshua Nosa Edokpayi
Dr. Abel Ramoelo
Prof. Dr. Beneah Odhiambo
Prof. Dr. Vernon Sydwill Somerset
Prof. Dr. Peter B. Bikam
Prof. Dr. Wilson Gitari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Challenges to Implementing an Environmental Flow Regime in the Luvuvhu River Catchment, South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3694; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193694 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Rivers are now facing increasing pressure and demand to provide water directly for drinking, farming and supporting industries as a result of rapidly growing global human population. Globally, the most common practice for catchment managers is to limit water abstraction and changes to [...] Read more.
Rivers are now facing increasing pressure and demand to provide water directly for drinking, farming and supporting industries as a result of rapidly growing global human population. Globally, the most common practice for catchment managers is to limit water abstraction and changes to stream flow by setting environmental flow standards that guard and maintain the natural ecosystem characteristics. Since the development of the environmental flow concept and methods in South Africa, very few studies have assessed the institutional constraints towards environmental flow implementation. This study determined stream flow trends over time by fitting simple linear regression model to mean daily stream flow data at three selected stations in the Luvuvhu River Catchment (LRC). We also conducted a literature search to review, firstly the response of aquatic organisms (fish and macroinvertebrate) to changes in habitat conditions and secondly on local challenges affecting the sustainable implementation of environmental flow regime and related water resources management strategies. All the three stream flow stations show decreasing stream flow volume of 1 and 2 orders of magnitude faster in some stations with the possibility that flow will cease in the near future. Qualitative analyses from both local and international literature search found that the main challenges facing the implementation of sustainable flow strategies and management are absence of catchment management agency, lack of understanding of environmental flow benefits, limited financial budget, lack of capacity and conflict of interest. Rivers with changing stream flows tend to lose sensitive species. The development of scientifically credible catchment-wide environmental flow and abstraction thresholds for rivers within the LRC would make a major contribution in minimizing the declining stream flow volumes. Monitoring and reporting should be prioritized to give regular accounts of the state of our rivers. Full article
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Article
Efficiency of Health Care Risk Waste Management in Rural Healthcare Facilities of South Africa: An Assessment of Selected Facilities in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16122199 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1519
Abstract
Waste generated form healthcare facilities is a potential source of health risks to the public, if it is not properly handled from the point of generation to disposal. This study was conducted to assess the efficiency of healthcare risk waste (HCRW) management in [...] Read more.
Waste generated form healthcare facilities is a potential source of health risks to the public, if it is not properly handled from the point of generation to disposal. This study was conducted to assess the efficiency of healthcare risk waste (HCRW) management in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Fifteen healthcare facilities were selected in Vhembe District for this study. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, observation and pictures. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed, while the quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 25. In all the healthcare facilities; mismanagement of HCRW was noted at different points along the management chain. Poor segregation, overfilling of waste bins, inappropriate transportation and storage of waste in substandard storage rooms were observed in the facilities. All the waste from the district are transported to a private-owned treatment facility outside the district, where they are mainly incinerated. Enforcement of healthcare risk waste guidelines, provision of standardized equipment for temporary storage, empowerment of each healthcare facility to treat at least some of the waste, and employment of non-burn techniques for treatment of waste are recommended for more efficient management of healthcare risk waste in Vhembe District. Full article
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Article
Health and Environmental Risks of Residents Living Close to a Landfill: A Case Study of Thohoyandou Landfill, Limpopo Province, South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16122125 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4073
Abstract
The by-products of solid waste deposited in a landfill has adverse effects on the surrounding environment and humans living closer to landfill sites. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the deposition of waste on landfill has an impact on the surrounding [...] Read more.
The by-products of solid waste deposited in a landfill has adverse effects on the surrounding environment and humans living closer to landfill sites. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the deposition of waste on landfill has an impact on the surrounding environment and residents living closer to it. This was achieved by evaluating the perception of the respondents drawn from people living close (100–500 m) and far (1–2 km) from the landfill site, concerning environmental issues, health problems, and life satisfaction. Results from the study showed that 78% of participants living closer to the landfill site indicated serious contamination of air quality evident from bad odours linked to the landfill site. Illnesses such as flu, eye irritation and weakness of the body were frequently reported by participants living closer to the landfill than those living far from the landfill. More than half of the participants (56%) living closer to the landfill indicated fear of their health in the future. Thus, the participants living closer to the landfill site were less satisfied with the location of their community with respect to the landfill, than those living far from the landfill site. Therefore, the need for a landfill gas (LFG) utilisation system, proper daily covering of waste and odour diluting agents are necessary to reduce the problems of the residents living closer to the landfill site. Full article
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Article
The Effect of the Grain for Green Program on Ecosystem Health in the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin: A Case Study of Eastern Sichuan, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16122112 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
The Eastern Sichuan Region (ESR) is one of the key pilot regions for Grain for Green Program (GGP) implementation in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River basin in China. Therefore, monitoring the effect of the GGP on the ecosystem in the ESR [...] Read more.
