Special Issue "Neuromuscular Responses and Adaptations in Exercise, Sport and Health"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Zachary J. Crowley-McHattan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Military Road East Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia
Interests: exercise science; neuromuscular control and physiology; motor control and learning; skill analysis
Prof. Dr. Pedro Bezerra
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Escola Superior de Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, 320, Melgaço, Portugal
Interests: exercise physiology; neuromuscular physiology; cardiovascular physiology; exercise performance; health sciences; aging
Prof. Dr. Shi Zhou
E-Mail
Guest Editor
School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Military Road East Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia
Interests: exercise physiology; exercise science; neuromuscular physiology; allied health, sports or athletics
Prof. Dr. Yung Sheng Chen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
Interests: exercise physiology; neuromuscular physiology; cardiovascular physiology; exercise performance; health sciences; aging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to submit papers to our Special Edition entitled “Neuromuscular Responses and Adaptations in Exercise, Sport, and Health”. Given the importance of the neuromuscular system to physical performance and health, it is imperative to investigate and advance our understanding of this system. This Special Issue will focus on the impacts of innovative training and exercise interventions on neuromuscular function and encompass a variety of research and assessment methods. Papers will address important questions from basic science to daily life and practice, while also having considerable implications across a wide-ranging number of health domains such as aging, clinical populations, and sports.

We welcome quality empirical reports as well as review articles and look forward to receiving contributions examining, but not limited to, the following topic areas:

  • Neuromuscular physiology investigations at cellular, system, and organism levels;
  • Motor-sensory control of skeletal muscle contractions;
  • Neuromuscular adaptations to exercise and sport;
  • Health benefits of exercise and training in clinical conditions;
  • Effects of aging and exercise on neuromuscular function;
  • Motor competence and neuromuscular development in children and adolescents;
  • Innovation, validation, and reliability of neuromuscular assessments.

Dr. Zachary Crowley-McHattan
Prof. Dr. Pedro Bezerra
Prof. Dr. Shi Zhou
Prof. Dr. Yung Sheng Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • balance control
  • exercise rehabilitation
  • exercise recovery
  • exercise and training intervention
  • muscle strength
  • muscle physiology
  • motor learning and performance
  • neuromuscular control
  • neuromuscular assessment

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Acute Effects of Kinesiology Taping Stretch Tensions on Soleus and Gastrocnemius H-Reflex Modulations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4411; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094411 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 696
Abstract
This study examined the acute effects of stretch tensions of kinesiology taping (KT) on the soleus (SOL), medial (MG), and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex) modulation in physically active healthy adults. A cross-over within-subject design was used in this study. Twelve physically active [...] Read more.
This study examined the acute effects of stretch tensions of kinesiology taping (KT) on the soleus (SOL), medial (MG), and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex) modulation in physically active healthy adults. A cross-over within-subject design was used in this study. Twelve physically active collegiate students voluntarily participated in the study (age = 21.3 ± 1.2 years; height = 175.6 ± 7.1 cm; body weight = 69.9 ± 7.1 kg). A standard Y-shape of KT technique was applied to the calf muscles. The KT was controlled in three tension intensities in a randomised order: paper-off, 50%, and 100% of maximal stretch tension of the tape. The peak-to-peak amplitude of maximal M-wave (Mmax) and H-reflex (Hmax) responses in the SOL, MG, and LG muscles were assessed before taping (pre-taping), taping, and after taping (post-taping) phases in the lying prone position. The results demonstrated significantly larger LG Hmax responses in the pre-taping condition than those in the post-taping condition during paper-off KT (p = 0.002). Moreover, the ΔHmax/Mmax of pre- and post-taping in the SOL muscle was significantly larger during 50%KT tension than that of paper-off (p = 0.046). In conclusion, the stretch tension of KT contributes minor influence on the spinal motoneuron excitability in the triceps surae during rest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromuscular Responses and Adaptations in Exercise, Sport and Health)
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Article
The Relationship between Health Perception and Health Predictors among the Elderly across European Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4053; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084053 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health perception and health predictors among the elderly. In this study, 376 older adults from four different countries (Hungary, n = 86; Italy, n = 133; Portugal, n = 95; and Spain, n = 62) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health perception and health predictors among the elderly. In this study, 376 older adults from four different countries (Hungary, n = 86; Italy, n = 133; Portugal, n = 95; and Spain, n = 62) were analyzed. All subjects completed the EQ-5D-5L to assess their quality-adjusted life years and were assessed in handgrip (HG) and in Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. A three-way MANOVA was conducted to analyze the groups based on their age, sex, and country. The interaction effects in all included variables were also considered. The Bonferroni test was also executed as a post hoc test. Any interaction results were noticed. Regarding age, lower perceived quality of life scores and higher TUG results were registered in the oldest group, and greater values of left and right HG results were registered in the second-oldest group. Males showed greater left and right HG values than women. Spain showed lower perceived quality of life scores. Portugal and Italy showed greater HG left values, while Portugal had better HG right values. Hungary produced the greatest TUG scores. Quality of life is dependent on the subject’s age and physical fitness, as increasing age was associated with decreased values of HG and TUG. Only strength was different between sexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromuscular Responses and Adaptations in Exercise, Sport and Health)
