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Topical Collection "Oral and Public Health"

Editor

Prof. Dr. Gianrico Spagnuolo
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Collection Editor
Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: oral medicine; dental materials; operative dentistry; oral health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 2020 pandemic has highlighted how health plays the most important role in the life of human beings. Public health has a great impact on individuals, but also on the worldwide community, influencing social relationships and economies. The promotion of public health may be expressed as disease prevention and control as well as the limitation of related risk factors.

Oral diseases are the most representative noncommunicable diseases affecting a wide fraction of the global population, irrespective of gender and age. Moreover, systemic involvement caused by oral pathologies or their association with systemic conditions stress the importance of health programs aimed at drastically reducing the burden of oral diseases. Public health interventions and the reduction of risk factors should be the central core of preventive strategies, encouraging daily dental hygiene, balanced and healthy diet, and the reduction of bad habits (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle), as well as regular dental visits.

Therefore, the aim of the present Topical Collection is to provide in the near future a broad spectrum of preventive actions to promote oral as well as public health, considering the variability of the population in terms of age, gender, habits, and social and economic conditions. In addition, treatment strategies will be supplied to re-establish health and avoid local as well as systemic side-effects that in turn will affect the quality of life of people.

Prof. Dr. Gianrico Spagnuolo
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • preventive dentistry
  • oral disease
  • oral pathology
  • systemic manifestations of oral diseases
  • oral health promotion
  • epidemiology

Published Papers (22 papers)

2021

Article
Referral Patterns in Oral Medicine: A Retrospective Analysis of an Oral Medicine University Center in Southern Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182212161 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Referral of a patient from one healthcare provider to another is an important part of the medical practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral process to the Oral Medicine Unit in a university-based tertiary center in Southern Italy. A [...] Read more.
Referral of a patient from one healthcare provider to another is an important part of the medical practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the referral process to the Oral Medicine Unit in a university-based tertiary center in Southern Italy. A chart review of new referrals to the Oral Medicine Unit during a 24-month period was conducted. The following data were recorded: demographic characteristics, medical history, number of physicians seen prior to Oral Medicine assessment, referral source, diagnostic procedures ordered by referrals, reason for referral, site of lesion/condition, final diagnosis. Then, the rates of correct identification for health-care professionals and the appropriateness of the reference diagnosis based on the disease were calculated with descriptive statistic indicators. There were 583 new first consultations. A total of 62.9% of patients were referred by general dental practitioners, 27.4% by physicians, and 9.7% did not have a referral. The most common diseases for referral were immune-mediated diseases (39.6%) and oro-facial pain disorders (25.2%). Only 28.5% of patients had a correct provisional diagnosis. The results of this study show the need to implement curricula in the field of oral medicine among dentistry and medical students, and to support the continuing education among healthcare providers to reduce diagnostic delay for oral diseases. Full article
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Article
Aspirations and Worries: The Role of Parental Intrinsic Motivation in Establishing Oral Health Practices for Indigenous Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11695; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111695 - 07 Nov 2021
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (respectfully, subsequently referred to as Indigenous) children in Australia experience oral disease at a higher rate than non-Indigenous children. A history of colonisation, government-enforced assimilation, racism, and cultural annihilation has had profound impacts on Indigenous health, reflected in [...] Read more.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (respectfully, subsequently referred to as Indigenous) children in Australia experience oral disease at a higher rate than non-Indigenous children. A history of colonisation, government-enforced assimilation, racism, and cultural annihilation has had profound impacts on Indigenous health, reflected in oral health inequities sustained by Indigenous communities. Motivational interviewing was one of four components utilised in this project, which aimed to identify factors related to the increased occurrence of early childhood caries in Indigenous children. This qualitative analysis represents motivational interviews with 226 participants and explores parents’ motivations for establishing oral health and nutrition practices for their children. Findings suggest that parental aspirations and worries underscored motivations to establish oral health and nutrition behaviours for children in this project. Within aspirations, parents desired for children to ‘keep their teeth’ and avoid false teeth, have a positive appearance, and preserve self-esteem. Parental worries related to child pain, negative appearance, sugar consumption, poor community oral health and rotten teeth. A discussion of findings results in the following recommendations: (1) consideration of the whole self, including mental health, in future oral health programming and research; (2) implementation of community-wide oral health programming, beyond parent-child dyads; and (3) prioritisation of community knowledge and traditions in oral health programming. Full article
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Article
Secondary Dentin Formation Mechanism: The Effect of Attrition
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 9961; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18199961 - 22 Sep 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Human dentin consists of a primary layer produced during tooth formation in early childhood and a second layer which first forms upon tooth eruption and continues throughout life, termed secondary dentin (SD). The effect of attrition on SD formation was considered to be [...] Read more.