The Eastern Sichuan Region (ESR) is one of the key pilot regions for Grain for Green Program (GGP) implementation in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River basin in China. Therefore, monitoring the effect of the GGP on the ecosystem in the ESR is important. In this study, the Mann–Kendall Trend Test Model was used to ascertain the changes in vegetation coverage. The transfer matrix was used to explore the changes in Land Use/Land Cover (LULC). LULC change direction model (LCDM) was used to preliminarily assess the impact of LULC changes on the ecosystem. The Pressure–State–Response model (PSR), reflecting the human pressure and the ecosystem state, was applied to analyze the spatial–temporal characteristics of the ecosystem health index (EHI). The time span of this study was from 1990 to 2015. The results show that the vegetation coverage changed significantly (p < 0.05), and ecosystem function developed towards positive because of the increase in the coverage of forestland and water land and decrease in the coverage of farmland. The spatial distribution of the EHI was influenced by the pattern of land use. The eastern region, associated with a large area of forestland and grassland, has a low population density and a low degree of land use exploitation, resulting in a high EHI value. The situation was completely opposite in the western region. Regarding the temporal scale, in spite of the decreasing pressure indicator, most counties had experienced an increase in the EHI. There was a clear correlation between the increased EHI values and the restored areas at the third stage (2000–2005) (p < 0.05, r2 = 0.164), but this correlation disappeared at the latter stage (2005–2015) (p > 0.05). The changes showed significant variations in time and area because of differences in the process and the intensity of the implication of the GGP. Full article
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Article
Physico-Chemical Analysis of Wastewater Discharge from Selected Paint Industries in Lagos, Nigeria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1235; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16071235 - 07 Apr 2019
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
Effluents from the paint industry have been a major source of environmental pollution. There is a need to investigate the compliance of wastewater discharged from paint industries with regulatory standards. In response, this study evaluates the physicochemical parameters of both raw and treated [...] Read more.
Effluents from the paint industry have been a major source of environmental pollution. There is a need to investigate the compliance of wastewater discharged from paint industries with regulatory standards. In response, this study evaluates the physicochemical parameters of both raw and treated wastewater, the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) efficiencies as well as the compliance level of five selected paint manufacturing companies in Lagos, Nigeria with some regulatory standards: Federal Ministry of Environment (FME) in Nigeria, World Health Organization (WHO) and Department of Water Affairs (DWA) in South Africa. All parameters investigated were analysed using standard methods. The values of pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels were in the range of 4–12.2, 149.1–881.3 mS/m and 1100–6510 mg/L, respectively. The range of other parameters include total suspended solids (TSS); 0–2470 mg/L, TS; 1920–6510 mg/L, chloride; 63.8–733.8 mg/L, dissolved oxygen (DO); 0–6.7 mg/L, oil and grease (O & G); 44–100 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); 162.8–974.7 mg/L, chemical oxygen demand (COD); 543–1231 mg/L, nitrates;12.89–211.2 mg/L, phosphate; below detection limit (bdl)–0.02 mg/L, sulphate; 195–1434 mg/L, nickel; bdl–1.9 mg/L while copper, lead and chromium were below detection limits. The results indicated that the WWTPs of the studied paint companies were ineffective in reducing the TS, TSS, BOD, COD and (O & G) to acceptable limits. Routine monitoring of wastewater from paint industries is therefore recommended to prevent the risk of contamination to the receiving watershed which many communities rely on as source for domestic water. Full article
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Article
Mechanochemically Activated Aluminosilicate Clay Soils and their Application for Defluoridation and Pathogen Removal from Groundwater
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 654; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16040654 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
In this study, aluminosilicate rich clay soils were prepared through mechanochemical activation. The chemical and mineralogical properties were investigated using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The functional groups, morphology and surface area were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), Scanning electron [...] Read more.
