Special Issue "Instruments for Measuring Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Care Sciences & Services".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Desirée Valera-Gran
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Patología y Cirugía, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Ctra. Alicante-Valencia, 03550 San Juan de Alicante, Spain
Interests: clinical epidemiology; epidemiology; community health; neuropsychology; nutritional epidemiology; public health; occupational therapy; psychometrics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Eva Maria Navarrete-Munoz
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Public Health, History of Science and Gynecology, University Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche, Alicante, Spain
Interests: child and adolescent health; neuropsychology development; comunnity health; sensory profile; obesity; psycohometrics; occupational therapy; environmental factors; daily activity living; nutritional epidemiology; social factors
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the most important aspects in the assessment of health is to guarantee the quality of the measurements. Ideally, the use of accurate instruments for measuring health should positively contribute to improve the health of populations and increase the opportunities for comparability. In this sense, it is becoming increasingly obvious that more valid, comprehensive, transparent, and standardized ways of measuring and reporting on population health are necessary in clinical practice and research. For these purposes, it is essential that measurement instruments should be subjected to a process of validation to ensure and verify their accuracy.

This Special Issue will focus on describing the development and/or process of validation of instruments used for measuring health status, including general health measures, measures of physical function, pain measures, social health measures, psychological measures, quality of life measures, and specific disease measures, among others. We welcome different types of manuscript submissions, including original research articles and up-to-date reviews (systematic reviews and meta-analyses).

Dr. Desirée Valera-Gran
Dr. Eva Maria Navarrete-Munoz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Health measurements 
  • Assessment tools 
  • Validation 
  • Normative values 
  • Instrument development 
  • Accuracy 
  • Reproducibility 
  • Reliability 
  • Psychometric assessment 
  • Questionnaires 
  • Survey 
  • Tests 
  • Scales 
  • Translation 
  • Adaptation

