Special Issue "Mixed-Methods Evaluation of Physical Activity, Exercise or Sedentary Behaviour Interventions"

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Kelly Mackintosh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Centre in Applied Sports, Technology, Exercise and Medicine (A-STEM), Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
Interests: physical activity and health; irrespective of the population; children’s physical activity and health; and in particular; school-based interventions; close collaboration with engineers and computer scientists; my passion has extended to utilising technology to both measure and promote physical activity; clinical populations. Nonetheless; central to all my work is the role of behaviour change and intervention design and evaluation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The importance of leading an active, less sedentary, lifestyle for health, irrespective of the population, is well known. As such, there is a vast array of interventions that are designed and implemented to either enhance physical activity, whether it is generic behaviour change or structured exercise prescriptions, or reduce sedentary time. However, little research implements and reports in-depth evaluations, and there is often publication bias on successful “effective” interventions, rather than the process and, indeed, participants’ perceptions. As such, we are interested in mixed-methods evaluations of physical activity, exercise or sedentary behaviour interventions across all populations and settings. Different methodological and theoretical approaches are supported.

Dr. Kelly Mackintosh
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Physical activity
  • Exercise
  • Sedentary behaviour
  • Health
  • Intervention
  • Evaluation
  • Qualitative
  • Clincal
  • Children
  • Adolescents
  • Youth
  • Adults
  • Older Adults