Article
Postural Responses to Sudden Horizontal Perturbations in Tai Chi Practitioners
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2692; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18052692 - 07 Mar 2021
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Tai Chi has been shown to elicit numerous positive effects on health and well-being. In this study, we examined reactive postural control after sudden unloading horizontal perturbations, which resembled situations encountered during Tai Chi. The study involved 20 participants, 10 in the Tai [...] Read more.
Tai Chi has been shown to elicit numerous positive effects on health and well-being. In this study, we examined reactive postural control after sudden unloading horizontal perturbations, which resembled situations encountered during Tai Chi. The study involved 20 participants, 10 in the Tai Chi group (age: 37.4 ± 7.8 years), who had been regularly training the push-hand technique for at least 7 years, and 10 in the control group, consisting of healthy adults (age: 28.8 ± 5.0). Perturbations were applied at three different positions (hips, shoulders, and arms) via the load-release paradigm. Twenty measurements were carried out for each perturbation position. We measured peak vertical and horizontal forces on the ground (expressed percentage of body mass (%BM)), peak center of pressure displacement and peak horizontal and vertical velocities at the knee, hip and shoulder joints. The Tai Chi group exhibited smaller increases in vertical ground reaction forces when perturbations were applied at the hips (11.5 ± 2.1 vs. 19.6 ± 5.5 %BW; p = 0.002) and the arms (14.1 ± 4.2 vs. 23.2 ± 8.4 %BW; p = 0.005). They also responded with higher horizontal force increase after hip perturbation (16.2 ± 3.2 vs. 13.1 ± 2.5 %BW; p < 0.001). Similar findings were found when observing various outcomes related to velocities of vertical movement. The Tai Chi group also showed lower speeds of backward movement of the knee (p = 0.005–0.009) after hip (0.49 ± 0.13 vs. 0.85 ± 0.14 m/s; p = 0.005) and arm perturbations (0.97 ± 0.18 vs. 1.71 ± 0.29 m/s; p = 0.005). Center of pressure displacements were similar between groups. Our study demonstrated that engaging in Tai Chi could be beneficial to reactive postural responses after sudden perturbations in a horizontal direction; however, future interventional studies are needed to directly confirm this. Moreover, because of the age difference between the groups, some confounding effects of age cannot be ruled out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromuscular Responses and Adaptations in Exercise, Sport and Health)
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Article
Skeletal Muscle Metabolomic Responses to Endurance and Resistance Training in Rats under Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1645; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041645 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 725
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to compare the antidepressant effects between endurance and resistance exercise for optimizing interventions and examine the metabolomic changes in different types of skeletal muscles in response to the exercise, using a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to compare the antidepressant effects between endurance and resistance exercise for optimizing interventions and examine the metabolomic changes in different types of skeletal muscles in response to the exercise, using a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression. There were 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly divided into a control group (C) and 3 experimental groups: CUMS control (D), endurance exercise (E), and resistance exercise (R). Group E underwent 30 min treadmill running, and group R performed 8 rounds of ladder climbing, 5 sessions per week for 4 weeks. Body weight, sucrose preference, and open field tests were performed pre and post the intervention period for changes in depressant symptoms, and the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were sampled after the intervention for metabolomic analysis using the 1H-NMR technique. The results showed that both types of exercise effectively improved the depression-like symptoms, and the endurance exercise appeared to have a better effect. The levels of 10 metabolites from the gastrocnemius and 13 metabolites from the soleus of group D were found to be significantly different from that of group C, and both types of exercise had a callback effect on these metabolites, indicating that a number of metabolic pathways were involved in the depression and responded to the exercise interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromuscular Responses and Adaptations in Exercise, Sport and Health)
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Article
Residual Force Enhancement Is Present in Consecutive Post-Stretch Isometric Contractions of the Hamstrings during a Training Simulation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031154 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 744
Abstract
Residual force enhancement (rFE) is observed when isometric force following an active stretch is elevated compared to an isometric contraction at corresponding muscle lengths. Acute rFE has been confirmed in vivo in upper and lower limb muscles. However, it is uncertain whether rFE [...] Read more.