Human dentin consists of a primary layer produced during tooth formation in early childhood and a second layer which first forms upon tooth eruption and continues throughout life, termed secondary dentin (SD). The effect of attrition on SD formation was considered to be confined to the area subjacent to attrition facets. However, due to a lack of three-dimensional methodologies to demonstrate the structure of the SD, this association could not be determined. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to explore the thickening pattern of the SD in relation to the amount of occlusal and interproximal attrition. A total of 30 premolars (50–60 years of age) with varying attrition rates were evaluated using micro-computerized tomography. The results revealed thickening of the SD below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), mostly in the mesial and distal aspects of the root (p < 0.05). The pattern of thickening under the tooth cervix, rather than in proximity to attrition facets, was consistent regardless of the attrition level. The amount of SD thickening mildly correlated with occlusal attrition (r = 0.577, p < 0.05) and not with interproximal attrition. The thickening of the SD below the CEJ coincided with previous finite element models, suggesting that this area is mostly subjected to stress due to occlusal loadings. Therefore, we suggest that the SD formation might serve as a compensatory mechanism aimed to strengthen tooth structure against deflection caused by mechanical loading. Our study suggests that occlusal forces may play a significant role in SD formation. Full article
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Review
Oral Health Interventions in Patients with a Mental Health Disorder: A Scoping Review with Critical Appraisal of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8113; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158113 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 973
Abstract
Poor oral health affects quality of life and daily functioning in the general population and especially in patients with mental health disorders. Due to the high burden of oral health-related quality of life in patients with a mental health disorder, it is important [...] Read more.
Poor oral health affects quality of life and daily functioning in the general population and especially in patients with mental health disorders. Due to the high burden of oral health-related quality of life in patients with a mental health disorder, it is important for nurses to know how they can intervene in an early phase. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to identify and appraise oral health interventions in patients with a mental health disorder. A systematic scoping review with a critical appraisal of the literature was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for scoping reviews and their checklists. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and reference lists were searched from their inception until December 2020. Results: Eleven quantitative studies were included in the review: four randomized controlled trials, six quasi-experimental studies and one cohort study. Studies focused on interventions for patients (n = 8) or focused on patients together with their professionals (n = 3). Four types of oral health interventions in mental health were found: (I) educational interventions; (II) physical interventions; (III) interventions combining behavioural and educational elements and (IV) interventions combining educational and physical elements. All studies (n = 11) had an evaluation period ≤12 months. Nine studies showed an effect on the short term (≤12 months) with regard to oral health knowledge, oral health behaviour, or physical oral health outcomes (e.g., plaque index). Two studies showed no effects on any outcome. Overall, the methodological insufficient to good. Conclusion: Four types of interventions with positive effects (≤12 months) on oral health knowledge, oral health behaviour, and physical oral health outcomes in different diagnostic patient groups were found. Due to the heterogeneity in both interventions, diagnostic groups and outcomes, one golden standard oral health intervention cannot be advised yet, although the methodological quality of studies seems sufficient. Developing an integrated oral health toolkit might be of great importance in mental health considering its potential effect on oral health-related quality of life. Full article
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Article
Different Risk Factors for Erosive Tooth Wear in Rural and Urban Nepal: A National Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7766; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18157766 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 689
Abstract
Background: Erosive tooth wear (ETW) is of growing concern, but data on ETW among Nepalese children are scarce. The main aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of ETW among Nepalese schoolchildren. We also aimed to analyse the risk [...] Read more.