In this study, aluminosilicate rich clay soils were prepared through mechanochemical activation. The chemical and mineralogical properties were investigated using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The functional groups, morphology and surface area were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Batch experiments were used to evaluate its defluoridation efficiency while antibacterial activities were assessed using well diffusion method. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 1.87 mg/g with 32% fluoride removal. Fluoride adsorption was found to reduce in the presence of Cl, PO42− and CO32− while it increased in the presence of SO42− and NO3. Adsorption data fitted well to Freundlich isotherms, hence, confirming heterogeneous multilayer adsorption. Kinetic studies revealed that fluoride adsorption fitted well to pseudo-second order model. The sorption of F onto the clays’ surface followed intra-particle diffusion mode. High correlation coefficient indicates that the sorption process was greatly controlled by particle diffusion while it is minimal in pore diffusion model. Antibacterial studies revealed no zone of inhibition for all the activated clays, hence indicating that they are not active against the bacterial strains of Escherichia coli used in this study. The results showed activated clays’ potential for defluoridation. Its effectiveness in pathogen removal is limited. Hence further modifications of the clays’ surfaces are hereby recommended. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Bioavailability and Translocation of Selected Heavy Metals by Brassica juncea and Spinacea oleracea L for a South African Power Utility Coal Fly Ash
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2841; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15122841 - 13 Dec 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
This study evaluated the physicochemical and mineralogical properties, mobile chemical species bioavailability and translocation in Brassica juncea and Spinacea oleracea L. plants of a South African coal-fired power utility. Coal-fly-ash (CFA) disposal is associated with various environmental and health risks, including air, soil, [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the physicochemical and mineralogical properties, mobile chemical species bioavailability and translocation in Brassica juncea and Spinacea oleracea L. plants of a South African coal-fired power utility. Coal-fly-ash (CFA) disposal is associated with various environmental and health risks, including air, soil, surface, and groundwater pollution due to the leaching of toxic heavy metals; these ends up in food webs affecting human health, while repeated inhalation causes bronchitis, silicosis, hair loss, and lung cancer. The morphology and chemical and mineralogical composition of CFA were determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and X-ray diffraction, respectively. In pot-culture experiments, S. oleracea L. and B. juncea plants were grown in three sets of pots containing CFA (Set 1), soil (Set 2), and a mixture of CFA plus soil at a ratio of 1:1 (50% CFA: 50% soil, Set 3), while no plants were grown in Set 4 as a control for the leachate samples. SEM showed that the surface morphology of CFA has a lower degree of sphericity with the irregular agglomerations of many particles. XRF results revealed that CFA contains 43.65%, 22.68%, and 10.89% of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, respectively, which indicates that CFA is an aluminosilicate material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that CFA contains mullite as a major phase, followed by quartz mineral phases. Chemical species such as B, Ba, Mo, and Cr were occurring at higher concentrations in the leachates for most weeks in the pot-culture experiments, especially for CFA and soil + CFA growth media. However, there was a common trend for all growth media of chemical-species concentrations declining with time, which might have been caused by plant uptake or wash-off with water during irrigation; even for the growth media as well, where no plants were grown. Chemical species, such as Fe, Mn, B, Ba, and Zn, accumulated highly in most parts of the plant species. However, B. juncea showed higher potential to accumulate chemical species as compared to S. oleracea L. Bioconcentration and translocation factors (BF and TF) showed that B. juncea was the most effective in terms of bioconcentration and translocation of most of the chemical species. This indicates that B. juncea has potential in application for the phytoremediation of CFA dumps, and could contribute to the remediation of CFA dumps and the reduction of potential health and environmental impact associated with CFA. Full article
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Article
Ecological Public Health and Participatory Planning and Assessment Dilemmas: The Case of Water Resources Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1635; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15081635 - 02 Aug 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
Water is a key driver for socio-economic development, livelihoods and ecosystem integrity. This is reflected in the emergence of unified paradigms such as Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) and the weight accorded to it in the Sustainable Development Goals agenda. This paper interrogated [...] Read more.