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Article
Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Occupational Balance Questionnaire: An Instrument for Occupation-Based Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7506; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147506 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Occupational balance (OB) may be a major determinant of health outcomes due to its role in bringing a sense of purpose in the occupations that are personally experienced as a process of getting health and wellness. The Occupational Balance Questionnaire (OBQ) is a [...] Read more.
Occupational balance (OB) may be a major determinant of health outcomes due to its role in bringing a sense of purpose in the occupations that are personally experienced as a process of getting health and wellness. The Occupational Balance Questionnaire (OBQ) is a reliable instrument for measuring OB, although it has not been adapted and validated in Spain so far; therefore, this study had a double aim: (1) to translate and cross-culturally adapt the original OBQ version into Spanish (OBQ-E); (2) to analyze the psychometric properties for its use in the Spanish population. Standard procedures were used for the cross-adaptation process and pilot testing was carried out using three different samples to extend the applicability of the OBQ-E. Validation measures of the final version of the OBQ-E were conducted in a sample of 219 participants. The OBQ-E showed that items and instructions were culturally appropriate and written clearly. Psychometric testing showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.87; Guttman split-half coefficient = 0.85), good test–retest reliability (rs (Spearman rho) = 0.73), and acceptable convergent validity (overall status, rs = 0.37; Related Quality of Life, rs = 0.42; Satisfaction with Life Scale, rs = 0.54). The findings suggest that the OBQ-E may be a suitable instrument for assessing OB in the Spanish population; hence, it is a promising tool for epidemiological research that will significantly contribute to the understanding of OB as a health-related factor. Nevertheless, further investigation is also warranted to explore the potentiality of this instrument for clinical purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Article
Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) in the General Colombian Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6449; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126449 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 574
Abstract
(1) Background: Diener’s Scale of Positive and Negative Experiences (SPANE) assesses the presence and intensity of positive and negative affects, since these are considered basic aspects of the study of well-being. This article studies its psychometric properties in the general Colombian population. (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Diener’s Scale of Positive and Negative Experiences (SPANE) assesses the presence and intensity of positive and negative affects, since these are considered basic aspects of the study of well-being. This article studies its psychometric properties in the general Colombian population. (2) We conducted a cross-sectional study of a sample of 1255 Colombians and we used structural equation modeling to confirm the bifactor structure. Additionally, we studied invariance by gender, and convergent and concurrent validity. (3) We found acceptable fit indicators for the bifactor model (CFI = 0.889, RMSEA = 0.046, SRMR = 0.059) as well as for the convergent (CFI = 0.909, RMSEA = 0.050, SRMR = 0.063) and concurrent (CFI = 0.966, RMSEA = 0.036, SRMR = 0.041) validity models. We did not confirm total invariance across gender, although we found configural and metric invariance, so percentiles by sex were provided. (4) Conclusions: The SPANE is a valid and reliable measure to assess well-being among the Colombian population, although we alert researchers to the risk of comparing affectivity average scores between sexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Article
Validation and Test of Measurement Invariance of the Adapted Health Consciousness Scale (HCS-G)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6044; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18116044 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 662
Abstract
The objective of this study was the translation and validation of a health consciousness scale in order to provide an economically and empirically confirmed measurement of health consciousness, which is associated with health-related behavior. We evaluated this translation on the basis of psychometric [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was the translation and validation of a health consciousness scale in order to provide an economically and empirically confirmed measurement of health consciousness, which is associated with health-related behavior. We evaluated this translation on the basis of psychometric testing in a German convenience sample. A cross-sectional online survey (n = 470) was carried out using a translated version of the health consciousness scale, oriented on the basis of international guidelines. As previous studies have not consistently confirmed the factorial structure of the health consciousness scale, we conducted a Confirmatory Factor Analysis to verify its factorial structure. Furthermore, we cross-validated the questionnaire with other scales in order to verify convergent and discriminant validity. The results indicated a two-factor solution for the Health Consciousness Scale-German (HCS-G). The criterion validity was confirmed on the basis of a significantly positive correlation between the HCS-G and health literacy. Furthermore, strict measurement invariance was able to be verified, indicating that the HCS-G is an applicable measurement, regardless of gender. In practical research, this questionnaire can help to assess health consciousness and its influence on health-related constructs. Future studies should consider possible mediating variables between health consciousness and health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Article
Motivation for Physical Activity: Validation of the Dutch Version of the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5328; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105328 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
Understanding motivation for exercise can be helpful in improving levels of physical activity. The Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS) measures distinct goal-oriented motivations. In this study selected measurement properties of the Dutch version (PALMS-D) are determined. Forward-backward translation was used for [...] Read more.
Understanding motivation for exercise can be helpful in improving levels of physical activity. The Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS) measures distinct goal-oriented motivations. In this study selected measurement properties of the Dutch version (PALMS-D) are determined. Forward-backward translation was used for cross-cultural adaptation. Construct validity of the PALMS-D was assessed in five subsamples completing the PALMS-D and the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3). The study population consisted of five samples recruited from different populations; samples consisted of runners, hockey players, soccer players, participants in medical fitness, and a sedentary group of young adults with low activity. A total of 733 participants completed the questionnaire: 562 athletes and 171 non-athletes. Exploratory for Analysis confirmed the original eight factors. Internal consistency of the subscales was high, except for Others’ expectations. The a priori determined hypotheses related to differences between athletes participating in different sports were confirmed, as well as the hypothesis related to differences between amateur athletes, patients in medical fitness, and non-active participants. It was concluded that the Dutch version of the PALMS is an acceptable questionnaire with which to evaluate the individual motivation of athletes in the Netherlands, and discriminates between different leisure athletes, patients in medical fitness, and non-active youths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