Background: Erosive tooth wear (ETW) is of growing concern, but data on ETW among Nepalese children are scarce. The main aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of ETW among Nepalese schoolchildren. We also aimed to analyse the risk indicators for ETW according to location (rural/urban) and the role of obesity in the risk for ETW. Methods: This national study was conducted among 5–15-year-old Nepalese schoolchildren from different regions. Altogether, 1137 out of 1151 schoolchildren participated in both a clinical examination and a survey. ETW was recorded using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination. Results: The prevalence of ETW was 65%. One-fifth of the examined subjects were in need of preventive or restorative treatment. Living in an urban area and studying in a private school were protective factors for ETW, whereas consuming fruits frequently and using charcoal for tooth cleaning increased the odds for ETW. Central obesity was the strongest risk indicator for ETW among urban residents. Conclusions: ETW of low severity is common among Nepalese children and adolescents. Socio-demographic factors influence the prevalence of ETW in Nepal and there seems to be different factors that play a role in the ETW process according to location of residence. Full article
Article
Exploration of Mental Readiness for Enhancing Dentistry in an Inter-Professional Climate
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7038; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18137038 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Competencies required for dentistry go far beyond the academic or scientific spheres. They incorporate important mental readiness concepts at its core with an appropriate balance of operational readiness (i.e., technical, physical, mental readiness). The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the [...] Read more.
Competencies required for dentistry go far beyond the academic or scientific spheres. They incorporate important mental readiness concepts at its core with an appropriate balance of operational readiness (i.e., technical, physical, mental readiness). The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the importance of mental readiness for optimal performance in the daily challenges faced by dentists using an Operational Readiness Framework. One-on-one interviews were conducted with a select group of seasoned dentists to determine their mental readiness before, during and after successfully performing in challenging situations. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of mental readiness were applied. Study findings were compared with a Wheel of Excellence based on results from other high-performance domains such as surgery, policing, social services and Olympic athletics. The analysis revealed that specific mental practices are required to achieve peak performance, and the balance between physical, technical and mental readiness underpins these dentists’ competency. Common elements of success were found—commitment, confidence, visualization, mental preparation, focus, distraction control, and evaluation and coping. This exploration confirmed many similarities in mental readiness practices engaged across high-risk professions. Universities, clinics and hospitals are looking for innovative ways to build teamwork and capacity through inter-professional collaboration. Results from these case studies warrant further investigation and may be significant enough to stimulate innovative curriculum design. Based on these preliminary dentistry findings, three training/evaluation tools from other professions in population health were adapted to demonstrate future application. Full article
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Article
The Characteristics of Patients with Oral Lichen Planus and Malignant Transformation—A Retrospective Study of 271 Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6525; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126525 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease with an unknown etiology rating among oral potentially malignant disorder. The aim of the study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the patients with OLP and rate of malignant transformation. [...] Read more.
Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease with an unknown etiology rating among oral potentially malignant disorder. The aim of the study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the patients with OLP and rate of malignant transformation. Patients and methods: Data were obtained from the medical records of 271 patients referred to the Oral Medicine Unit at the University Hospital in Hradec Králové diagnosed with oral lichen planus in the period of 2003–2020. The records were retrospectively analyzed. The following clinical data were retrieved from the medical charts: gender, age, systemic diseases, alcohol and tobacco consumption, localization/clinical appearance of lesions, distribution of the lesions, presence of the symptoms, treatment provided and malignant transformation. Results: A total of 271 charts of patients with confirmed diagnosis of OLP were retrospectively analyzed, of whom, 66.4% (180/271) were women and 33.6% (91/271) were men. The mean age of the patients was 56.0 (18.2–85.0) years. The median follow-up of all patients was 15.2 months. Overall, 2 patients (2/271, 0.74%) meeting the above-mentioned criteria for malignant transformation were identified during the follow-up period. Both patients suffered from erosive type OLP and developed squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Conclusions: This retrospective study is in concordance with other studies showing the similar profile and clinical features of the patients with OLP. Malignant transformation rate was 0.74%. Full article
Article
Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Croatian University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126483 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is utilized in health services research to examine trends in oral health and population-based needs assessment. To determine the impact of oral diseases on everyday life, measures of oral quality of life are needed. In addition to [...] Read more.