Residual force enhancement (rFE) is observed when isometric force following an active stretch is elevated compared to an isometric contraction at corresponding muscle lengths. Acute rFE has been confirmed in vivo in upper and lower limb muscles. However, it is uncertain whether rFE persists using multiple, consecutive contractions as per a training simulation. Using the knee flexors, 10 recreationally active participants (seven males, three females; age 31.00 years ± 8.43 years) performed baseline isometric contractions at 150° knee flexion (180° representing terminal knee extension) of 50% maximal voluntary activation of semitendinosus. Participants performed post-stretch isometric (PS-ISO) contractions (three sets of 10 repetitions) starting at 90° knee extension with a joint rotation of 60° at 60°·s−1 at 50% maximal voluntary activation of semitendinosus. Baseline isometric torque and muscle activation were compared to PS-ISO torque and muscle activation across all 30 repetitions. Significant rFE was noted in all repetitions (37.8–77.74%), with no difference in torque between repetitions or sets. There was no difference in activation of semitendinosus or biceps femoris long-head between baseline and PS-ISO contractions in all repetitions (ST; baseline ISO = 0.095–1.000 ± 0.036–0.039 Mv, PS-ISO = 0.094–0.098 ± 0.033–0.038 and BFlh; baseline ISO = 0.068–0.075 ± 0.031–0.038 Mv). This is the first investigation to observe rFE during multiple, consecutive submaximal PS-ISO contractions. PS-ISO contractions have the potential to be used as a training stimulus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromuscular Responses and Adaptations in Exercise, Sport and Health)
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Article
Comparison of Interventional Strategies to Improve Recovery after Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Fatigue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 647; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020647 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various recovery techniques on muscle tissue after eccentric exercise-induced muscle fatigue (EIMF). Forty subjects (24.3 ± 2.6 years; 77.45 ± 8.3 kg; 177.0 ± 6.4 cm; 24.66 ± 1.6 kg∙m−2) [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various recovery techniques on muscle tissue after eccentric exercise-induced muscle fatigue (EIMF). Forty subjects (24.3 ± 2.6 years; 77.45 ± 8.3 kg; 177.0 ± 6.4 cm; 24.66 ± 1.6 kg∙m−2) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: manual therapy (n =10, MT), mechanical vibration (n = 10, MV), percussion therapy (n = 10, PT) or foam roller (n = 10, FR). The contraction time (Tc) and the radial displacement (Dm) of the gastrocnemius was evaluated through tensiomyography (TMG). The application of the different techniques had positive effects for Tc and Dm in the treated leg compared to the untreated leg (F = 50.01, p < 0.01, η2p = 0.58 and F = 27.58, p < 0.01, η2p = 0.43, respectively) and for the interaction of the factors (Time x Leg x Therapy: F = 5.76, p < 0.01, η2p = 0.32 and F = 5.93, p < 0.01, η2p = 0.33, respectively). The results of the various methods used were similar: Tc (F = 0.17, p = 0.917; η2p = 0.01) and Dm (F = 3.30, p = 0.031, η2p = 0.22). PT interventions show potential for restoring muscle compliance and reducing stiffness, similar to MT and possibly more effective (cost-time relationship) compared to MV or FR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromuscular Responses and Adaptations in Exercise, Sport and Health)
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Review

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Review
A Review of the Role of Endo/Sarcoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Ca2+ Transport in Diseases and Skeletal Muscle Function
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 3874; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18083874 - 07 Apr 2021
Viewed by 801
Abstract
The physical contact site between a mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), named the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM), has emerged as a fundamental platform for regulating the functions of the two organelles and several cellular processes. This includes Ca2+ transport from the ER to [...] Read more.