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of CARE (Cancer and Rehabilitation Exercise): A Physical Activity and Health Intervention, Delivered in a Community Football Trust
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3327; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18063327 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 884
Abstract
With increasing cancer survivorship has come an increased necessity to support people living with cancer (PLWC) to have a good quality of life including being physically active. Using mixed methods, the current study aimed to use the RE-AIM evaluation framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, [...] Read more.
With increasing cancer survivorship has come an increased necessity to support people living with cancer (PLWC) to have a good quality of life including being physically active. Using mixed methods, the current study aimed to use the RE-AIM evaluation framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) to determine how the football community trust delivered CARE (Cancer and Rehabilitation Exercise) intervention was able to increase participants’ physical activity in order to improve their quality of life and regain physiological and psychological function. Quantitative outcome data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months using the Cancer Physical Activity Standard Evaluation Framework questionnaire. Semi-structured focus groups (n = 5) captured participants’ (n = 40) lived experience of the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of CARE. Questionnaire data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVAs and qualitative data were thematically analysed. Following diagnosis, CARE was successful in providing participants with a unique and accessible opportunity to become or restart physically activity, by providing a local, socially supportive, and inclusive environment. This resulted in significant increases in physical activity (F(1.58, 23) = 5.98, p = 0.009), quality of life (QoL) (F(2,36) = 13.12, p = 0.000) and significant reductions in fatigue (F(1.57,31) = 11.19, p = 0.000) over 6 months. Participants also reported becoming more active, recovering physical function, regaining independence, and enhanced psychological well-being as a result of attending CARE. Key design features of CARE were also identified across RE-AIM. CARE, a football community trust delivered physical activity intervention was successful in significantly improving participants’ QoL and in regaining the physical and psychological functioning of people living with cancer. Results suggest that maintaining engagement in CARE for 6 months and beyond can support people to maintain these changes. Engaging in robust evaluations such as this can help organizations to successfully secure future funding for their programs. Full article
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Article
The Effect of a High-Intensity PrO2Fit Inspiratory Muscle Training Intervention on Physiological and Psychological Health in Adults with Bronchiectasis: A Mixed-Methods Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3051; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18063051 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Bronchiectasis is characterised by airflow obstruction and hyperinflation resulting in respiratory muscle weakness, and decreased exercise capacity. Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is potentially an alternative treatment strategy to enhance respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the effects of [...] Read more.
Bronchiectasis is characterised by airflow obstruction and hyperinflation resulting in respiratory muscle weakness, and decreased exercise capacity. Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is potentially an alternative treatment strategy to enhance respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the effects of IMT on those with bronchiectasis. Eighteen participants (10 bronchiectasis) took part in an eight-week, three times a week IMT programme at 80% sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SMIP). Lung function, respiratory muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity, physical activity and self-determination theory measures were taken. Participants also took part in a semi-structured interview to assess their perceptions and experience of an IMT intervention. After eight weeks of IMT, bronchiectasis and healthy participants exhibited significant increases in MIP (27% vs. 32%, respectively), SMIP (16% vs. 17%, respectively) and inspiratory duration (36% vs. 30%, respectively). Healthy participants exhibited further improvements in peak expiratory flow and maximal oxygen consumption. Bronchiectasis participants reported high levels of perceived competence and motivation, reporting higher adherence and improved physical ability. Eight weeks of IMT increased inspiratory muscle strength and endurance in those with bronchiectasis. IMT also had a positive effect on perceived competency and autonomy, with bronchiectasis participants reporting improved physical ability and motivation, and high adherence. Full article
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Article
Pilot Testing of a Nudge-Based Digital Intervention (Welbot) to Improve Sedentary Behaviour and Wellbeing in the Workplace
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5763; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165763 - 10 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Welbot is a nudge-based digital intervention that aims to reduce sedentary behaviour and improve physical and mental wellbeing at work. The purpose of this study was to pilot test the Welbot intervention. Forty-one (6M/35F) University staff (M age = 43-years) participated in [...] Read more.
Welbot is a nudge-based digital intervention that aims to reduce sedentary behaviour and improve physical and mental wellbeing at work. The purpose of this study was to pilot test the Welbot intervention. Forty-one (6M/35F) University staff (M age = 43-years) participated in this study, which was a single arm repeated measures trial conducted over three weeks of intervention. The primary outcome was sedentary behaviour (measured subjectively and objectively) and secondary outcomes included: mental wellbeing, procrastination, depression, anxiety and stress, and work engagement. A subset of participants (n = 6) wore an ActivPAL to objectively measure activity data, while another subset of participants (n = 6) completed a qualitative semi-structured interview to ascertain experiences of using Welbot. Following the intervention, a Friedman non-parametric test revealed that participants self-reported significantly less time sitting and more time standing and objectively recorded more steps at the week-1 follow-up. A series of paired t-tests exhibited that changes in all secondary outcomes were in the expected direction. However, only improvements in depression, anxiety, and stress were significant. After using Welbot, thematic analysis demonstrated that participants perceived they had a positive behaviour change, increased awareness of unhealthy behaviours at work, and provided suggestions for intervention improvement. Overall, findings provided indications of the potential positive impact Welbot may have on employees’ wellbeing, however, limitations are noted. Recommendations for intervention improvement including personalisation (e.g., individual preferences for nudges and the option to sync Welbot with online calendars) and further research into how users engage with Welbot are provided. Full article
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Article
A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a Digital Intervention to Improve Sedentary Behaviour Across Multiple Workplace Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4538; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124538 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Background: Prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is associated with risk of chronic diseases. Digital interventions in SB require mixed method evaluations to understand potential for impact in real-world settings. In this study, the RE-AIM QuEST evaluation framework will be used to understand the potential [...] Read more.
Background: Prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is associated with risk of chronic diseases. Digital interventions in SB require mixed method evaluations to understand potential for impact in real-world settings. In this study, the RE-AIM QuEST evaluation framework will be used to understand the potential of a digital health promotion application which targets reducing and breaking up SB across multiple workplace settings. Methods: Four companies and 80 employees were recruited to use a digital application. Questionnaires were used to measure SB, and additional health and work-related outcomes at baseline, one month, three month and six month follow-up. Qualitative data was collected through focus groups with employees and interviews with stakeholders. Questionnaire data was analysed using Wilcoxon Sign Rank tests and qualitative data was thematically analysed. Results: The digital application significantly increased standing time at one month for the total group and transitions per hour in one of the companies. Facilitators and barriers were identified across RE-AIM. Conclusions: Addressing the barriers which have been identified, while maintaining the positive attributes will be critical to producing an effective digital application which also has the potential for impact in the real world. Full article
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