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is utilized in health services research to examine trends in oral health and population-based needs assessment. To determine the impact of oral diseases on everyday life, measures of oral quality of life are needed. In addition to common disease-based measures, they assess the need for oral care to evaluate oral health care programs and treatment management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the OHRQoL among Croatian university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 895 students (mean age 22 ± 4 years; 54.75% were females). The data collection was carried out through a self-administered short-form oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire which comprises 14 items that describe 7 subscales. Each subscale is named according to its constitutive items: functional limitation, physical pain, psychological discomfort, physical disability, psychological disability, social disability and social handicap. The quality of data was descriptively analysed and internal consistency reliability was assessed by Chronbach’s alpha coefficient. Pearson’s correlation was performed on the OHIP-14 total score and 7 subscale scores. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. The prevalence of reported impact on OHRQoL was 31.84% and the mean OHIP-14 score was 11.66 ± 8.72. Chronbach’s alpha for the OHIP-14 total score was 0.91 (range for subscales: 0.70–0.87). Total OHIP-14 score was correlated with each of the seven subscales (correlation range: 0.56–0.84). The psychological discomfort and physical pain subscales recorded the highest impact with 56.09% and 24.47%, respectively, while the least impact was recorded in the physical disability subscale with 13.35%. The mean OHIP-14 score of the students in this study reflects that the oral health status of most of the students did not significantly affect their OHRQoL. However, the psychological discomfort and physical pain subscales were the most severely affected aspects of their OHRQoL. The OHIP-14 had reasonable reliability in relation to subjective global oral health indicators among students and thus appears to be a useful OHRQoL measure in this context. Full article
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Article
The Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Interest in Orthodontic Treatment and Perspectives for the Future. Real-Time Surveillance Using Google Trends
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5647; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115647 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak may have a large impact on orthodontic treatment. Regular orthodontic visits were strongly and widely interrupted by the unprecedented epidemiological threat. Methods: The data regarding orthodontic queries were investigated in a real-time surveillance using Google Trends. Search terms [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak may have a large impact on orthodontic treatment. Regular orthodontic visits were strongly and widely interrupted by the unprecedented epidemiological threat. Methods: The data regarding orthodontic queries were investigated in a real-time surveillance using Google Trends. Search terms “braces”, “invisalign”, “get braces”, “get braces off”, “braces pain” and the phrase “social distancing” were analyzed regarding the year preceding the pandemic outbreak and the time of the pandemic. Moreover, the five-year trend for queries “braces” vs. “invisalign”, as an example of different types of orthodontic appliances, was compared. Results: There was a significant decrease in orthodontics phrase queries in the spring of 2020, connected with the worldwide restrictions and lockdowns announced all over the world. There was a lower interest in the “braces pain” query during the first lockdown in 2020. The number of searches for “invisalign” increased steadily over time, while the number of searches for “braces” was relatively stable across the investigated time period. Conclusions: The course of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a large impact on the orthodontic-related search queries. Orthodontists must be better-prepared for any sudden changes in the possible future in the epidemiological situation that may change accessibility to dental offices. Full article
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Article
Influence of Parental Health Literacy on Change over Time in the Oral Health of American Indian Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5633; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115633 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 765
Abstract
In cross-sectional studies, parental health literacy (HL) is associated with children’s oral health. It is unclear, however, whether HL influences pediatric outcomes. We examined the relationship of HL with change over time in parental oral health knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors, as well as [...] Read more.
In cross-sectional studies, parental health literacy (HL) is associated with children’s oral health. It is unclear, however, whether HL influences pediatric outcomes. We examined the relationship of HL with change over time in parental oral health knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors, as well as pediatric oral health outcomes. We used longitudinal data from a study designed to reduce dental decay in American Indian children (N = 579). At baseline and annually for three years, parents answered questions assessing HL; oral health knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors; and pediatric oral health status. The number of decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs) was computed based on annual dental evaluations. Linear mixed models showed that HL was significantly associated with all constructs, except dmfs, at their reference time points and persistently across the three-year study period. HL predicted change over time in only one variable, parents’ belief that children’s oral health is determined by chance or luck. HL is strongly associated with oral health knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and status prospectively but is not a key driver of change over time in these oral health constructs. Full article
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Article
Is the Temporomandibular Joints’ Reciprocal Clicking Related to the Morphology and Position of the Mandible, as Well as to the Sagittal Position of Lower Incisors?—A Case-Control Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4994; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094994 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
The number of patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangements, who are seeking orthodontic treatment, is increasing. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the presence of TMJ reciprocal clicking and the morphology and position of the mandible, [...] Read more.
