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Special Issue "Neonicotinoid Insecticides Exposure, Mode of Action and Their Effects"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Toxicology and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Steeve Hervé Thany
E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), Université d’Orléans, UPRES EA 1207-USC INRA, Rue de Chartres, BP 6759, 45067 Orléans, France
Interests: neonicotinoid insecticides; insect neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; mammalian neuronal nicotinic receptors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neonicotinoid insecticides were first introduced in the mid-1990s. They are the main target of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Since the mid-2000s, they were suspected to have negative effects on non-target species, in particular the honeybee, Apis mellifera which is the most important managed pollinator. Recently, the European Union has banned three different neonicotinoid insecticides: clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, due to their adverse effects on useful insects and environment. However, for many pest control problems, neonicotinoid insecticides continue to be used.

In this special issue, we aim to review the mode of action of neonicotinoid insecticides, from targets to non-target species. We will explore their mode of action from chemical analyses, toxicology, to molecular and cellular levels.

Prof. Dr. Steeve Hervé Thany
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Neonicotinoids
  • Toxicity
  • Chemistry
  • Mode of action
  • Exposure levels
  • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Appearance of Thiacloprid in the Guttation Liquid of Coated Maize Seeds
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3290; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093290 - 08 May 2020
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Abstract
Thiacloprid (TCL) uptake by maize plants that emerge from coated seeds has been investigated and characterized via measurements of the compound in the guttation liquid. TCL levels were determined in the guttation liquid: (a) under field and semi-field conditions, (b) for different maize [...] Read more.
Thiacloprid (TCL) uptake by maize plants that emerge from coated seeds has been investigated and characterized via measurements of the compound in the guttation liquid. TCL levels were determined in the guttation liquid: (a) under field and semi-field conditions, (b) for different maize varieties, (c) applying different dosages, and (d) as affected by cross-contamination between maize seeds via soil. Cross-contamination was described by uptake interactions between seeds coated with TCL and neighboring seeds not coated or coated with other neonicotinoids, e.g., either thiamethoxam (TMX) or clothianidin (CLO). TCL levels remained under 100 µg/mL in the guttation liquid under field conditions, and were quantifiable even on the 39th day after planting of coated seeds. Higher levels up to 188.6 µg/mL were detected in plants grown under semi-field conditions in pots. Levels in the guttation liquid were also found to be influenced by the applied dosages. The uptake of TCL was found to vary for different maize varieties. Appearance of TCL as a cross-contaminant in the guttation liquid of neighboring plants emerging from non-coated maize seeds indicates translocation of the compound via soil. Peak levels of TCL cross-contamination were found to be lower (43.6 µg/mL) than the corresponding levels in the parent maize plants emerging from coated seeds (107.5 µg/mL), but values converge to each other. Similar trends were observed with neighboring seeds coated with other neonicotinoids (TMX or CLO). The translocation rate of TCL and its uptake by other plants seem to be lower than that of TMX or CLO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonicotinoid Insecticides Exposure, Mode of Action and Their Effects)
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Article
The Toxic Effects of Sulfoxaflor Induced in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) under Effective Concentrations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1740; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17051740 - 07 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Sulfoxaflor is a new kind of neonicotinoid insecticide that is used to control sap-feeding insect pests. In this study, a hazard assessment of sulfoxaflor on soil invertebrate earthworms was performed under effective concentrations. The results showed that different exposure times and doses had [...] Read more.
Sulfoxaflor is a new kind of neonicotinoid insecticide that is used to control sap-feeding insect pests. In this study, a hazard assessment of sulfoxaflor on soil invertebrate earthworms was performed under effective concentrations. The results showed that different exposure times and doses had significant influence on the toxicity of sulfoxaflor. Sulfoxaflor degraded quickly in artificial soil with a degradation rate of 0.002–0.017 mg/(kg·d) and a half-life of 12.0–15.4 d. At 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg, the ·OH content, antioxidant enzyme activeities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and 8-OHdG content had significant differences compared to those in the control group. On the 56th day, significant differences were only observed in the Glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) activity and 8-OHdG content at 1.0 mg/kg compared to those in the control group due to the degradation of sulfoxaflor. This indicated that the risk of sulfoxaflor to earthworms was reduced because it was easily degraded in soil. However, because sulfoxaflor is a super toxic pollutant to earthworms, high concentrations of sulfoxaflor should not be released into the soil environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonicotinoid Insecticides Exposure, Mode of Action and Their Effects)
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Review

