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Special Issue "Obesity, Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2022 | Viewed by 6665

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Grzegorz Wystrychowski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetology and Nephrology, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Interests: obesity; insulin resistance; gut microbiota; mesenchymal stem cells; liver steatosis; glomerulopathies
Dr. Marta Wróbel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetology and Cardiometabolic Disorders, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Interests: diabetes; hypoglycemic therapies; physical activity and diet

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Obesity is often overlooked as a cause of morbidity and mortality in contemporary society; nevertheless, it is the deadliest condition worldwide today. As such, we are proposing a Special Issue in IJERPH dedicated to the interconnected obesity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease clinical entities. Original research and systemic review manuscripts are invited not only in the classical field of insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and diabetic kidney disease, but also pertaining to the other aspects of the multifaceted relationships between excess body weight and glucose disturbances or renal injury. Among others, these would include renal contexts of adipose tissue microinflammation, liver steatosis, dyslipidemia, gut dysbiosis, all types and stages of glucose disturbances, diet and physical activity, hypoglycemic therapies, as well as obesity-related glomerulopathy. Epidemiological, public health, environmental, and clinical research is mostly anticipated in line with the profile of the journal, but experimental studies related to the topic are also welcome.

Dr. Grzegorz Wystrychowski
Dr. Marta Wróbel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Obesity
  • Insulin resistance
  • Diet
  • Physical activity/exercise
  • Gut dysbiosis
  • Gut flora/gut microbiota
  • Fatty liver disease/liver steatosis
  • Leaky gut
  • Adipose tissue microinflammation
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Renal injury/kidney injury
  • Glomerulopathy
  • Diabetic kidney disease
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Proteinuria
  • Hypoglycemic treatment/hypoglycemic therapy
  • Insulin
  • SGLT-2 inhibitors
  • Incretin mimetics
  • Metformin
  • Mortality
  • Morbidity
  • Prevalence