The number of patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangements, who are seeking orthodontic treatment, is increasing. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the presence of TMJ reciprocal clicking and the morphology and position of the mandible, and position of lower incisors, examined on the lateral cephalograms. Fifty patients diagnosed with reciprocal clicking in at least one of the TMJs and 55 patients with no symptoms of TMJ dysfunction were included in the study. Cephalometric analysis was used for the assessment of: skeletal class, sagittal and vertical position of the mandible, angle of the mandible, inclination of the mandibular ramus and the mandibular corpus, as well as for the assessment of the position of the mandibular incisors. The statistical significance level was set at p = 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between the examined groups regarding the sagittal and vertical position of the mandible, as well as regarding the sagittal position of the mandibular incisors. Presence of TMJ reciprocal clicking is not associated with the position and the morphology of the mandible, as well as with the sagittal position of the mandibular incisors. Patients with early stages of TMJ internal derangements do not present any significant changes in Cephalometrics. Patients diagnosed with TMJ internal derangements before orthodontic treatment require an interdisciplinary approach to the treatment, including physiotherapy. Full article
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Article
Parental Risk Factors and Child Birth Data in a Matched Year and Sex Group Cleft Population: A Case-Control Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4615; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094615 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 684
Abstract
(1) Background: The etiology of orofacial cleft (OC) is not completely known but several genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified. Moreover, a knowledge gap still persists regarding neonatal characteristics. This study evaluated the effect of parental age and mothers’ body mass [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The etiology of orofacial cleft (OC) is not completely known but several genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified. Moreover, a knowledge gap still persists regarding neonatal characteristics. This study evaluated the effect of parental age and mothers’ body mass index on the risk of having an OC child, in a matched year and sex group (cleft/healthy control). Additionally, birth data were analyzed between groups. (2) Methods: 266 individuals born between 1995 to 2015 were evaluated: 133 OC individuals (85 males/48 females) and 133 control (85 males/48 females). A logistic model was used for the independent variables. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparison between the OC phenotypes. (3) Results: Regarding statistically significant parental related factors, the probability of having a cleft child decreases for each maternal year increase (odds ratio = 0.903) and increases for each body mass index unit (kg/m2) increase (odds ratio = 1.14). On the child data birth, for each mass unit (kg) increase, the probability of having a cleft child decrease (odds ratio = 0.435). (4) Conclusions: In this study, only maternal body mass index and maternal age found statistical differences in the risk of having a cleft child. In the children’s initial data, the cleft group found a higher risk of having a lower birth weight but no relation was found regarding length and head circumference. Full article
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Article
The Effectiveness of the Blended Learning in Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics on the Basis of the Survey among 4th-Year Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4555; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094555 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly affected education at all levels, including medical and dental education. Our study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the blended learning in conservative dentistry with endodontics. The students had theoretical classes in a remote form (using the e-learning [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly affected education at all levels, including medical and dental education. Our study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the blended learning in conservative dentistry with endodontics. The students had theoretical classes in a remote form (using the e-learning portal and Teams communicator) and practical classes with the participation of patients in the appropriate sanitary regime. The author’s survey was conducted among fourth-year dental students. The online questionnaire consisted of 5 parts: self-evaluation, evaluation of theoretical e-learning classes, evaluation of practical clinical classes, evaluation of safety, and evaluation of performed blended learning. The majority of respondents declared that their learning effectiveness increased during the pandemic. Most surveyed students preferred remote learning in asynchronous form (e-learning portals) to synchronous form (virtual meetings in real-time). All respondents described the provided personal protective equipment as sufficient or even as excessive. Our students were very satisfied with the proposed blended-learning model and would like to continue it even after the pandemic has ended. Among the advantages, they particularly mentioned the increase in efficiency and the individualised pace of learning, while the disadvantage was the limitation of social contacts. The appropriate use of modern technology can effectively revolutionise dental education. Full article
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Systematic Review
Current Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice among Health Care Providers in OSCC Awareness: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4506; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094506 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
OSCC remain a global health problem. Lack of awareness leads to inadequate watchfulness regarding early signs/symptoms despite the ease of visual oral inspection. What clinicians know and feel, and how they behave on OSCC is crucial to understand the feasibility and effectiveness of [...] Read more.