Article
Measuring and Exploring Children’s Health Literacy in The Netherlands: Translation and Adaptation of the HLS-Child-Q15
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5244; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105244 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 733
Abstract
As health literacy (HL) is hypothesized to develop throughout life, enhancement during childhood will improve HL and health during life. There are few valid, age-appropriate tools to assess children’s HL. The German-language European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire Adapted for Children (HLS-Child-Q15-DE) is a [...] Read more.
As health literacy (HL) is hypothesized to develop throughout life, enhancement during childhood will improve HL and health during life. There are few valid, age-appropriate tools to assess children’s HL. The German-language European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire Adapted for Children (HLS-Child-Q15-DE) is a self-report questionnaire adapted from the adult European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire. This study aims to translate the HLS-Child-Q15 to Dutch and explore the sample’s HL distribution. The HLS-Child-Q15-DE was translated following WHO guidelines and administered digitally to 209 Dutch schoolchildren (eight-to-eleven-year-olds). Its psychometric properties were assessed and the sample’s HL distribution was explored by demographic characteristics. The HLS-Child-Q15-NL had high internal consistency (α = 0.860) and moderate to strong item-total correlations (mean = 0.499). For 6 of the 15 items, >10% of participants answered “do not know”, indicating comprehension problems. Higher HL scores were observed for ten-to-eleven-year-olds (compared with eight-to-nine-year-olds; p = 0.021) and fourth-grade students (compared with third-grade; p = 0.019). This supports the idea that HL evolves throughout life and the importance of schools in this process. With the HLS-Child-Q15-NL, a Dutch measurement instrument of children’s HL is available, although it needs further tailoring to the target group. More research is needed to decrease comprehension problems and to investigate retest reliability and construct validity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
Article
Adaptation and Measurement Invariance by Gender of the Flourishing Scale in a Colombian Sample
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2664; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18052664 - 06 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
There is increasing interest in the study of flourishing as an indicator of subjective wellbeing. The objective herein was to adapt and study the psychometric properties of Diener’s Flourishing Scale (FS) among the Colombian population. Accordingly, a cross-sectional study was conducted with a [...] Read more.
There is increasing interest in the study of flourishing as an indicator of subjective wellbeing. The objective herein was to adapt and study the psychometric properties of Diener’s Flourishing Scale (FS) among the Colombian population. Accordingly, a cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probability sample of 1255 Colombian adults. The scale’s structure, invariance by gender, and convergent and concurrent validity were studied from a confirmatory perspective using structural equation models. The confirmatory factor analysis showed excellent fit indicators for the one-dimensional structure (CFI = 0.985, RMSEA = 0.039, SRMR = 0.020) as well as for the convergent (CFI = 0.909, RMSEA = 0.050, SRMR = 0.063) and concurrent (CFI = 0.966, RMSEA = 0.036, SRMR = 0.041) validity models. The correlations calculated among flourishing with positive and negative effects (PANAS), satisfaction with life (SWL), and optimism and pessimism (LOT) were statistically significant and as expected. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance across gender was confirmed. Percentiles were provided for the total score. The FS scale was a valid and reliable measure to assess high levels of wellbeing among the Colombian population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
Article
Psychometric Properties of the Healthy Lifestyle Questionnaire for Ecuadorian University Students (EVS-EUE)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1087; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031087 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
University students are considered a key population in promoting and establishing healthy lifestyles that will ensure a full life for the next generations. The purpose of this study was to do a cultural and linguistic adaptation of the healthy lifestyle questionnaire for Ecuadorian [...] Read more.
University students are considered a key population in promoting and establishing healthy lifestyles that will ensure a full life for the next generations. The purpose of this study was to do a cultural and linguistic adaptation of the healthy lifestyle questionnaire for Ecuadorian university students (EVS-EUE). Two thousand, one hundred and eight (2108) students from 17 to 19 years old (27%), 20 to 24 years old (57%), and over 24 years old (16%) participated (M = 21.81 years; SD = 3.04). A confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency analysis, and concurrent validity were conducted. The results of the EVS-EUE Questionnaire presented adequate values (χ2/d.f = 9.02, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.96, Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.96, McDonald Fit Index (MFI) = 0.91, Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) = 0.94, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.03). The internal consistency showed values above 0.70, and analyzed its concurrent validity, reaching adequate values. This study has provided a valid and reliable questionnaire to evaluate healthy lifestyles in the Ecuadorian population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
Article
Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Validation and Reliability of the Spanish Satisfaction with Daily Occupations-Occupational Balance (SDO-OB): An Evaluation Tool for People with Mental Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8906; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17238906 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Occupation can be defined as all activities that occupy a person’s time. The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations and Occupational Balance instrument evaluates the perceived satisfaction with performance and the balance in time dedicated to different occupations. The main aim was to translate the [...] Read more.
Occupation can be defined as all activities that occupy a person’s time. The Satisfaction with Daily Occupations and Occupational Balance instrument evaluates the perceived satisfaction with performance and the balance in time dedicated to different occupations. The main aim was to translate the original instrument to Spanish and examine and establish the psychometric properties. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional study conducted in two stages: translation and cultural adaptation (forward translation, expert panel, back-translation, second expert panel and pre-testing and cognitive interviewing) and collecting data to evaluate psychometric properties (homogeneity, construct validity, known-groups validity, and floor/ceiling effects). One hundred participants took part in the study, adults with a diagnosis of a mental health disorder and adults without any known health problems. The Spanish version showed known-groups validity, acceptable internal consistency, and construct validity, although the relationships with some of the indicators of discriminant validity were somewhat higher than expected. The instrument shows promise as a useful screening tool for assessing activity level and satisfaction with daily occupations among a Spanish speaking population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