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Review
An Overview on the Effect of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Mammalian Cholinergic Functions through the Activation of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093222 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Neonicotinoid insecticides are used worldwide and have been demonstrated as toxic to beneficial insects such as honeybees. Their effectiveness is predominantly attributed to their high affinity for insect neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Mammalian neuronal nAChRs are of major importance because cholinergic synaptic [...] Read more.
Neonicotinoid insecticides are used worldwide and have been demonstrated as toxic to beneficial insects such as honeybees. Their effectiveness is predominantly attributed to their high affinity for insect neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Mammalian neuronal nAChRs are of major importance because cholinergic synaptic transmission plays a key role in rapid neurotransmission, learning and memory processes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Because of the low agonist effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on mammalian neuronal nAChRs, it has been suggested that they are relatively safe for mammals, including humans. However, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that neonicotinoid insecticides can modulate cholinergic functions through neuronal nAChRs. Major studies on the influence of neonicotinoid insecticides on cholinergic functions have been conducted using nicotine low-affinity homomeric α7 and high-affinity heteromeric α4β2 receptors, as they are the most abundant in the nervous system. It has been found that the neonicotinoids thiamethoxam and clothianidin can activate the release of dopamine in rat striatum. In some contexts, such as neurodegenerative diseases, they can disturb the neuronal distribution or induce oxidative stress, leading to neurotoxicity. This review highlights recent studies on the mode of action of neonicotinoid insecticides on mammalian neuronal nAChRs and cholinergic functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonicotinoid Insecticides Exposure, Mode of Action and Their Effects)
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Review
Neonicotinoids: Spreading, Translocation and Aquatic Toxicity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2006; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17062006 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Various environmental and ecotoxicological aspects related to applications of neonicotinoid insecticides are assessed. Dosages of neonicotinoids applied in seed coating materials were determined and are compared to other applications (spray and granule). Environmental levels in soils and affecting factors in translocation are discussed. [...] Read more.
Various environmental and ecotoxicological aspects related to applications of neonicotinoid insecticides are assessed. Dosages of neonicotinoids applied in seed coating materials were determined and are compared to other applications (spray and granule). Environmental levels in soils and affecting factors in translocation are discussed. Excretion of neonicotinoids via guttation from coated maize seeds up to two months upon emergence, as well as cross-contamination of plants emerged from non-coated seeds or weeds nearby have been demonstrated. Contamination of surface waters is discussed in scope of a worldwide review and the environmental fate of the neonicotinoid active ingredients and the formulating surfactant appeared to be mutually affected by each other. Toxicity of neonicotinoid active ingredients and formulations on Daphnia magna completed with some investigations of activity of the detoxifying glutathione S-transferase enzyme demonstrated the modified toxicity due to the formulating agents. Electrophysiological results on identified central neurons of the terrestrial snail Helix pomatia showed acetylcholine antagonist (inhibitory) effects of neonicotinoid insecticide products, but no agonist (ACh-like) effects were recorded. These data also suggested different molecular targets (nicotinergic acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine esterase enzyme) of neonicotinoids in the snail central nervous system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonicotinoid Insecticides Exposure, Mode of Action and Their Effects)
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Review
Time-Cumulative Toxicity of Neonicotinoids: Experimental Evidence and Implications for Environmental Risk Assessments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1629; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17051629 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Our mechanistic understanding of the toxicity of chemicals that target biochemical and/or physiological pathways, such as pesticides and medical drugs is that they do so by binding to specific molecules. The nature of the latter molecules (e.g., enzymes, receptors, DNA, proteins, etc.) and [...] Read more.
Our mechanistic understanding of the toxicity of chemicals that target biochemical and/or physiological pathways, such as pesticides and medical drugs is that they do so by binding to specific molecules. The nature of the latter molecules (e.g., enzymes, receptors, DNA, proteins, etc.) and the strength of the binding to such chemicals elicit a toxic effect in organisms, which magnitude depends on the doses exposed to within a given timeframe. While dose and time of exposure are critical factors determining the toxicity of pesticides, different types of chemicals behave differently. Experimental evidence demonstrates that the toxicity of neonicotinoids increases with exposure time as much as with the dose, and therefore it has been described as time-cumulative toxicity. Examples for aquatic and terrestrial organisms are shown here. This pattern of toxicity, also found among carcinogenic compounds and other toxicants, has been ignored in ecotoxicology and risk assessments for a long time. The implications of the time-cumulative toxicity of neonicotinoids on non-target organisms of aquatic and terrestrial environments are far reaching. Firstly, neonicotinoids are incompatible with integrated pest management (IPM) approaches and secondly regulatory assessments for this class of compounds cannot be based solely on exposure doses but need also to take into consideration the time factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonicotinoid Insecticides Exposure, Mode of Action and Their Effects)
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