The physical contact site between a mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), named the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM), has emerged as a fundamental platform for regulating the functions of the two organelles and several cellular processes. This includes Ca2+ transport from the ER to mitochondria, mitochondrial dynamics, autophagy, apoptosis signalling, ER stress signalling, redox reaction, and membrane structure maintenance. Consequently, the MAM is suggested to be involved in, and as a possible therapeutic target for, some common diseases and impairment in skeletal muscle function, such as insulin resistance and diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle atrophy, and exercise-induced muscle damage. In the past decade, evidence suggests that alterations in Ca2+ transport from the ER to mitochondria, mediated by the macromolecular complex formed by IP3R, Grp75, and VDAC1, may be a universal mechanism for how ER-mitochondria cross-talk is involved in different physiological/pathological conditions mentioned above. A better understanding of the ER (or sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle)-mitochondria Ca2+ transport system may provide a new perspective for exploring the mechanism of how the MAM is involved in the pathology of diseases and skeletal muscle dysfunction. This review provides a summary of recent research findings in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromuscular Responses and Adaptations in Exercise, Sport and Health)
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Review
Uncovering the Role of Different Instructional Designs When Learning Tactical Scenes of Play through Dynamic Visualizations: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 256; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18010256 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Dynamic visualizations such as videos or animations have been developed to exchange information that transforms over time across a broad range of professional/academic contexts. However, such visual tools may impose substantial demands on the learner’s cognitive resources that are very limited in current [...] Read more.
Dynamic visualizations such as videos or animations have been developed to exchange information that transforms over time across a broad range of professional/academic contexts. However, such visual tools may impose substantial demands on the learner’s cognitive resources that are very limited in current knowledge. Cognitive load theory has been used to improve learning from dynamic visualizations by providing different instructional designs to manage learner cognitive load. This paper reviews a series of experimental studies assessing the effects of certain instructional designs on learning of tactical scenes of play through dynamic visualizations. An electronic database search was performed on the Web of Science and PubMed/Medline databases from inception to July 2020 using a combination of relevant keywords. Manual searches were also made. The search was limited to English language. A total of 515 records were screened by two researchers using the Population/Intervention/Comparison/Outcome(s) (PICO) criteria. The quality and validity of the included studies were assessed using “QualSyst”. Learning indicators in students and/or players (male and female) at any age category and competitive level were considered. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria for this review, which focused on the effects of four instructional designs (i.e., using static visualizations, employing sequential presentation, applying segmentation, and decreasing presentation speed) on learning various game systems through dynamic visualizations. These studies indicate that (i) the effectiveness of all instructional designs depend upon the level of learners’ expertise when learning soccer/Australian football scenes through animations/videos, (ii) the effectiveness of using static visualizations instead of animations/videos showing soccer/basketball scenes depend upon the type of the depicted knowledge (i.e., motor knowledge or descriptive knowledge) for novice learners, (iii) the effectiveness of employing static visualizations and decreasing presentation speed when learning soccer/basketball scenes from animations/videos depend upon the level of content complexity, for novice learners. The current review demonstrated important practical implications for both coaches and physical education teachers using either animations and/or videos to communicate game systems. Indeed, findings suggested that adapting instructional designs to the level of learners’ expertise, type of depicted knowledge, and level of content complexity is a crucial part of effective tactical learning from dynamic visualizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromuscular Responses and Adaptations in Exercise, Sport and Health)
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