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Identification of Silent Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Long-Term Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1420; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19031420 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aimed to analyze epidemiological data to identify risk factors for silent myocardial ischemia in patients with long-term type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (2) Methods: An analysis was performed on 104 patients with long-term type 1 and type 2 [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aimed to analyze epidemiological data to identify risk factors for silent myocardial ischemia in patients with long-term type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (2) Methods: An analysis was performed on 104 patients with long-term type 1 and type 2 diabetes who had not previously been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. During hospitalization, patients were subjected to a standard ECG exercise test on a treadmill. If the test could not be performed or the result was uncertain, a pharmacological exercise test with dobutamine was performed. In the case of a positive exercise ECG test or a positive dobutamine test, the patient underwent coronary angiography. (3) Results: Atherosclerotic lesions were found in 24 patients. Patients with silent ischemia were significantly older and had a lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction and a higher incidence of carotid atherosclerosis. The presence of microvascular complications did not increase the risk of silent ischemia. (4) Conclusions: Silent heart ischemia is more common in type 2 than type 1 diabetes. Predisposing factors include older age, coexistence of carotid atherosclerosis, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and smoking in patients with type 1 diabetes. Concomitant microvascular complications are not a risk factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Article
Combined Aerobic and Resistance Training Performed under Conditions of Normobaric Hypoxia and Normoxia Has the Same Impact on Metabolic Control in Men with Type 1 Diabetes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13058; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182413058 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 848
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim was to assess whether combined aerobic and resistance training performed under hypoxic and normoxic conditions had an impact on diabetes control, VO2max (maximum oxygen consumption), and echocardiological and anthropometric parameters in men with long-term type 1 diabetes. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim was to assess whether combined aerobic and resistance training performed under hypoxic and normoxic conditions had an impact on diabetes control, VO2max (maximum oxygen consumption), and echocardiological and anthropometric parameters in men with long-term type 1 diabetes. (2) Methods: Sixteen male participants (mean age: 37 years, mean HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin): 7.0%) were randomly assigned to two groups: training in normoxic conditions or training in conditions of altitude hypoxia. All subjects participated in 60 min combined aerobic and resistance training sessions twice a week for 6 weeks. At baseline and in the 6th week, echocardiography, incremental exercise test, and anthropometric and diabetes control parameters were assessed. (3) Results: After 6 weeks, there was no significant change in HbA1c value in any group. We noted a more stable glycemia profile during training in the hypoxia group (p > 0.05). Patients in the hypoxia group required less carbohydrates during training than in the normoxia group. A comparable increase in VO2max was observed in both groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in cardiological and anthropometric parameters. (4) Conclusions: Combined aerobic and resistance training improved VO2max after 6 weeks regardless of the conditions of the experiments. This exercise is safe in terms of glycemic control in patients with well-controlled diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Article
Instrument Context Relevance Evaluation, Translation, and Psychometric Testing of the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R) among People with Type 1 Diabetes in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3450; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073450 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Background: People with type 1 diabetes are susceptible to disordered eating behaviors. The American Diabetes Association recommends using the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R) to screen them. There is no validated diabetes-specific screening measure in China. The objectives were to adapt DEPS-R into [...] Read more.
Background: People with type 1 diabetes are susceptible to disordered eating behaviors. The American Diabetes Association recommends using the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R) to screen them. There is no validated diabetes-specific screening measure in China. The objectives were to adapt DEPS-R into Mandarin Chinese and to test its psychometric properties among youths and adults with type 1 diabetes in China, respectively. Methods: This study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 included context relevance evaluation and instrument translation. Phase 2 was psychometric testing of reliability and construct validity among 89 youths (8~17 years old) and 61 adults with type 1 diabetes. Result: The Context Relevance Index and Translation Validity Index of this instrument were good. Strong internal consistency reliability correlations and convergent validity were demonstrated among youths and adults. Discussion: The Chinese version of the DEPS-R is a valid and reliable tool for screening disordered eating behaviors in Chinese youths and adults with type 1 diabetes. The Context Relevance Index is advocated to evaluate the difference between the context in which an instrument was originally developed and the target context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Article
Association of CX3CR1 Gene Polymorphisms with Fractalkine, Fractalkine Receptor, and C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients with Kidney Failure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2202; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18042202 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine that plays a significant role in inflammation, one of the pathophysiological processes underlying end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Genetic factors are significantly involved in cytokine expression and have been studied as potential risk factors for chronic kidney [...] Read more.
Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine that plays a significant role in inflammation, one of the pathophysiological processes underlying end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Genetic factors are significantly involved in cytokine expression and have been studied as potential risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives: We aimed to elucidate the association of CX3CR1 gene polymorphisms rs3732378 and rs3732379 with the levels of CX3CL1, CX3CL1 receptor (CX3CR1), as well as C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients and methods: We enrolled 198 participants, including 106 patients with ESRD and 92 controls. Peripheral blood samples were collected from each patient for genetic (rs3732378 and rs3732379 polymorphisms) and immunoenzymatic (fractalkine, CX3CR1, CRP) tests. Results: CX3CR1 and CRP levels were higher in patients with ESRD than in controls (p < 0.05). Fractalkine levels were significantly higher in ESRD patients who were homozygous for the G allele of the rs3732378 polymorphism and for the C allele of the rs3732379 polymorphism than in homozygous controls. Moreover, carriers of these alleles among patients with ESRD had significantly higher CX3CR1 levels than controls. Conclusions: The G allele of the rs3732378 polymorphism and the C allele of the rs3732379 polymorphism of the CX3CR1 gene are associated with higher CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 levels. Our study suggests that CX3CR1 gene polymorphisms could be potentially involved in the pathogenesis of ESRD, but the study needs to be replicated in a larger population with a longitudinal follow-up study. Identification of genetic factors associated with inflammation in ESRD may contribute to the development of targeted gene therapies in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Article
Hyperhomocysteinemia Concurrent with Metabolic Syndrome Is Independently Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease among Community-Dwelling Adults in an Urban Korean Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186810 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the combined effects of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and MetS on CKD among community-dwelling adults in an urban area of South Korea. We also identified the combination of [...] Read more.
Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the combined effects of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and MetS on CKD among community-dwelling adults in an urban area of South Korea. We also identified the combination of HHcy and individual MetS components associated with the maximal risk of CKD. A retrospective cross-sectional study involving 19,311 health examinees between 2 January 2011 and 31 December 2015 was conducted. The participants were divided into four groups—namely, the HHcy−/MetS−, HHcy−/MetS+, HHcy+/MetS−, and HHcy+/MetS+ groups. CKD was defined as a low eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria. The HHcy+/MetS+ group had a higher risk of CKD than the HHcy−/MetS+ group (odds ratio (OR): 1.750, p = 0.002 for males; OR: 3.224, p < 0.001 for females). The HHcy+/MetS+ group had a higher CKD risk than the HHcy+/MetS− group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (OR: 1.070, p = 0.712 for males; OR: 1.847, and p < 0.074 for females). HHcy concurrent with MetS increased the CKD risk. Among the combinations of HHcy and MetS components, the coexistence of HHcy and central obesity had the greatest effect on CKD. Therefore, the timely detection and treatment of HHcy and MetS are important for preventing CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Review

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Review
Whether Prolyl Hydroxylase Blocker—Roxadustat—In the Treatment of Anemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Is the Future?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1612; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041612 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), anemia develops gradually, which is primarily due to an inadequate synthesis of erythropoietin by the kidneys, as well as to iron disorders in the body, blood loss, shortened erythrocyte survival and inflammation. The currently accepted treatment [...] Read more.
In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), anemia develops gradually, which is primarily due to an inadequate synthesis of erythropoietin by the kidneys, as well as to iron disorders in the body, blood loss, shortened erythrocyte survival and inflammation. The currently accepted treatment employs iron, vitamin B12, folic acid supplementation and the use of erythropoiesis stimulants, which are administered only parenterally. Research is currently underway on the new erythropoiesis drugs that can be orally administered, i.e., hypoxia-inducible factor-propyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI) inhibitors which temporarily block propyl hydroxylase [PHD] catalysis and promote a transient increase in the expression of genes regulated by HIF, including kidney and liver erythropoietin [EPO]. Roxadustat is the first oral drug in this class and a potent HIF-PHD inhibitor, exerted to treat anemia in patients with CKD. In phase 1, 2 and 3 studies with CKD-affected patients, roxadustat was more effective to stimulate erythropoiesis for anemia correction than previously used drugs. Roxadustat can be orally given, unlike other erythropoiesis drugs with parenteral administration only, which grants roxadustat a considerable advantage. Our paper presents the results of studies with roxadustat applied for the treatment of anemia in CKD patients with or without dialysis. We are currently not yet able to know the exact role of roxadustat in the treatment of anemia in patients with CKD, but time will tell. It is possible that roxadustat has benefits an iron metabolism and cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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