OSCC remain a global health problem. Lack of awareness leads to inadequate watchfulness regarding early signs/symptoms despite the ease of visual oral inspection. What clinicians know and feel, and how they behave on OSCC is crucial to understand the feasibility and effectiveness of screening programs. The aim of this systematic review was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) regarding OSCC among health care providers (HCPs). Therefore, a systematic review was conducted with SPIDER and PICO as major tools. A meta-analysis was structured through common items in two comparison groups of medical and dental practitioners. Descriptive statistics and a Mantel–Haenszel test were used to validate data. Sixty-six studies were selected for systematic review, eight of which are useful for meta-analysis. A statistically significant difference was recorded between dentists and medical practitioners for questions regarding: Alcohol (p < 0.001); Elderly (p < 0.012); Sun exposure (p < 0.0001); Erythroplakia (p < 0.019); Red patch (p < 0.010); White patch (p < 0.020); Tobacco consultation (p < 0.0001); Intraoral examination (p < 0.0001) and Up-to-date knowledge (p < 0.002). Overall, the incidence of OSCC screening is low. Most HCPs feel the need to increase KAP. Data confirmed gaps in KAP, highlighting the need for a more efficient pre- and post-graduation training, necessary to increase competence worldwide. Full article
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Review
Two-Dimensional Analysis of Digital Images through Vector Graphic Editors in Dentistry: New Calibration and Analysis Protocol Based on a Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094497 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 773
Abstract
This review was carried out to analyse the functions of three Vector Graphic Editor applications (VGEs) applicable to clinical or research practice, and through this we propose a two-dimensional image analysis protocol in a VGE. We adapted the review method from the PRISMA-ScR [...] Read more.
This review was carried out to analyse the functions of three Vector Graphic Editor applications (VGEs) applicable to clinical or research practice, and through this we propose a two-dimensional image analysis protocol in a VGE. We adapted the review method from the PRISMA-ScR protocol. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched until June 2020 with the following keywords: Vector Graphics Editor, Vector Graphics Editor Dentistry, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Illustrator Dentistry, Coreldraw, Coreldraw Dentistry, Inkscape, Inkscape Dentistry. The publications found described the functions of the following VGEs: Adobe Illustrator, CorelDRAW, and Inkscape. The possibility of replicating the procedures to perform the VGE functions was analysed using each study’s data. The search yielded 1032 publications. After the selection, 21 articles met the eligibility criteria. They described eight VGE functions: line tracing, landmarks tracing, linear measurement recording, angular measurement recording, image calibration, image overlay, file transfer, and vector graphics development. The features offered by the VGEs bring great precision and objectivity to two-dimensional image analysis. The image analysis and editing procedures are currently not protocolised. Thus, a protocol for image calibration and measurement recording is proposed in order to guarantee the protocol’s replication. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Most Stressful Dental Treatment Procedures of Conservative Dentistry among Polish Dental Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4448; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094448 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
Background: Dental schools are considered to be a very stressful environment; the stress levels of dental students are higher than those of the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the level of stress among dental students while performing specific [...] Read more.