Article
Content Validation of an Instrument for the Assessment of School Teachers’ Levels of Knowledge of Diabetes through Expert Judgment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8605; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228605 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 688
Abstract
The objective of this study was to describe the content validation, through expert judgment, of a questionnaire for determining the level of knowledge that school teachers have of diabetes in order to design relevant educational interventions to improve the health of school-aged children. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to describe the content validation, through expert judgment, of a questionnaire for determining the level of knowledge that school teachers have of diabetes in order to design relevant educational interventions to improve the health of school-aged children. This psychometric study involved 15 experts who assessed each of the items in the instrument. The results revealed that the strength of agreement shown by the questionnaire ranged from substantial to almost perfect in its four dimensions, with the characteristics of “sufficiency” and “relevance” having the highest scores (0.982 and 0.903, respectively) based on the judgments made by the participating experts. Regarding statistical significance, the characteristics “sufficiency”, with p < 0.001, and “relevance”, with p = 0.001, were particularly relevant. The overall degree of understandability for the new version of the instrument was high (91.54%). The psychometric results obtained from validation of the “grado de conocimientos sobre diabetes en docentes del ámbito escolar” (Spanish for “level of knowledge of diabetes in school teachers”)—GCDDaE questionnaire through expert judgment and the pre-test indicate that it is recommended for use as it is both relevant and quick and easy to administer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
Article
Development and External Validity of a Short-Form Version of the INICIARE Scale to Classify Nursing Care Dependency Level in Acute Hospitals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8511; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228511 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Background: The increasing dependence care in patients hospitalized in acute hospitals around the world entails classification systems heeding the wide range of care dependency levels generated by the many different types of dependent patients. This article is a report of a study assessing [...] Read more.
Background: The increasing dependence care in patients hospitalized in acute hospitals around the world entails classification systems heeding the wide range of care dependency levels generated by the many different types of dependent patients. This article is a report of a study assessing the validity and reliability of a short-from version of the instrument (Inventario del NIvel de Cuidados mediante Indicadores de Resultados de Enfermería (INICIARE)) used to classify inpatients according to their care dependency level. Methods: The validation, carried out in a multicenter longitudinal study, included three different samples: the first sample of 1800 patients to evaluate the reliability and validity, a second of 762 patients for confirmatory factor analysis, and a third of 762 to test the short-form version. Patients over 16 years of age, admitted to medical or surgical units at 11 public hospitals, were included. Results: The final sample included 3605 patients. Patients had a mean age of 64.5 years, 60% were admitted to medical units, with severe dependency. The validation process yielded two versions of the instrument: a 40-item version, with eight factors with 83.6% of total variance explained and Cronbach’s alpha values between 0.98 and 0.92, and a short-form with 26 items, with five factors and Cronbach’s alpha values between 0.96 and 0.90. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis yielded a good fit model to the 40-item version (Chi Square on Degrees of Freedom CMIN/DF) = 1.335; Normed Fit Index (NFI); Tucker–Lewis Index (TLI); Comparative Fit Index (CFI) > 0.90; Standardized Residual Root Mean Square (RMSEA) = 0.02; and Standardized Residual Root Mean Square (SRMR) = 0.027) and 26-item version (Chi Square on Degrees of Freedom CMIN/DF = 1.385; NFI = 0.998; CFI = 0.999; RMSEA = 0.02; and SRMR 0.02). Both INICIARE versions obtained a high correlation between them (r = 0.96; p < 0.001). Conclusion: INICIARE has proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of the level of care dependency of acutely hospitalized patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Article
The Nursing Stress Scale-Spanish Version: An Update to Its Psychometric Properties and Validation of a Short-form Version in Acute Care Hospital Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8456; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228456 - 15 Nov 2020
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Stressful working conditions are correlated with a negative impact on the well-being of nurses, job satisfaction, quality of patient care and the health of the staff. The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess [...] Read more.
Stressful working conditions are correlated with a negative impact on the well-being of nurses, job satisfaction, quality of patient care and the health of the staff. The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess occupational stressors among nurses. This study updates the psychometric properties of the “NSS-Spanish version” and validates a short-form version. A cross-sectional design was carried out for this study. A reliability analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis and an exploratory factor analysis were undertaken. Items were systematically identified for reduction using statistical and theoretical analysis. Correlation testing and criterion validity confirmed scale equivalence. A total of 2195 Registered Nurses and 1914 Licensed Practical Nurses were enrolled. The original 34-item scale obtained a good internal consistency but an unsatisfactory confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. The short-form Nursing Stress Scale (11-items) obtained a good internal consistency for Registered Nurses (α = 0.83) and for Licensed Practical Nurses (α = 0.79). Both Nursing Stress Scales obtained a strong correlation for Registered Nurses (rho = 0.904) and for Licensed Practical Nurses (rho = 0.888). The 11-item version of the Nursing Stress Scale is a valid and reliable scale to assess stress perception among Registered Nurses and Licensed Practical Nurses. Its short-form nature improves the psychometric properties and the feasibility of the tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Article
A Novel Method for Gait Analysis on Center of Pressure Excursion Based on a Pressure-Sensitive Mat
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7845; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17217845 - 26 Oct 2020
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Center of pressure (COP) during gait is a useful measure for assessing gait ability and has been investigated using platform or insole systems. However, these systems have inherent restrictions in repeated measure design or in obtaining true vertical force. This study proposes a [...] Read more.
Center of pressure (COP) during gait is a useful measure for assessing gait ability and has been investigated using platform or insole systems. However, these systems have inherent restrictions in repeated measure design or in obtaining true vertical force. This study proposes a novel method based on a pressure-sensitive mat system for COP measurement and presents normal reference values for the system. To explore repeatability, this work also investigated relative and absolute intra-rater reliabilities and determined the number of footfalls required to obtain a reliable measurement. Ninety healthy young adults participated and performed barefoot walking on a force-sensitive mat at a comfortable and fast pace. The time points and subphase duration of the stance phase, displacement ranges, and mean locations of COP and velocity of COP excursion were parameterized. The results showed acceptable and consistent variabilities of the parameters. Seven footfalls were determined as the threshold for most parameters to show a good to reasonable level of reliability. In conclusion, the presented method can be used as a reliable measurement for COP excursion, and it is recommended that more than seven footfalls be collected to ensure a high level of reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Article