Water is a key driver for socio-economic development, livelihoods and ecosystem integrity. This is reflected in the emergence of unified paradigms such as Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) and the weight accorded to it in the Sustainable Development Goals agenda. This paper interrogated the effectiveness of existing participatory planning and assessment models adapted from IWRM model on water quality and public health at community level. The analysis was built around public health ecology perspective and drew useful lessons from critique of basin wide integrated Modeling approaches and existing community participatory models envisaged under Water Users Associations (WUA) in South Africa. We extended the use of political ecology lenses to ecological public health through use of communication for development approaches, to argue that public health risk reduction and resilience building in community water projects require the use of innovative analytical and conceptual lenses that unbundle cognitive biases and failures, as well as, integrate and transform individual and collective agency. The study concludes that the inherent “passive participation” adapted from IWRM model fail to adequately address water quality and public health dimensions in its pillars. Since water quality has direct bearing on disaster risks in public health, building a coherent mitigatory vision requires the adoption of active participatory assessment and planning models that incorporate livelihoods, agency, social learning dynamics and resilience through recognition of communication for development approaches in community empowerment. Full article
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Review

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Review
Influence of Selective Conditions on Various Composite Sorbents for Enhanced Removal of Copper (II) Ions from Aqueous Environments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16234596 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Numerous pollutants, including dyes, heavy metals, pesticides, and microorganisms, are found in wastewater and have great consequences when discharged onto natural freshwater sources. Heavy metals are predominantly reported in wastewater. Heavy metals are persistent, non-biodegradable and toxic, transforming from a less toxic form [...] Read more.
Numerous pollutants, including dyes, heavy metals, pesticides, and microorganisms, are found in wastewater and have great consequences when discharged onto natural freshwater sources. Heavy metals are predominantly reported in wastewater. Heavy metals are persistent, non-biodegradable and toxic, transforming from a less toxic form to more toxic forms in environmental media under favourable conditions. Among heavy metals, copper is dominantly found in wastewater effluent. In this review, the effects of high concentration of copper in plants and living tissues of both aquatic animals and humans are identified. The performance of different polymer adsorbents and the established optimum conditions to assess the resultant remediation effect as well as the amount of copper removed are presented. This procedure allows the establishment of a valid conclusion of reduced time and improved Cu (II) ion removal in association with recent nano-polymer adsorbents. Nano-polymer composites are therefore seen as good candidates for remediation of Cu ions while pH range 5–6 and room temperature were mostly reported for optimum performance. The optimum conditions reported can be applied for other metal remediation and development of potent novel adsorbents and process conditions. Full article
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Review
Climate Change Adaptation through the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Southern Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2306; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15102306 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3639
Abstract
Climate change is a complex and cross-cutting problem that needs an integrated and transformative systems approach to respond to the challenge. Current sectoral approaches to climate change adaptation initiatives often create imbalances and retard sustainable development. Regional and international literature on climate change [...] Read more.
Climate change is a complex and cross-cutting problem that needs an integrated and transformative systems approach to respond to the challenge. Current sectoral approaches to climate change adaptation initiatives often create imbalances and retard sustainable development. Regional and international literature on climate change adaptation opportunities and challenges applicable to southern Africa from a water-energy-food (WEF) nexus perspective was reviewed. Specifically, this review highlights climate change impacts on water, energy, and food resources in southern Africa, while exploring mitigation and adaptation opportunities. The review further recommends strategies to develop cross-sectoral sustainable measures aimed at building resilient communities. Regional WEF nexus related institutions and legal frameworks were also reviewed to relate the WEF nexus to policy. Southern Africa is witnessing an increased frequency and intensity in climate change-associated extreme weather events, causing water, food, and energy insecurity. A projected reduction of 20% in annual rainfall by 2080 in southern Africa will only increase the regional socio-economic challenges. This is exacerbating regional resource scarcities and vulnerabilities. It will also have direct and indirect impacts on nutrition, human well-being, and health. Reduced agricultural production, lack of access to clean water, sanitation, and clean, sustainable energy are the major areas of concern. The region is already experiencing an upsurge of vector borne diseases (malaria and dengue fever), and water and food-borne diseases (cholera and diarrhoea). What is clear is that climate change impacts are cross-sectoral and multidimensional, and therefore require cross-sectoral mitigation and adaptation approaches. In this regard, a well-coordinated and integrated WEF nexus approach offers opportunities to build resilient systems, harmonise interventions, and mitigate trade-offs and hence improve sustainability. This would be achieved through greater resource mobilisation and coordination, policy convergence across sectors, and targeting nexus points in the landscape. The WEF nexus approach has potential to increase the resilience of marginalised communities in southern Africa by contributing towards attaining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 13). Full article
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