Background: Dental schools are considered to be a very stressful environment; the stress levels of dental students are higher than those of the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the level of stress among dental students while performing specific dental procedures. Methods: A survey was conducted among 257 participants. We used an original questionnaire, which consisted of 14 questions assigned to three categories: I—Diagnosis, II—Caries Treatment, and III—Endodontic Treatment. Each participant marked their perceived level of stress during the performed dental treatment procedures. The scale included values of 0–6, where 0 indicates no stress, while 6 indicates high stress. Results: Third- (p=0.006) and fourth-year (p=0.009) women were characterized by a higher level of perceived stress during dental procedures related to caries treatment. Caries treatment procedures were the most stressful for 18.3% of third-year students, 4.3% of fourth-year students, and 3.2% of fifth-year students. Furthermore, 63.4% of third-year students, 47.3% of fourth-year students, and 17.2% of fifth-year students indicated that they felt a high level of stress when performing endodontic procedures. Conclusion: Third- and fourth-year female students are characterized by a higher level of stress during caries and endodontic treatment procedures. The most stressful treatments for participants were endodontic treatment procedures. Full article
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Article
An Investigation of the Association between Health Screening and Dental Scaling in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4294; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084294 - 18 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Dental disease is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide, and its expenditure is continuously increasing. Periodontal disease is increasing as a chronic non-communicable disease in adults and older people. Health screening has been shown to be cost-effective and improves the quality [...] Read more.
Dental disease is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide, and its expenditure is continuously increasing. Periodontal disease is increasing as a chronic non-communicable disease in adults and older people. Health screening has been shown to be cost-effective and improves the quality of life through the early detection of diseases. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between national health screening and dental scaling as a preventive service for periodontal disease. The study used sample cohort data from 2002 to 2015 provided by the National Health Insurance Sharing Service in South Korea. A logistic regression analysis of the utilization of dental scaling was performed to identify the independent effects of national health screening. People who underwent health screening showed a higher tendency to undergo dental scaling. Additionally, disparities in utilization according to socioeconomic status were reduced among those who underwent screening. The intervention to extend dental coverage could be more beneficial when combined with health screening, encouraging more people to participate and reducing inequalities in utilization. Full article
Article
Effect of a Preventive Oral Health Program Starting during Pregnancy: A Case-Control Study Comparing Immigrant and Native Women and Their Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4096; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084096 - 13 Apr 2021
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Abstract
The objective was to evaluate whether including pregnant women in a preventive dental program prevented the appearance of caries in their children up to the age of 6, and whether the effect was similar in children of immigrant and non-immigrant women. In phase [...] Read more.
The objective was to evaluate whether including pregnant women in a preventive dental program prevented the appearance of caries in their children up to the age of 6, and whether the effect was similar in children of immigrant and non-immigrant women. In phase I, 90 pregnant women, 45 immigrants and 45 natives, were taught about the development and prevention of caries. In phase II the oral health of their children at the age of 6 (n = 90) was evaluated, along with a control group of children of natives and immigrants of the same age (n = 90). A survey was used to determine participants’ backgrounds and habits. A multivariate study of the results was performed using R-core software. The number of children without caries was 128 (71.1%), whereas 52 (28.9%) had caries, 15 from the protocol (16.67%) and 37 from the control group (41.11%), with statistically significant differences (p < 0.001). The mean number of caries for the children in the protocol was 0.62 ± 2 and in the control group it was 1.88 ± 2.9 (p = 0.001). In the multivariate analysis the risk of developing caries was higher for the condition of being the child of an immigrant (OR = 11.137), inadequate oral health (OR = 4.993), the children being overweight at the age of 6 (OR = 10.680), and the consumption of candies (OR = 5.042). In conclusion, the preventive protocols started during pregnancy reduced caries in participants’ children, which suggests that these protocols should be encouraged. Because immigrant children are more vulnerable to caries, they and their parents should be included in preventive programs once they arrive in the host country. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Interdisciplinary Preventive Oral Hygiene Program for Children with Congenital Heart Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073497 - 28 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
It is recognized that children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are predisposed to having poorer oral health. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary preventive oral hygiene program (POHP) for children with CHD. The aim was [...] Read more.