Psychometric Properties of the CASP-12 Scale in Portugal: An Analysis Using SHARE Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6610; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186610 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Control, Autonomy, Self-realization, and Pleasure (CASP)-12 scale used in the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) project. Data were obtained from a representative [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Control, Autonomy, Self-realization, and Pleasure (CASP)-12 scale used in the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) project. Data were obtained from a representative sample of 1666 people aged ≥50 years living in Portugal and participating in the SHARE wave 6. In addition to the CASP-12 scale, sociodemographic data and health status, activity limitation (GALI), depression (Euro-D) and satisfaction with life scores were collected. Data quality and acceptability, construct and structural validity and internal consistency of the CASP-12 scale were analyzed. A Rasch analysis was also performed. CASP-12 total score (mean: 33.3; standard deviation: 5.8, range: 12–48) correlated with Euro-D (−0.57) and with life satisfaction (0.52). Mean scores were significantly lower for women, people aged ≥75 years and those with activity limitations and worse health status (p < 0.001). The confirmatory factor analysis showed good fit to the 4-factor model (root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA): 0.07; comparative fit index (CFI): 0.90, χ2 (48) = 444.59, p < 0.001), which was confirmed by Rasch analysis (χ2 (36) = 10.089, p = 0.745, person separation index (PSI) = 0.722 for the 4-factor model). For domains, person separation index ranged 0.31–0.79 and Cronbach’s alpha, 0.37–0.73. In conclusion, the Portuguese version of the CASP-12 scale presents some inadequacies in acceptability, internal consistency and structural validity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Article
Lack of Correlation between Accelerometers and Heart-Rate Monitorization during Exercise Session in Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5518; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155518 - 30 Jul 2020
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Aging is increasing worldwide; hence, aging-related health is also more relevant. Well-programmed physical exercise is now an indispensable tool to achieve active aging and preserve older people’s health. Such “well-programmed” exercise requires efficient and useful tools to measure the activity. The objective of [...] Read more.
Aging is increasing worldwide; hence, aging-related health is also more relevant. Well-programmed physical exercise is now an indispensable tool to achieve active aging and preserve older people’s health. Such “well-programmed” exercise requires efficient and useful tools to measure the activity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of accelerometers to estimate two different intensities of physical exercise in older people. Thirty-eight subjects (64.5 ± 5.3 years) were measured during two different sessions of physical exercise: one moderate in intensity, the other of low intensity. Heart rate and accelerometry were recorded and analyzed. The results showed that the two variables in the physical exercise sessions were not highly correlated, and that accelerometry did not seem useful to assess low-intensity sessions not based on walking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Article
Assessment of Motor Activities of Daily Living: Spanish Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability and Construct Validity of the DCDDaily-Q
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4802; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17134802 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
The DCDDaily-Q is an instrument that aims to comprehensively assess motor performance in a broad range of activities of daily living (ADL) and to identify risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the [...] Read more.
The DCDDaily-Q is an instrument that aims to comprehensively assess motor performance in a broad range of activities of daily living (ADL) and to identify risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in children. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the DCDDaily-Q into European Spanish (DCDDaily-Q-ES) and to test its psychometric properties in Spanish 5 to 10 year old children. The DCDDaily-Q was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Spanish following international guidelines. Two-hundred and seventy-six parents of typically developing Spanish children completed the final version of the DCDDaily-Q-ES (M = 7.5 years, SD = 1.7; girls = 50%). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), internal consistency, and corrected item-total correlations were conducted to test construct validity, internal consistency, and homogeneity of the DCDDaily-Q-ES. The DCDDaily-Q-ES achieved good semantic, conceptual, and cultural equivalence. CFA supported construct validity of the DCDDaily-Q-ES. Reliability values were also good (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.703–0.843; corrected item-total correlations = 0.262–0.567). This is the first study to cross-culturally adapt and examine the DCDDaily-Q outside the Netherlands. The findings suggest that the DCDDaily-Q-ES is a reliable and valid measure to assess learning, participation, and performance in a broad range of ADL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Article
Psychometric Validation and Reference Norms for the European Spanish Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire: DCDQ-ES
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2425; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072425 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) is a widely used and well-validated tool that contributes to the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The aim of this study was to further analyze the psychometric properties of the European Spanish cross-culturally adapted version of [...] Read more.
The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) is a widely used and well-validated tool that contributes to the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The aim of this study was to further analyze the psychometric properties of the European Spanish cross-culturally adapted version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-ES) in a sample of Spanish children aged 6–11 years and to establish reference norms with respect to age groups. Parents of 540 typically developing children completed the DCDQ-ES. A second sample of 30 children with probable DCD (pDCD) was used to test its discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original three-factor structure and the internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach’s α = 0.907). Significant differences between age groups were found. The pDCD group scored significantly lower than the reference sample in the three subscales and DCDQ-ES total score (p < 0.001; AUC = 0.872). The DCDQ-ES is a reliable and valid tool for screening motor coordination difficulties in Spanish children and for identifying children with probable DCD. The findings of this research suggest that context-specific cut-off scores should be systematically utilized when using cross-cultural adaptations of the DCDQ. Age-specific cut-off scores for Spanish children are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Review