It is recognized that children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are predisposed to having poorer oral health. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary preventive oral hygiene program (POHP) for children with CHD. The aim was the reduction of the incidence of dental caries, as well as improvement of oral hygiene. The total number of participants in this study was 107 children with CHD aged between two to six years. At baseline, these children were compared to a healthy control group (HCG) of 101 children of similar age from five preschools in Giessen, Germany. All examinations were carried out before the introduction of a standardized POHP. The Quigley/Hein Plaque- (QHI), Silness/Loe Gingival- (GI) and Gingival Hyperplasia Index (GHI) were determined. Starting with baseline, the described procedures were repeated in the CHD group during two follow-ups after three and six months. In the first examination, compared to controls, CHD children showed a significantly (p < 0.05) poorer oral hygiene (QHI: 2.6; GI: 0.3; GHI: 0.2). All oral hygiene parameters (QHI, GI, GHI) of the CHD group improved significantly over the whole period of the preventive program (p < 0.05). These results demonstrated an improvement in CHD children involved in a standardized POHP. The data with regard to the general health of these risk patients, including prevention of endocarditis, demonstrate the necessity of an interdisciplinary approach between pediatric cardiologists, pediatricians and dentists. Full article
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Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Spectrum of Performed Dental Procedures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073421 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered existing health care operations, including dentistry. The fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the need for increased protection measures have led to a reduction in the number of appointments and the range of performed procedures. Our study aimed [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered existing health care operations, including dentistry. The fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the need for increased protection measures have led to a reduction in the number of appointments and the range of performed procedures. Our study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (the pre-vaccine period) on the spectrum of performed dental services, with particular emphasis on the change in the proportion of conservative and surgical procedures. The patient base in the University Center of Dentistry and Specialized Medicine (Poznan, Poland) from two periods—pre-pandemic (1 February 2019–31 January 2020) and pandemic (1 February 2020–31 January 2021)—was analyzed. The number of dental services was standardized against the sum of all procedures in a given month. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of conservative procedures such as commercial restorations or filled canals has significantly decreased, while the number of surgical procedures has increased. The pandemic has undoubtedly affected the spectrum of dental procedures performed, especially in its acute phase. It is very important to return to performing conservative procedures and educating students in the former range while respecting all safety standards. Full article
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Article
Morphometric Analysis of the Mandibular Canal, Anterior Loop, and Mental Foramen: A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3365; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073365 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1228
Abstract
This study investigated the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based features of the mandibular canal, mental foramen, anterior loop, and accessory mental foramina with respect to age and sex. A total of 306 CBCT mandibular images were included in this retrospective study to measure the [...] Read more.
This study investigated the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based features of the mandibular canal, mental foramen, anterior loop, and accessory mental foramina with respect to age and sex. A total of 306 CBCT mandibular images were included in this retrospective study to measure the mandibular canal location and extension, the mental foramen position, the presence of the anterior loop, and the accessory mental foramina. The measurements were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial views. Descriptive statistics are presented. Sex-related differences, correlations, and comparisons were calculated using SPSS at 5% significance level. The mandibular canal was located more coronal and medial in male patients. The majority of cases had the mental foramen located just apical to the mandibular second premolar with a mean height of 2.94 mm and a mean length of 3.28 mm. Age affected the size of the mental foramen. The mental canal in all cases tended to show a coronal direction. Mesial extension of the anterior loop was found in 66.01% of the images while accessory mental foramina were detected in 2.6%. The complexity of the mandibular canal, mental foramen, anterior loop, and accessory mental foramina among Sudanese patients with respect to age and sex was confirmed. Full article
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Article
Salivary Characteristics, Individual Casual Parameters, and Their Relationships with the Significant Caries Index among Korean Children Aged 12 Years
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18063118 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 803
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the salivary characteristics and individual daily living patterns in Korean children aged 12 years and evaluate their relationships according to the significant caries (SiC) index. The study sample consisted of 52 healthy Korean children. The subjects were allocated [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the salivary characteristics and individual daily living patterns in Korean children aged 12 years and evaluate their relationships according to the significant caries (SiC) index. The study sample consisted of 52 healthy Korean children. The subjects were allocated into a low caries-affected (low CA) group and a high caries-affected (high CA) group, according to the SiC index. Children underwent a standardized oral examination, and parents completed the questionnaires. Stimulated salivary samples were collected to evaluate the salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary levels of Mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB). The low CA group did not significantly differ from the high CA group for salivary flow rate and salivary pH. However, there were significant differences in salivary MS levels between the two groups (p < 0.05). Among the individual casual parameters, the prevalence of a sugar-associated primary energy source between meals was significantly higher in the high CA group than in the low CA group (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, different levels of salivary MS and the consumption of different foods were observed in the low CA and high CA groups. The implications of these findings should be considered for caries susceptibility. Full article
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