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Review
Nutritional Status Measurement Instruments for Diabetes: A Systematic Psychometric Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5719; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165719 - 07 Aug 2020
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Abstract
Background: Diabetes is a serious chronic disease associated with a large number of complications and an increased risk of premature death. A dietary evaluation is of utmost importance for health promotion, disease prevention and individual treatment plans in patients with diabetes. Methods: An [...] Read more.
Background: Diabetes is a serious chronic disease associated with a large number of complications and an increased risk of premature death. A dietary evaluation is of utmost importance for health promotion, disease prevention and individual treatment plans in patients with diabetes. Methods: An exhaustive search was carried out in various databases—Medline, Web of Science, Open Gray Cochrane Library and Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments (COSMIN)—for systematic review of the measurement properties of instruments that evaluate the dietary intake of people with diabetes mellitus type 1 and/or 2 according to COSMIN standards. Results: Seven instruments were identified. There was no instrument measuring nutritional status for which all the psychometric properties were evaluated. The methodological quality for each of the psychometric properties evaluated was ‘inadequate’ or ‘doubtful’ for all instruments. The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) evaluated the most psychometric characteristics and with a better score in terms of quality of the evidence. Conclusions: Several instruments have been developed for the evaluation of dietary intake in people with diabetes. Evaluation of this construct is very useful, both in clinical practice and in research, requiring new knowledge in this area. The FFQ is the best instrument available to assess dietary intake in people with diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments for Measuring Health)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Normative values and psychometric properties of Spanish versión of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB-E) in a representative sample of adults.

Authors: Desirée Valera Gran et al

Affiliation: Departamento de Patología y Cirugía, Miguel Hernández University, Alicante, Spain

 

Title: Bibliometric analysis of research on the use of Nine Hole test.

Authors: Gema Moreno et al

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Surgery, Miguel Hernández University, Alicante, Spain

 

Title: What could the spatial statistics do in the environmental and public health? New features.

Authors: Xavi Barber et al

Affiliation: Centro de Investigación Operativa, Miguel Hernández University, Alicante, Spain

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